American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Mr. David Adjaye
 Institution:  Adjaye Associates
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1966
   
 
Adjaye Associates was established in June 2000 by founder and principal architect, David Adjaye OBE. Receiving ever-increasing worldwide attention, the practice's largest commission is the design of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of African American History and Culture on the National Mall in Washington, DC. Further projects range in scale from private houses, exhibitions and temporary pavilions to major arts centres, civic buildings and masterplans in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Renowned for an eclectic material and color palette and a capacity to unfold cinematically, the buildings differ in form and style, yet are unified by their ability to challenge typologies and to generate a dynamic cultural discourse.
 
2Name:  Dr. Joanna Aizenberg
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  103. Engineering
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1960
   
 
Joanna Aizenberg pursues a broad range of research interests that include biomimetics, smart materials, wetting phenomena, bio-nano interfaces, self-assembly, crystal engineering, surface chemistry, structural color and biomineralization. She received the B.S. degree in Chemistry in 1981, the M.S. degree in Physical Chemistry in 1984 from Moscow State University, and the Ph.D. degree in Structural Biology from the Weizmann Institute of Science in 1996. After spending nearly a decade at Bell Labs, Joanna joined Harvard University, where she is the Amy Smith Berylson Professor of Materials Science, Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Director of the Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology and Platform Leader in the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. The Aizenberg lab's research is aimed at understanding some of the basic principles of biological architectures and the economy with which biology solves complex problems in the design of multifunctional, adaptive materials. She then uses biological principles as guidance in developing new, bio-inspired synthetic routes and nanofabrication strategies that would lead to advanced materials and devices, with broad implications in fields ranging from architecture to energy efficiency to medicine. Aizenberg is elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science; and she is a Fellow of American Physical Society and Materials Research Society. Dr. Aizenberg received numerous awards from the American Chemical Society and Materials Research Society, including Fred Kavli Distinguished Lectureship in Nanoscience, Ronald Breslow Award for the Achievement in Biomimetic Chemistry, Arthur K. Doolittle Award in Polymeric Materials, ACS Industrial Innovation Award, and was recognized with two R&D 100 Awards for best innovations in 2012 and 2013 for the invention of a novel class of omniphobic materials and watermark ink technologies. In 2015 she received Harvard’s most prestigious Ledlie Prize that is awarded for the most valuable contribution to science made by a Harvard scientist. Joanna has served at the Board of Directors of the Materials Research Society and at the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Academies. She served on the Advisory Board of Langmuir and Chemistry of Materials, on Board of Reviewing Editors of Science Magazine, and is an Editorial Board Member of Advanced Materials.
 
3Name:  Dr. Donald M. Berwick
 Institution:  Institute for Healthcare Improvement
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Donald M. Berwick, MD, MPP, FRCP is President Emeritus and Senior Fellow at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), an organization that Dr. Berwick co-founded and led as President and CEO for 18 years. He is one of the nation's leading authorities on health care quality and improvement. In July, 2010, President Obama appointed Dr. Berwick to the position of Administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), which he held until December, 2011. A pediatrician by background, Dr. Berwick has served as Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Health Care Policy at the Harvard Medical School, Professor of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health, and as a member of the staffs of Boston's Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Brigham and Women's Hospital. He has also served as vice chair of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, the first "Independent Member" of the Board of Trustees of the American Hospital Association, and chair of the National Advisory Council of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. An elected member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Dr. Berwick served two terms on the IOM’s governing Council and was a member of the IOM’s Global Health Board. He is also an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2019). He served on President Clinton's Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Healthcare Industry. He is a recipient of numerous awards, including the 1999 Joint Commission’s Ernest Amory Codman Award, the 2002 American Hospital Association’s Award of Honor, the 2006 John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Award for Individual Achievement from the National Quality Forum and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the 2007 William B. Graham Prize for Health Services Research, the 2007 Heinz Award for Public Policy from the Heinz Family Foundation, the 2012 Gustav O. Lienhard Award from the IOM, and the 2013 Nathan Davis Award from the American Medical Association. In 2005, he was appointed "Honorary Knight Commander of the British Empire" by Queen Elizabeth II, the highest honor awarded by the UK to non-British subjects, in recognition of his work with the British National Health Service. Dr. Berwick is the author or co-author of over 160 scientific articles and six books. He also serves now as Lecturer in the Department of Health Care Policy at Harvard Medical School. Donald Berwick was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2016.
 
