American Philosophical Society
Member History

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41Name:  Dr. Moshe Halbertal
 Institution:  Hebrew University; New York University Law School
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Moshe Halbertal is Professor of Jewish Thought and Philosophy at Hebrew University and Gruss Professor of Law at the New York University Law School. He earned his Ph.D. from the Hebrew University in 1989. Moshe Halbertal is known for applying deep knowledge of ancient philosophical traditions to modern questions of democratic theory. He was a co-author of Israel’s military code of ethics and speaks widely on the current challenges confronting constitutional democracy. He spends every fall semester at New York University where, despite lacking a law degree, he is a tenured law professor. Colleagues there praise the insights he brings to questions of U.S. constitutional law. He has been a visiting professor at many U.S. law schools, including Yale, Harvard, and Penn. His publications include: People of the Book: Canon, Meaning and Authority, 1997; By Way of Truth: Nahmanides and the Creation of Tradition, 2006; Concealment and Revelation: Esotericism in Jewish Thought and its Philosophical Implications, 2007; (with D. Hartman) Judaism and the Challenges of Modern Life, 2007; On Sacrifice, 2012; Maimonides: Life and Thought, 2013; (with S. Holmes) The Beginning of Politics: Power in the Biblical Book of Samuel, 2017; The Birth of Doubt: Confronting Uncertainty in Early Rabbinic Literature, 2020. He won the Goldstein-Goren Book Award in 1997 and the National Jewish Book Award in 2013. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2021.
 
42Name:  Prof. Francis Haskell
 Institution:  University of Oxford
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1928
 Death Date:  January 18, 2000
   
43Name:  Dr. J. D. Hawkins
 Institution:  School of Oriental and African Languages, University of London
 Year Elected:  1998
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1940
   
 
John David Hawkins received an M.A. at Oxford University in 1965. He began his career at the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London as a research fellow in 1964 and has been Professor of Ancient Anatolian Languages since 1993. At the beginning of the 20th century next to nothing was known about the eight or so different languages of the Hittite archives. Now we can read and understand most of the texts. The history of Anatolia, 1000-700 B.C., used to be known only from the point of view of the Assyrians (the future conquerors). Now that the local sources have been opened up in all their richness, everything is changed. These are discoveries that match in brilliance the most far-reaching scientific accomplishments in scholarly history, and in large measure they are due to David Hawkins and to his work of thirty years. J. D. Hawkins in the author of (with S. Dalley and C.B.F. Walker) Old Babylonian Tablets from Tell al-Rimah (1976); The Hieroglyphic Inscription of the Sacred Pool Complex at Bogazköy-Hattusa (1995); Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions (4 volumes, 1998). He was the editor of IRAQ (Journal of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq) from 1976-1995. J. D. Hawkins served as honorary secretary for the British School of Archaeology in Iraq from 1976-85. He is a member of the British Academy and was elected a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society in 1998.
 
