American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Dr. Jacques Blamont
 Institution:  University of Paris IV; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1926
 Death Date:  April 13, 2020
   
 
A distinguished scholar, leader of space research and commander of the Legion of Honor, Jacques Blamont was an internationally recognized scientist and Professor at the University of Paris - VI and Conseiller du President du CNES. He pioneered planetary exploration, leading CNES in mission design and planning, including joint efforts with the USSR. He promoted a rapprochement between the U.S. and USSR in troubled times. Working with NASA, Dr. Blamont exhibited remarkable creativeness in the design of space vehicles, scientific instruments and research approaches. His work and guidance have proven of enormous benefit to the United States. A broad intellectual, he wrote an almost poetical work on the evolution of science. His publications include Vénus dévoilée, Voyage autour d'une planète (1987); Le Chiffre et le Songe, Histoire politique de la découverte (1993); Le Lion et le Moucheron, Histoire des Marrances de Toulouse (2000); and Introduction au Siècle des Menaces (2004). Jacques Blamont died April 13, 2020 in Chatillon, France at the age of 93.
 
2Name:  Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland
 Institution:  World Health Organization
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Gro Harlem Brundtland is a pioneering physician and international civil servant who has used her combination of scientific training, political skill and moral leadership to draw the world's attention to the challenges of sustainability and global health. She was appointed Prime Minister of Norway for the first time in 1981, at the age of 41, becoming the first woman and then the youngest person to hold that office. Dr. Brundtland served as Head of Government for more than 10 years. As chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, she was responsible for the report "Our Common Future" in April 1987. This report introduced the influential concept of sustainability as humanity's capacity to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This report led to the first Earth Summit, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and to many subsequent activities to promote environmental protection with economic development. As Director-General of the World Health Organization since July 1998 (again, the first woman to hold that office), Dr. Brundtland has mobilized resources and provided moral and technical leadership to improve people's health everywhere. In 2007 she was chosen by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon as a special envoy to the U.N. in addressing climate change.
 
3Name:  Professor Paolo Galluzzi
 Institution:  Istituto e Museo Nazionale di Storia della Scienza, Florence; University of Florence
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Paolo Galluzzi is a prominent figure in the scientific and cultural life of Italy and a well known collaborator on international projects. He is a teacher-scholar, the author of several books on the science and technology of the Renaissance and other aspects of the history of science in Italy and the creator of widely acclaimed exhibitions that unite period machines with beautifully reconstructed working models. He is a master at designing and using information technology for instruction and research; a member of several commissions to conserve Italy's cultural heritage; and a tireless innovator of ways to interest high-school students and their parents in the history and culture of science and technology. Paolo Galluzzi has directed the Istituto e Museo Nazionale di Storia della Scienza, Florence since 1982 and has been Professor of the History of Science at the University of Florence since 1994.
 
4Name:  Sir Peter Morris
 Institution:  The Royal College of Surgeons of England; University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1934
   
 
Sir Peter Morris supplemented his medical education in Melbourne, Australia, with training at Guy's Hospital in London and the Massachusetts General Hospital. He returned to the University of Melbourne and obtained a Ph.D. in immunology in 1972. From 1974-2001, he was the Nuffield Professor of Surgery, chairman of the Department of Surgery, and director of the Oxford Transplant Centre at the University of Oxford. In 2001 he became President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and chairman of the Council of the Institute of Health Sciences at the University of Oxford. He is also currently chairman of the British Heart Foundation and Director of the Centre for Evidence in Transplantation at the Royal College of Surgeons. His more than 700 papers deal with the entire field of clinical and experimental transplantation and immunology. He has contributed especially to the study of mechanisms of rejection, tolerance induction and pancreatic islet transplantation. He is one of the distinguished surgeon scientists of our time. In addition to his work in transplantation, in the earlier part of his career he made many contributions to knowledge of the association between HLA and disease, as well as playing a major part in the early anthropological studies of HLA around the Pacific rim. He is the editor of Kidney Transplantation: Principles and Practice, which is now in its 5th edition, and the widely acclaimed Oxford Textbook of Surgery, which is in its 2nd edition. Sir Peter Morris has received many honors, including the Medawar Medal, the Lister Medal and the Hunterian Medal. In 1996 he received knighthood from the Queen for services to medicine, and in 2004 he was made a Companion of the Order of Australia. He is a fellow of the Royal Society and a foreign member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. He served as president of the International Transplantation Society, the British Transplantation Society, the European Surgical Association and the International Surgical Society. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002.
 