4Name:  Dr. Yve-Alain Bois
 Institution:  Institute for Advanced Study
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  402. Criticism: Arts and Letters
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1952
   
 
Yve-Alain Bois is one of the most original and active critics of 20th century art working today. A pupil of Roland Barthes, he is equally at home in the theory and the history of the visual arts. In 2015 he published the first of four volumes of his monumental catalog of the American painter and sculptor Ellsworth Kelly, and is about to publish a 900-page catalog of the works by Matisse (including the famous wall-paintings) in the Barnes Collection. At the Society’s April 2015 meeting, he gave a memorable paper, “Can a Genuine Picasso be a Fake?” In addition to his many books, he has written twelve exhibition catalogs, about fifty articles with titles as surprising and diverse as “The Meteorite in the Garden” and “Painting as Trauma,” and numerous exhibition- and book-reviews. One of his current projects is the modern history of axonometric projection.
 
5Name:  Dr. Jocelyn Bell Burnell
 Institution:  University of Oxford; Royal Society of Edinburgh; Trinity College Dublin
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  101. Astronomy
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Jocelyn Bell Burnell is widely recognized as the individual responsible for the 1967 discovery of pulsars. With skill and perseverance she overcame the skepticism and resistance of her senior colleagues to make one of the most important and dramatic discoveries in 20th century astrophysics. In 2018 her essential role in the discovery was recognized by the Breakthrough Prize Foundation with a Special Breakthrough Prize. Bell Burnell donated the associated prize money to the Institute of Physics to support scholarships for individuals from underrepresented groups. Later in her career she worked in infrared, X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics. More recently she turned her attention to education including the public understanding of science where according to the Royal Society, her contribution "has been uniquely valuable." The Royal Society web site refers to Jocelyn Bell Burnell as "one of the most influential scientists in the UK." She was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2018.
 
6Name:  Dr. Paul DiMaggio
 Institution:  New York University; Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  301. Anthropology, Demography, Psychology, and Sociology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Paul DiMaggio is Professor of Sociology at New York University, where he is also affiliated with the Center for Data Science, The Wagner School of Public Policy and the Stern School of Business. Between 1992 and January 2016, he taught at Princeton University, where he is currently A. Barton Hepburn Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs and where he served terms as Chairman and Director of Graduate Studies of the Sociology Department, Director of the Center for the Study of Social Organization, and Research Director of the Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies. In 1979, he went to Yale University as a Postdoctoral Fellow, later rising from Assistant Professor to Professor in the Sociology Department and the School of Management and serving as Director of the Program on Non-Profit Organizations. DiMaggio’s work has addressed such topics as the impact of cultural capital on educational attainment, the origins of the strong distinction between high culture and popular culture in the United States, the structure of organizational fields and factors that lead organizations within a field to become more similar over time, cultural politics (including arts policy, opinion polarization on social issues, and nationalism) in the United States, the role of networks in consumer decision making, the implications of cognitive science for the sociology of culture, the impact of network externalities for social inequality, and applications of computational text analysis to the study of cultural change. A graduate of Swarthmore College, he received his M.A. and Ph.D. in Sociology from Harvard University.
 
7Name:  Dr. Cynthia Dwork
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1958
   
 
Cynthia Dwork, an intellectual leader in the privacy-research community in computer science, has made fundamental contributions that speak to the role of information technology in society. She is leader and a co-founder of work on "differential privacy", which provides the first satisfactory theory for how to ensure privacy protection while enabling statistical analysis of large datasets with sensitive personal information. Her foundational work in this area has had revolutionary impact in such other disciplines as statistics and technology policy. Dwork has also made fundamental contributions to cryptography and distributed algorithms, including introducing the challenge of concurrent security in cryptographic protocols, the fundamental concept of "nonmalleability" in cryptography (where an adversary should not be able to modify cryptographic communications), and the idea of using hash chains as proofs of work (an idea underlying cryptocurrencies like BitCoin). Her distributed computing paper, "Achieving consensus in the presence of partial synchrony" received the Djikstra prize. She received the Goedel Prize in 2017 and the IEEE Hamming Medal in 2019.
 