44Name:  Dr. Deborah Howard
 Institution:  St. John's College, University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2021
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Deborah Howard is Professor Emerita of Architectural History at the University of Cambridge, where she is a Fellow of St John’s College. A graduate of Cambridge University (Newnham College, 1964-68, first class honours), she did her postgraduate studies at the Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London (MA with distinction 1969; PhD 1973). After a research Fellowship at Clare Hall, Cambridge, she taught at University College London, the University of Edinburgh and the Courtauld Institute, before returning to the University of Cambridge in 1992. She was appointed to a Personal Chair in Architectural History in 2001 and served as Head of the Department of History of Art for six years (2002-9, with sabbatical break) before retiring in 2013. On her retirement, her contribution was recognised by two Festschrift volumes, edited by Nebahat Avcıoǧlu, Emma Jones and Allison Sherman (2016-2018). She has an honorary doctorate from University College Dublin (2014). In 2010 Howard was elected a Fellow of the British Academy. She is also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Honorary Fellow of the Royal Incorporation of Architects of Scotland and Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. She has held visiting appointments at Yale (summer Term program in London), Harvard (Aga Khan program and the Villa I Tatti), the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC, Smith College, Princeton, and the Universities of Melbourne and Queensland. Among her many committee memberships she served on two Royal Commissions in Scotland between 1987 and 1999 and was Chairman of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain from 1997 to 1999. She was a Trustee of British Architecture Library Trust (2001-10) and a non-executive Director of the British Architectural Trust Board (2011- 16). Since 2011 she has been a board member of the Centro di Studi di Architettura ‘Andrea Palladio’ in Vicenza. She is a Trustee of Venice in Peril, and was elected an Honorary Patron Member of the Society of Architectural Historians of GB in 2020. Her principal research interests are the art and architecture of Venice and the Veneto; music and architecture in the Renaissance; and the relationship between Italy and the Eastern Mediterranean. In 2005 she established the Centre for Architectural and Musical Experiments in Renaissance Architecture (CAMERA) at Cambridge, supported by grants from the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the British Academy and the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation. She was one of the leaders of a major four-year ERC-funded research project entitled Domestic Devotions: The Place of Piety in the Italian Renaissance home 1400-1600 (2013-7). She has recently completed a research project funded by the Leverhulme Trust on the proto-industrial architecture of the Veneto. Her monographs include Venice Disputed: Marc’Antonio Barbaro and Venetian Architecture 1550-1600 (Yale UP, 2011); Venice and the East: the Impact of the Islamic World on Venetian Architecture 1100-1500 (Yale UP, 2000); Scottish Architecture from the Reformation to the Restoration 1560 - 1660 (Edinburgh UP, 1995); The Architectural History of Venice (rev. edn. Yale UP, 2002, 1st edn. Batsford 1980); Jacopo Sansovino: Architecture and Patronage in Renaissance Venice (Yale University Press, 1975; rev. 1987). She is the joint author, with Mary Laven and Abigail Brundin, of The Sacred Home in Renaissance Italy (Oxford UP, 2018). With Laura Moretti she co-authored Sound and space in Renaissance Venice: Architecture, Music, Acoustics (Yale UP, 2009). 2011. She particularly enjoys collaborative projects that give opportunities to younger scholars, usually resulting in co-edited books. Among these are La Chiesa di San Giacomo dall’Orio, Venezia (ed. with Isabella Cecchini and Massimo Bisson, Viella, 2018); Madonnas and Miracles: The Holy Home in Renaissance Italy (ed. with Maya Corry and Mary Laven, exh. cat., Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 2017); The Image of Venice: Fialetti’s View and Sir Henry Wotton (ed. with Henrietta McBurney, London 2014); Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari: Immagini di Devozione, Spazi della Fede (ed. with Carlo Corsato, Padua 2015); Architecture and Pilgrimage 1000-1500: Southern Europe and Beyond (ed. with Paul Davies and Wendy Pullan, Ashgate Press, 2013); and The Music Room in Early Modern France and Italy: Sound, Space and Object (ed. with Laura Moretti, Oxford UP, 2012).
 
45Name:  Dr. Caroline Humphrey
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2004
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Caroline Humphrey is, clear and away, the foremost Western social anthropologist working on the Soviet Union/Russia, said no less an authority than fellow APS member Clifford Geertz, who reviewed Humphrey's classic work on the social and cultural complexities of a Siberian collective for the New Republic. Her wide-ranging scholarship of Asian populations and Mongol shamanism have further consolidated her position as the pre-eminent social anthropologist in her field. She is particularly known for her work on nomadic life in East Asia, its decline and the changing status of women in those societies; Russia's new criminal class; as well as her long interest in the Jain society, an ancient, ritualistic, non-Brahminical East Indian sect. Dr. Humphrey's fluency in Russian and Mongolian and her understanding of Tibetan, Hindi and Napali have further assisted her penetrating studies. Equally remarkable are her communication skills among scholars and the public, whether by lectures or through widely-acclaimed documentary films. Dr. Humphrey is a Fellow of King's College and has served as Sigrid Rausing Professor of Collaborative Anthropology at Cambridge since 2006. She has won the Staley Prize in Anthropology (1990), the Royal Anthropological Institute's Rivers Memorial Medal (1999) and the Heldt Prize (2002) and is the author of Karl Marx Collective: Economy, Society and Religion in Siberian Collective Farm (1983); Shamans and Elders: Experience, Knowledge and Power among the Daur Mongols (1996); and (with D. Sneath) The End of Nomadism? Society, State and the Environment in Inner Asia (1999).
 