5Name:  Dr. Manuel Peimbert
 Institution:  Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Manuel Peimbert is an outstanding research worker on gaseous nebulae and the abundances of the elements in the universe. An expert theorist and a practiced observer, he has combined his skills to analyze the structure, densities, temperatures, abundances, and other physical properties of nebulae. Dr. Peimbert has traced the effects of stellar evolution on the abundances of the elements in interstellar matter from which new stars are formed today. His careful studies of the He/H abundance ratio have helped to set narrower constraints on physical conditions for the "big bang." Dr. Peimbert is considered a world expert in his field and one of the most productive scientists in Mexico. His papers are widely quoted. He has been a professor at the Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, since 1970.
 
6Name:  Dr. Emma Rothschild
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1948
   
 
Emma Rothschild received an M.A. at Oxford University in 1967 and was associate professor of humanities and associate professor of science, technology and society at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for ten years. She was a Fellow of King's College in Cambridge and the director of its Centre for History and Economics 1991-2007. She moved to Harvard University in the summer of 2007 where she is now a professor of history. Among the leading historians of the Enlightenment, Dr. Rothschild's scholarly work focuses on the history of European economic ideas. She established herself as one of the most important writers on economics and technology when she published her first book, Paradise Lost: The Decline of the Auto-Industrial Age (1973), in which she foretold the decline of the American auto industry by tracking the history of its rise and fall. Dr. Rothschild's other books include Science and Technology in the New Socio-Economic Context (1981) and Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet and the Enlightenment (2001). In the latter, which established her as one of the leading historians of the Enlightenment period, Dr. Rothschild explored misunderstandings of early and modern theorists of free trade with regard to the belief that economic order would arise out of an unregulated environment. More than many other scholars of economic thought, she has shown the wide range of ideas that Smith produced, revealing the many sides of his analysis of the world economy. Over the last 25 years Dr. Rothschild has served on numerous boards and committees in academia, research, and public policy in the United Kingdom and the world at large. She is also co-editor of The Rise and Fall of Historical Political Economy. Her current projects include a short book on anxiety and colonial administration in France; "The Inner Life of Empires," about an adventurous family in 18th-century Scotland; and a book about the East India Company and the American Revolution. Emma Rothschild was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2002.
 
7Name:  Professor Erika Simon
 Institution:  University of Würzburg
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1927
 Death Date:  February 15, 2019
   
 
Erika Simon was born in Ludwigshafen (then in the suburb Rheingönheim), and from 1930 she lived in Aschaffenburg/Main (not far from Frankfurt) where she attended high school. Then from 1947 on she was a student at Heidelberg University and Munich University. From 1953-59 she was an assistant at Mainz University, and from 1959-63 she was a Docent at Heidelberg University. She had a visiting position from 1961-62 at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. From 1964-94 she was Professor of Classical Archaeology at Würzburg University and Director of the Antiquities in Martin-von-Wagner Museum. She has been professor emerita since 1994. Dr. Simon is the author of Die Götter der Griechen (1969); Das antike Theater (1972); Pergamon und Hesiod (1975); Festivals of Attica, An Archaeological Commentary (1983); Die konstantinischen Deckengemälde in Trier (1986); Die Götter der Römer (1990); and Ausgewahlte Schriften I/II (1998). She is a member of the German Archaeological Institute and has honorary doctorates at Athens and Thessaloniki Universities.
 
8Name:  Professor Lewis Wolpert
 Institution:  University College, London
 Year Elected:  2002
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  January 28, 2021
   
 
Lewis Wolpert was Emeritus Professor of Biology as Applied to Medicine in the Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology of University College London. His research interests are in the mechanisms involved in the development of the embryo. He was originally trained as a civil engineer in South Africa but changed to research in cell biology at King's College London in 1955. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1980 and awarded the CBE in 1990. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1999. For five years he was chairman of the Committee for the Public Understanding of Science. He has presented science on both radio and ATV. His books include Malignant Sadness - The Anatomy of Depression (1999); Principles of Development (1992), of which he is principal author; A Passion for Science and Passionate Minds with Alison Richards (interviews with scientists); and The Unnatural Nature of Science (1992). His most recent book on belief was published in 2006. Dr. Wolpert also writes a column for "Independent", plays lots of tennis and is devoted to his mountain bike. He died on January 28, 2021.
 
Election Year
2002[X]