8Name:  Dr. Ronald M. Fairman
 Institution:  Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Ronald Fairman, an internationally acclaimed vascular surgeon, has played a central role in shaping an entirely new field of medicine, endovascular therapy. This field has virtually transformed and vastly improved the care of patients afflicted with blood vessel disorders such as aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and blockage of arteries such as the carotid, renal and femoral. Fairman has been a pioneer in endovascular surgery. In this new treatment complex devices are inserted via catheters into peripheral arteries and with radiographic imaging advanced centrally to stent or seal off aortic aneurysms or to open and restore flow to narrowed or occluded arteries. Thus, intricate but less invasive procedures are substituted for major or more dangerous ones such as open operations to remove aneurysms or bypass arterial occlusions. Fairman’s research has developed, tested and improved endovascular procedures and the complex devices necessary for their conduct. Each new device must be subjected to extensive evaluation and clinical testing before it can be approved by the FDA. Approval can only be accomplished by demonstrated safety and effectiveness in well designed clinical trials. Fairman is at the forefront of these multi-institutional national trials, serving as the principal investigator, a major participant or advisor to the FDA on dozens of them. Members may recall his presentation of this work to the Society at its April 2015 Meeting. The results of these trials and other aspects of his clinical experience has been reported by Fairman in more than 140 peer reviewed publications in scientific journals, dozens of chapters and editorials and in lectures and visiting professorships around the world. He is a member of the editorial boards of four vascular journals. In 2014 he received the highest award from the Society for Vascular Surgery and in 2016 he will serve as its president
 
9Name:  Dr. Lothar von Falkenhausen
 Institution:  University of California, Los Angeles
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  401. Archaeology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1959
   
 
Lothar von Falkenhausen is the leading archaeologist of China of his generation. A polyglot like few others, he has taught—each time in the local language—as Visiting Professor in Beijing, Münster, Hong Kong, Kyoto, Paris, and Heidelberg. His most recent book Chinese Society in the Age of Confucius (2006), by now translated into Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, is the definitive social history of bronze age China. His vast list of publications ranges from antiquarianism to ancient musical instruments, and further on to ancient salt production, empire and urban studies, questions of literacy and orality in the Chinese canon, philosophical perspectives in Chinese ritual, religious mortuary practices, and social ranking in tombs. His work is as transnational as it is interdisciplinary, ranging across continents and centuries, and combining archaeology with intellectual, social, technological, and economic history.
 