46Name:  Dr. Herbert Hunger
 Institution:  University of Vienna
 Year Elected:  1980
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1914
 Death Date:  July 9, 2000
   
47Name:  Dr. Hermann Hunger
 Institution:  University of Vienna
 Year Elected:  1995
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Hermann Hunger is a historian of astronomy who is also a first-rate Assyriologist. His editions of cuneiform texts cover the entire range of the corpus and culminate in the publication of his Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia series. This work stands as one of the most important publications of original sources for the study of Babylonian astronomy and became widely known through Dr. Hunger's communication of the earliest known record of Halley's Comet. Born in Germany, Dr. Hunger earned his Ph.D. from the University of Munster in 1966. He served as associate professor at the University of Chicago prior to joining the faculty at the University of Vienna in 1978. He currently holds the position of Professor of Assyriology at the Institut für Orientalistik and chairs the Commission for the History of Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Medicine at the University of Vienna.
 
48Name:  Dr. Benjamin H. Isaac
 Institution:  Tel Aviv University
 Year Elected:  2003
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Benjamin Isaac received his Ph.D. from Tel Aviv University in 1980. He remained at Tel Aviv and is currently the Fred and Helen Lessing Professor of Ancient History. His books and his more than 50 articles, book reviews, and contributions to the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names, the Anchor Bible Dictionary, and the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World have established him as a leading authority on Roman imperialism, the Roman military establishment, relations with conquered peoples (especially Greeks and Jews), epichoric inscriptions in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, and the road system of the Near East, especially in Judaea. His current work on Greeks, Romans, and Others deals magisterially with the perceptions of aliens prevalent in the ancient world from Homer to the beginning of the Middle Ages. Numerous honors, participation in international conferences and lectures testify to his international renown. Dr. Isaac's books include (with R. van Royen) The Arrival of the Greeks: The Evidence from the Settlements (1979); (with I. Roll) Roman Roads in Judaea I: The Scythopolis-Legio Road (1982); The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest (1986); The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East (1990, 1992); (with M. Fischer, I. Roll) Roman Roads in Judaea, II: The Jaffa-Jerusalem Roads (1996); The Near East Under Roman Rule: Selected Papers (1998); The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (2004); and Empire and Ideology in the Graeco-Roman World: Selected Papers (2017). He received the Best Book Award from the American Military Institute in 1991. Dr. Isaac is a member of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut and the Israel Academy of Sciences & Humanities. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2003. He received the Israel Prize in 2008.
 
49Name:  Dr. Vyacheslav V. Ivanov
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles & Russian State University for the Humanities
 Year Elected:  1994
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1929
 Death Date:  October 7, 2017
   
 
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov was born in 1929 in Moscow. Thanks to his parents (a well-known Russian writer and an actress of the Meyerhold avant-garde theatre) and their friends, he received a traditional Russian education and began writing poems, essays and prose works at an early age (most of which were never published). He continued his education at Moscow University (in the departments of Romance and Germanic philology and Sanskrit and Indo-European Studies) and received his Ph.D. in Hittite and Indo-European linguistics in 1955. He then taught comparative and general linguistics there, until he was dismissed in 1958 because of his friendship with Boris Pasternak. Due to political reasons, for thirty years he was unable to travel abroad as the government denied him an official travel visa. Fortunately, he was still able to continue his research work at the Institutes of the Academy of Sciences. In 1988 he was invited to return to Moscow University where he then became Chair of the new Department of the Theory and History of World Culture and Director of its affiliated Research Institute. Amidst the new political trends in Russia, he was elected to serve in the Russian Congress of People's Deputies, representing the researchers from the Institutes of the Academy. He has been appointed to several academies in Russia, Latvia, Great Britain, and the United States. With several Moscow and Tartu friends, he co-founded the Moscow-Tartu school of semiotics. In 1988, Professor Ivanov began teaching regularly at American universities - first at Yale University, then at Stanford University, and finally at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he was a professor in the department of Slavic Languages and Literatures and in the Indo-European Studies Program. Ivanov shared his time between Los Angeles and Moscow, where he taught in the Russian State University for the Humanities. He authored more than fifteen books and 1,000 journal articles. From 1992 on, he was editor-in-chief of a new journal in Slavic studies: Elementa. Journal of Slavic Studies and Comparative Cultural Semiotics, which continues the tradition of the Moscow-Tartu school. Professor Ivanov also directed the Library of Foreign Literature in Moscow and played a central role in promoting the necessity of open access to information in the democratization of Russian society. In addition to his standing as one of the great minds in 20th century intellectual life, Professor Ivanov was one of the greatest defenders of human rights in his country. Vyacheslav Ivanov died on October 7, 2017 at the age of 88.
 
50Name:  Dr. Christiane Klapisch-Zuber
 Institution:  École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
 Year Elected:  2008
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Christiane Klapisch-Zuber is the former Director of Studies at the Centre de Recherches Historiques, l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris. She has been a pioneer in the study of family history and genealogy, with special reference to the lives of young girls, women, and artisans. Her groundbreaking study of the Florentine tax records of 1429, coauthored with David Herlihy, changed the course of the economic and social history of the family in early modern Italy, and was based on unprecedented statistical analysis. In subsequent research she investigated such original topics as family ritual in relation to naming, the phenomenon of the family tree as an image and scheme, the history of adoption, and the imaginary power of ancestors. Klapisch-Zuber has approached the history of "the petit peuple" of late medieval and early modern France and especially Italy from both micro- and macro- historical viewpoints. More recently she has turned her attention to the lineage of Florentine magnates and their relationship to the popolani in the fourteenth century. Her generosity as a scholar is legendary, as is her capacity to construct new historical narratives through extraordinary mining of the archives. Widely influential in several fields, Klapisch-Zuber is a truly international figure who has changed the course of historical research, and her many brilliant essays are widely translated in anthologies. Christiane Klapisch-Zuber was elected an international member of the American Philosophical Society in 2008. In 2016 she was awarded the Middle Ages Prince Provins.
 
51Name:  Dr. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie
 Institution:  Collège de France & Bibliothèque Nationale
 Year Elected:  1979
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1929
   
 
French historian Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie is a leading authority on the history of peasantry, specifically in the region of Languedoc in the ancien regime. Credited with founding the "nouvelle histoire" (new history) movement, he has been a pioneer in the fields of history from below and microhistory. Dr. Ladurie is well known for works such as Les Paysans de Languedoc (1966); Histoire du Climat (1967), in which he focused on the impact of climate changes on human history; and Montaillou, village occitan de 1294 a 1324 (1975). The latter work, a study of a village in the south of France in the age of the Cathar heresy, uses meticulous notes of a member of the inquisition to develop a multi-layered study of life in a small French village over the course of several years. Dr. Ladurie served as professor, historian and chair of history of modern civilization at the College de France from 1973-99. He has also served as General Administrator of the Bibliothèque Nationale and currently holds the title of Professor Emeritus at the Collège de France.
 
52Name:  Dr. Mogens Trolle Larsen
 Institution:  University of Copenhagen
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1937
   
 
Mogens Trolle Larsen has used ancient Assyrian texts to explore the areas shared by the humanities and the social sciences. Larsen has done this through studies of ancient merchants in Anatolia; issues of literacy; the work and temperament of Mesopotamian men and women; the connection between their families and their societies; and on the broadest economic and historical dynamics of their era in western Asia, on issues of literacy, science, and even sentiment. He has also examined the saga of nineteenth century exploration in Mesopotamia as a part of European intellectual history; his book on the subject has appeared in four languages, and other translations are in progress. Larsen is the author of seven monographs, a number of edited volumes, and over forty scholarly articles. Although officially retired, he continues to pursue a vigorous scholarly agenda. He received a D.Phil. in 1966 and a Ph.D. in 1975 from the University of Copenhagen. His published works include The Old Assyrian City-state and its Colonies (1976) and The Conquest of Assyria: Excavations in an Antique Land, 1840-1860 (1996), and he is the editor of Culture & History, Copenhagen. He is a member of both the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (1995) and Academia Europaea, and was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2011.
 