10Name:  Ms. Suzanne Farrell
 Institution:  John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; Suzanne Farrell Ballet; Florida State University
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Suzanne Farrell is one of George Balanchine’s most celebrated muses and remains a legendary figure in the ballet world. In addition to serving as artistic director of her own company, she is also a repetiteur for The George Balanchine Trust, the independent organization founded after the choreographer’s death by the heirs to his ballets to oversee their worldwide licensing and production. Since 1988, she has staged Balanchine’s works for such companies as the Berlin Opera Ballet, the Vienna State Opera Ballet, the Royal Danish Ballet, the Paris Opera Ballet, the Kirov Ballet, the Bolshoi Ballet, as well as many American companies. Ms. Farrell joined Balanchine’s New York City Ballet in the fall of 1961 after a year as a Ford Foundation scholarship student at the School of American Ballet. Her unique combination of musical, physical, and dramatic gifts quickly ignited Balanchine’s imagination. By the mid-1960s she was not only Balanchine’s most prominent ballerina, she was a symbol of the era, and remains so to this day. She restated and re-scaled such Balanchine masterpieces as Apollo, Concerto Barocco, and Symphony in C. Balanchine went on to invent new ones for her. Diamonds, for example, and Chaconne and Mozartiana, in which the limits of ballerina technique were expanded to a degree not seen before or since. By the time she retired from the stage in 1989, Ms. Farrell had achieved a career that is without precedent or parallel in the history of ballet. During her 28 years on the stage, she danced a repertory of more than 100 ballets, nearly a third of which were composed expressly for her by Balanchine and other choreographers, including Jerome Robbins and Maurice Béjart. Her numerous performances with Balanchine’s company (more than 2,000), her world tours, and her appearances in television and movies have made her one of the most recognizable and highly esteemed artists of her generation. She is also the recipient of numerous artistic and academic accolades. Since the fall of 2000, Ms. Farrell has been a full-time professor in the dance department at Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida. To ensure the preservation of Mr. Balanchine’s legacy, Ms. Farrell founded The Suzanne Farrell Ballet at the Kennedy Center in 2001. The Suzanne Farrell Ballet evolved from an educational program of the Kennedy Center to a highly lauded ballet company. The Company has performed annually at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. and has toured both nationally and internationally. Committed to carrying forth the legacy of George Balanchine through performances of his classic ballets, the Company announced the formal creation of the Balanchine Preservation Initiative in February 2007. This initiative serves to introduce rarely seen or "lost" Balanchine works to audiences around the world. To date, the Company’s repertoire includes 11 Balanchine Preservation Initiative Ballets including Ragtime (Balanchine/Stravinsky), Divertimento Brillante (Balanchine/Glinka), Pithoprakta (Balanchine/Xenakis) and Haieff Divertimento (Balanchine/Haieff). In addition to her work for the Balanchine Trust, she is active in a variety of cultural and philanthropic organizations such as the New York State Council on the Arts, the Arthritis Foundation, the Professional Children’s School, and the Princess Grace Foundation. Summit Books published her autobiography, Holding On to the Air, in 1990, and Suzanne Farrell - Elusive Muse (directed by Anne Belle and Deborah Dickson) was an Academy Award nominee for Best Documentary Film in 1997.]
 
11Name:  Mr. Roger W. Ferguson
 Institution:  TIAA
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1951
   
 
Roger W. Ferguson, Jr., is President and Chief Executive Officer of TIAA, the leading provider of retirement services in the academic, research, medical, and cultural fields and a Fortune 100 financial services organization. Mr. Ferguson is the former Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve System. He represented the Federal Reserve on several international policy groups and served on key Federal Reserve System committees, including Payment System Oversight, Reserve Bank Operations, and Supervision and Regulation. As the only Governor in Washington, D.C. on 9/11, he led the Fed’s initial response to the terrorist attacks, taking actions that kept the U.S. financial system functioning while reassuring the global financial community that the U.S. economy would not be paralyzed. Prior to joining TIAA in April 2008, Mr. Ferguson was head of financial services for Swiss Re, Chairman of Swiss Re America Holding Corporation, and a member of the company’s executive committee. From 1984 to 1997, he was an Associate and Partner at McKinsey & Company. He began his career as an attorney at the New York City office of Davis Polk & Wardwell. Mr. Ferguson is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and co-chairs its Commission on the Future of Undergraduate Education. He serves on the boards of General Mills and International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. and on the advisory board of Brevan Howard Asset Management LLP. He is Chairman of The Conference Board and a member of the Business-Higher Education Forum’s Executive Committee. He serves on the boards of the American Council of Life Insurers, the Institute for Advanced Study, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the Partnership for New York City. He is a member of the Economic Club of New York, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Group of Thirty. Mr. Ferguson served on President Obama’s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness as well as its predecessor, the Economic Recovery Advisory Board, and he co-chaired the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on the Long-Run Macro-Economic Effects of the Aging U.S. Population. Mr. Ferguson holds a B.A., J.D., and a Ph.D. in economics, all from Harvard University. In 2019 the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences awarded him its highest honor, the Centennial Medal, which "honors alumni who have made contributions to society that emerged from their graduate study at Harvard." Roger Ferguson was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2016.
 
12Name:  Mr. Jon R. Friedman
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Jon R. Friedman’s portraits, landscape paintings, and sculptures have been shown in exhibitions throughout the United States. His portrait work is represented in numerous public and institutional collections here and abroad, including the National Portrait Gallery, the U.S. House of Representatives where his portraits of Barney Frank, Henry Waxman, Louise Slaughter and Dalip Singh Saund are on permanent display, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Institutes of Health, the American Philosophical Society, the Carnegie Institute of Washington, the Royal College of Surgeons and the Royal Society in Great Britain, the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the California Institute of Technology; the University of Pennsylvania, New York University, BrandeisUniversity, Wesleyan University, and the U.S. Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, and the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. In 2008 Friedman was commissioned by the National Portrait Gallery to paint a double portrait of Bill and Melinda Gates. In 2014 the museum added his portrait of Ted Turner to its collection. In addition to these works on canvas, over the past decade, the museum has acquired twelve of Friedman’s preliminary studies for various public commissions. In 2013 Michael Bloomberg commissioned Friedman to paint his portrait for the NYC City Hall Portrait Collection. Friedman grew up in Arlington, Virginia. He received a BA in philosophy from Princeton University and an MFA from Cranbrook Academy in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. He also studied at the Corcoran Museum School and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. He lives with his wife, the writer Joanne Barkan, in New York City and Truro, Massachusetts. Friedman’s father, Herbert Friedman, a renowned astrophysicist and pioneering rocket astronomer, who passed away in 2000, was a long time member of the American Philosophical Society.
 
13Name:  Dr. Gerd Gigerenzer
 Institution:  Max Planck Institute for Human Development
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1947
   
 
Gerd Gigerenzer is Director at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Director of the Harding Center for Risk Literacy in Berlin. He is former Professor of Psychology at the University of Chicago and John M. Olin Distinguished Visiting Professor, School of Law at the University of Virginia. He is also Member of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, the German Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and Batten Fellow at the Darden Business School, University of Virginia. He received honorary doctorates from the University of Basel and the Open University of the Netherlands. Awards for his work include the AAAS Prize for the best article in the behavioral sciences, the Association of American Publishers Prize for the best book in the social and behavioral sciences, the German Psychology Award and the Communicator Award of the German Research Foundation. His award-winning popular books Calculated Risks, Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious, and Risk Savvy: How to make good decisions have been translated into 21 languages. His academic books include Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart, Rationality for Mortals, Simply Rational, and Bounded Rationality (with Reinhard Selten, a Nobel Laureate in economics). In Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions (with Sir Muir Gray) he shows how better informed doctors and patients can improve healthcare while reducing costs. Together with the Bank of England, he works on the project "Simple heuristics for a safer world." Gigerenzer has trained U.S. Federal Judges, German physicians, and top managers in decision-making and understanding risks and uncertainties.
 
14Name:  Dr. Ann M. Graybiel
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Ann Martin Graybiel and coworkers pioneered understanding of the basal ganglia, brain structures related to movement and emotion that are disordered in neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Relatively little was known about the neurobiology of these structures until Graybiel and her students discovered the structural architecture of the striatum, a physical design now known to underpin the organization of genes and neurotransmitters, including dopamine, linked to Parkinson’s disease. By training animals to learn habits, she and her group discovered neural activity templates for habit learning in the striatum and found that distinct activity patterns uniquely characterize different motor and emotion-related regions. Graybiel and students now are finding that these templates can be modified by circuit intervention, opening the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to disorders of movement and emotion.
 
15Name:  Dr. Carol W. Greider
 Institution:  Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1961
   
 
Carol Greider, Ph.D. received her bachelor’s degree from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 1983 and a Ph.D. in 1987 from the University of California at Berkeley. In 1984, working together with Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn, she discovered telomerase, an enzyme that maintains telomeres, or chromosome ends. In 1988, Dr. Greider was recruited to Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory as an independent Cold Spring Harbor Fellow, where she cloned and characterized the RNA component of telomerase. In 1990, Dr. Greider was appointed as an assistant investigator at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, followed later by appointment to Investigator in 1994. She expanded the focus of her telomere research to include the role of short telomeres in cellular senescence, cell death and in cancer. In 1997, Dr. Greider moved her laboratory to the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In 2003, she was appointed as the Daniel Nathans Professor and Director of the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics. Dr. Greider’s group continued to study the biochemistry of telomerase and determined the secondary structure of the human telomerase RNA. In addition, she characterized the loss of telomere function in mice, which allowed an understanding of human diseases that make up the short telomere syndromes. Dr. Greider shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009 with Drs. Elizabeth Blackburn and Jack Szostak for their work on telomeres and telomerase. In 2014, Dr. Greider was appointed as a Blooomberg Distinguished Professor at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Greider currently directs a group of eight scientists studying both the role of short telomeres in age-related disease and cancer as well as the regulatory mechanism that maintain telomere length.
 