53Name:  Professor Jean Leclant
 Institution:  Collège de France & Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Institut de France
 Year Elected:  1999
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1920
 Death Date:  September 16, 2011
   
 
Jean Leclant served as Secrétaire Perpétuel of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres at the Institut de France since 1983 and Professor Emeritus at the Collège de France since 1990. Previously he was a professor at the University of Strasbourg (1955-63), the Sorbonne (1963-79), and the Collège de France (1979-90) and served as Director d'Etudes at the Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes (1964-90). Jean Leclant was among the outstanding Egyptologists of his generation. He participated in many conferences in France and abroad (Africa, Japan, USA) and was an acknowledged administrator. His publication record was outstanding, with emphasis on excavations, Egyptian-Sudanese relations, the cult of Isis abroad, and Pyramid texts. Leclant's bibliography of books, articles, reviews, etc., through 1993 consisted of 993 items. The anniversary publication in his honor, Hommages à Jean Leclant, consisted of four volumes with contributions by 88 colleagues, friends, and students. He is the author of Mentouemhat, Quatrième prophète d'Amon, Prince de la ville (1961); Recherches sur les monuments thébains de la XXVème dynastie dite éthiopienne (1965); (with J. Ph. Lauer) Mission archéologique de Saqqarah I, le temple haut du complexe funéraire du roi Téti (1972); (with J. Goyon and R. Parker) The Edifice of Taharqa by the Sacred Lake of Karnak (1979); (with H. Danin) Le Second Siècle de l'Institut de France, 3 vol. (1994-2005); Les Textes des Pyramides de Pepy I (2001); and (with C. Carrier, C. Rilly, et al) Répertoire d'Epigraphie Méroitique, 3 vols. (2000). Professor Leclant has received many honors, including Grand-Officier, Légion d'honneur; Grand-Officier, Ordre du Mérite; Commdr. Ordre des Palmes Académiques; Commdr. Ordre des Arts et Lettres; Chevalier du Mérite Militaire; Imperial Order of Menelik (Ethiopia); and Grand Officer ordre de la République d'Egypte. In 1993 he received the Balzan Prize. He was a member of many academies, including the Accademia dei Lincei, the British Academy, the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Academies of Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, and Romania. He was elected as a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society in 1999. Jean Leclant died on September 16, 2011, in Paris, France at the age of 91.
 
54Name:  Dr. Dmitri S. Likhachev
 Institution:  Russian Academy of Sciences
 Year Elected:  1992
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1906
 Death Date:  10/1/99
   
55Name:  Dr. Larissa Adler Lomnitz
 Institution:  Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
 Year Elected:  2011
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  403. Cultural Anthropology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1932
 Death Date:  April 19, 2019
   
 
Larissa Adler Lomnitz is a pioneer in the study of social networks who earned her Ph.D. from the Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico in 1974. Her classic study of poor families in Mexico City showed how they mobilize social capital to survive under marginal economic conditions by using fictive kinship to expand networks and gain access to resources while diversifying risks. Her study of a Mexican entrepreneurial family, in contrast, revealed that elites limit their social networks to conserve social capital and marshal trust. Her study of school teachers in Chile drew upon social networks in much the same way as lower class urban dwellers to survive in the wake of restructuring. Based on this work, she developed an influential theory of informal network exchange that formed the basis of network theory in migration studies and social capital theory. She has also done formative work on the socialization of scientists and professionals within developing country settings. She won the Mexican National Prize for Social Science in 1990. She is the author of a number of books, including: Migration and Networks in Latin America, 1974; Networks and Marginality, 1975; (L. Adler Lomnitz, et al) Culture & Ideology: Anthropological Perspectives, 1982; (with M. Perez-Lizaur) A Mexican Elite Family, 1820-1980: Kinship, Class, and Culture, 1988; (with L. Meyer) La Nueva Clase, 1988; (L. Adler Lomnitz, et al) Chile’s Middle Class: A Struggle for Survival in the Face of Neoliberalism, 1991; Redes Sociales, Cultura, y Poder: Ensayos de Antropología Latinoamericana, 1994; (with A. Melnick) Chile’s Political Culture and Parties: An Anthropological Explanation, 2000; (with R. Salazar Elena, I. Adler) Simbolismo y Ritual en la Política Mexicana, 2004. She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2011.
 