16Name:  Dr. Ellen T. Harris
 Institution:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404. History of the Arts, Literature, Religion and Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1945
   
 
Ellen T. Harris, Class of 1949 Professor Emeritus at MIT, is a musicologist whose work focuses on Handel, Baroque opera, and vocal performance practice. She has taught at Columbia University; the University of Chicago, where she served as department chair; and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she was the first Associate Provsot for the Arts. She has served as the President of the American Handel Society and is currently President of the American Musicological Society. Her most recent book, George Frideric Handel: A Life with Friends (W. W. Norton, 2014), detailing the place of Handel and his music in eighteenth-century London, received the Nicolas Slonimsky Award (ASCAP/Deems Taylor) for Outstanding Musical Biography. Her previous book, Handel as Orpheus: Voice and Desire in the Chamber Cantatas (Harvard University Press, 2001) received the 2002 Otto Kindeldey Award from the American Musicological Society and the 2002-03 Louis Gottschalk Prize from the Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies. Her earlier publications include an edition of cantatas for alto voice (Oxford University Press, 2001), a critical facsimile edition of Handel’s opera librettos in 13 vols. (Garland, 1989), Henry Purcell’s ‘Dido and Aeneas’ (Oxford, 1987, of which a 30th-anniversary edition is now in preparation), an edition (with Edward Dent) of Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas (Oxford, 1987), and Handel and the Pastoral Tradition (Oxford, 1980). Articles and reviews by Professor Harris have appeared in numerous publications including Journal of the American Musicological Society, Händel Jahrbuch, Notes, and The New York Times. Her article "Handel the Investor" (Music & Letters, 2004), based on her research in the Bank of England, received the 2004 Westrup Prize. Harris has enjoyed residencies at the Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College in Harvard University (1995-96) and at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (2004), and in 2005 won the Gyorgy Kepes Prize for her contributions to the arts at MIT. She was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1998) and made an Honorary Member of the American Musicological Society (2011). For the 2013-14 academic year, she was a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar, and in 2016 a Visiting Professor at The Juilliard School. In her role as a musicologist-singer, Harris served as consultant to Renée Fleming on her recording of Handel arias and to the Santa Fe Opera on their production of Mozart’s Mitridate. She also served as musicological advisor to the complete recording of Handel’s Italian instrumental cantatas by the Italian early music group La Risonanza and has given joint presentations with its musical director Fabio Bonizzoni. She has performed twice with John Williams and the Boston Pops and sung the National Anthem at Fenway Park.
 
17Name:  Dr. James B. Hartle
 Institution:  University of California, Santa Barbara; Santa Fe Institute
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
James Hartle was educated at Princeton University (AB,1960), and the California Institute of Technology where he completed a Ph.D.in 1964 with Murray Gell-Mann. He has held positions at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, and the University of Chicago. He is currently Research Professor and Professor of Physics Emeritus at the University of California, Santa Barbara and an external faculty member of the Santa Fe Institute. His scientific work is concerned with the application of Einstein's relativistic theory of gravity --- general relativity --- to realistic astrophysical situations, especially cosmology. He has contributed usefully to the understanding of gravitational waves, relativistic stars, and black holes. He is currently interested in the quantum origin of the universe and the earliest moments of the big bang where the subjects of quantum mechanics, quantum gravity, and cosmology overlap. His work with Stephen Hawking on the quantum wave function of the universe is an example. He has been an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, a NATO Senior Science Fellow, and a John Simon Guggenheim Fellow. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the US National Academy of Sciences, and a founder and past director of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics. He received the American Physical Society’s 2009 Einstein Prize for his work in gravitational physics.
 