56Name:  Dr. Jakob Lothe
 Institution:  University of Oslo
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Jakob Lothe is professor of English literature at the University of Oslo. Combined with this position, he has also been an adjunct professor at the University of Bergen. He has been an invited visiting scholar at St. John’s College, University of Oxford (1996-1997), Harvard University (2005), University of Cape Town (2010), and Regent’s Park College, University of Oxford (2017-2018). Lothe’s main research interest is narrative theory and analysis. He has developed an original method that combines constituent elements of classical narratology, rhetorical narrative theory, narrative hermeneutics, memory studies, and studies of the narrative ethics of fiction and film. In his current work, Lothe aims to improve our understanding of the ethics of storytelling, while at the same time highlighting the key role of the ethics which readers and viewers take with them to the act, and experience, of reading and viewing. His books include Conrad’s Narrative Method (Oxford UP, 1989), Narrative in Fiction and Film (Oxford UP, 2000), and, as editor or co-editor, Joseph Conrad (Ohio State UP, 2008), Franz Kafka (Ohio State UP, 2011), After Testimony: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Holocaust Narrative for the Future (Ohio State UP, 2012), Narrative Ethics (Rodopi, 2013), Time’s Witnesses: Women’s Voices from the Holocaust (Fledgling Press, 2017), and The Future of Literary Studies (Novus Press, 2017). Lothe is a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and the leader of the Academy’s committee on human rights. The committee works for the release of researchers who have been imprisoned in violation of their human rights and to prevent torture and use of the death penalty.
 
57Name:  Dr. Domenico Maffei
 Institution:  Università di Roma "La Sapienza"
 Year Elected:  1986
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  405. History and Philology, East and West, through the 17th Century
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1925
 Death Date:  July 2009
   
 
A Professor of the History of Italian Law Emeritus, Domenico Maffei had served on the faculty of the University of Rome since 1979. He received his D. Juris from the University of Siena in 1947, where he was also professor of Italian law from 1961-69. Dr. Maffei has also taught law at the University of Macerata (1955-61) and Italian culture at the University of California, Berkeley (1967-68). A leader in medieval history (with a book on the donation of Constantine) and legal history (with studies of contract law), Dr. Maffei ably related jurisprudence to both social and intellectual history. His many books include Gli inizi dell'Umanesimo giurdico (1956) and Il giovane Machiavelli banchiere con Berto Berti a Roma (1973). Professor Maffei died in July 2009 at the age of 84 in Italy.
 
58Name:  Dr. Charles H. Malik
 Year Elected:  1958
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  406. Linguistics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1906
 Death Date:  12/28/87
   
59Name:  Dr. Linda R. Manzanilla
 Institution:  Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, National Autonomous University of Mexico
 Year Elected:  2006
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Linda R. Manzanilla is one of the most important and internationally renowned archaeologists in Mexico. A highly productive scholar, she has made key contributions in both empirical research and in theoretical and methodological understandings of the development of ancient civilizations. Both the breadth of her fieldwork (she has undertaken significant research in Mexico, Bolivia, Turkey, and Egypt) and the depth of her insights, especially in regard to new perspectives on the rise, growth, structure, and collapse of the great pre-Columbian city of Teotihuacan, have made Professor Manzanilla one of the leading scholars in the world in the study of early cities and states and their development through time and space. Since 1984 she has been an investigator and professor at the Institute of Anthropological Investigations at the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
 
60Name:  Dr. Avishai Margalit
 Institution:  Hebrew University of Jerusalem
 Year Elected:  2018
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Avishai Margalit is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has done important philosophical work on language, rationality, politics, and morality. Though he uses analytical methods, he is notable within analytic philosophy for drawing on the complexity of historical examples and cultural context. One of his most significant contributions is his argument that politics focuses on avoiding evil rather than pursuing the good, and thus that the goal of a decent society that is free of humiliation is prior to the goal of the just society. In addition to his academic work, Avishai Margalit is a public representative of philosophy. He has been a regular contributor to the New York Review of Books since 1984. He has at various times been involved in work towards and promotion of peace in Israel and Palestine. Avishai Margalit was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2018.
 
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