18Name:  Dr. Thomas C. Holt
 Institution:  University of Chicago
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  303. History Since 1715
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Currently the James Westfall Thompson Distinguished Service Professor of American and African American History at the University of Chicago, Tom Holt has a longstanding professional interest in comparing the experiences of people in the African diaspora, particularly those in the Caribbean and the United States. Elected president of the American Historical Association for 1994-95, Holt has been a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fellow since 1990 and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2003. Last year Holt was a recipient the Wilbur Cross Medal, awarded by Yale University in recognition of distinguished alumni. His most significant publications are a study of Jamaica's economy, politics, and society after slavery, The Problem of Freedom: Race, Labor, and Politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938, which was published by Johns Hopkins University Press in 1992 and awarded the Elsa Goveia Prize by the Association of Caribbean Historians in 1995. In 1978, the Southern Historical Association awarded the Charles S. Sydnor Prize for Holt's first book, Black Over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina During Reconstruction, published by the University of Illinois Press in 1977, which dealt with a comparable period in the American South after emancipation. Holt's Nathan I. Huggins’ lectures, The Problem of Race in the 21st Century, were published by Harvard University Press in 2000. He is co-author with Rebecca J. Scott and Frederick Cooper of Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies, which was published by the University of North Carolina Press, also in 2000. With Elsa Barkley Brown, he has edited a two-volume collection of essays and documents on African American History, Major Problems in African American History, published by Houghton Mifflin in 2000. In 2010, Holt published Children of Fire: A History of African Americans (Hill&Wang), a synthetic account of African American History from its 16th century beginnings to the present. Holt’s most recent publication is Race, the 24th volume of the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture (2013), which he edited with Laurie Green for the University of North Carolina Press. In that collection of essays, they explore the multi-racial - as opposed to the more conventional bi-racial - history and present of the American South. Prof. Holt is currently working on a study of the Civil Rights Movement for Oxford University Press and on a study of the problem of race in the Atlantic World with Leora Auslander. Professor Holt earned BA and MA degrees in English Literature from Howard University and a Ph.D. in American Studies from Yale University. Prior to his academic career Holt worked in the federal anti-poverty program (the Office of Economic Opportunity) developing educational, employment, and housing programs for economically disadvantaged seasonal and migrant farmworkers.
 
19Name:  Dr. Eric Knudsen
 Institution:  Stanford University School of Medicine
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1949
   
 
Dr. Knudsen received his PhD from the University of California, San Diego in 1976. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship at the California Institute of Technology in 1979. He joined the Department of Neurobiology at Stanford University as an assistant professor in 1979, became a full professor in 1988, and served as Chair of the Department from 2000-2005. He is currently the Sewall Professor of Neurobiology, Emeritus at Stanford University School of Medicine. His research has focused on how the central nervous system processes information, how it learns from experience, and how it selects information for attention and decision-making. Dr. Knudsen has received a number of honors and awards, including election to the National Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the Society’s Karl Spencer Lashley Award in 2008 "for his comprehensive study of visual and auditory perception in the owl and for his elucidation of how the auditory map is calibrated by the visual system during development." He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2016.
 
20Name:  Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey
 Institution:  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
 Year Elected:  2016
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Risa Lavizzo-Mourey has been named the University of Pennsylvania's 19th Penn Integrates Knowledge University Professor, effective January 1, 2018. Lavizzo-Mourey, MD, MBA, was president and CEO of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a position she has held 2003 to 2017. Under her leadership, the RWJF focused on building a comprehensive Culture of Health for all, extending the Foundation's 4O-year history of addressing key public health issues. To advance the nation's movement toward better health RWJF concentrates on four major themes: Healthy Communities Healthy Children, Healthy Weight Transforming Health and Health Care Systems Leadership for Better Health A specialist in geriatrics, Lavizzo-Mourey came to the Foundation from the University of Pennsylvania, where she served as the Sylvan Eisman Professor of Medicine and Health Care Systems. She also directed Penn's Institute on Aging and was chief of geriatric medicine at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Medicine. In previous years, she worked on the White House Health Care Reform Task Force and served on numerous federal advisory committees, including the National Committee for Vital and Health Statistics. She also co-chaired a congressionally requested Institute of Medicine study on racial and ethnic disparities on health care. Lavizzo-Mourey earned her medical degree from Harvard Medical School, and also holds an MBA from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the President's Council for Fitness, Sports and Nutrition. She currently serves on the Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents and several other boards of directors. She and her husband, Robert Lavizzo-Mourey, PhD, have two adult children and one grandchild.
 
Election Year
2016[X]
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