American Philosophical Society
Member History

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1Name:  Mr. Woody Allen
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
In a career spanning nearly five decades and three dozen films, Woody Allen has established himself as one of the major auteurs of contemporary international cinema, with a comic voice that is distinctively twentieth-century American-jokey, anxious, unmistakably New York-and a moral and aesthetic vision that owes much to the filmmaker’s immersion in the great classics of European literature and cinema. Having established his comic bona fides with early works from Play It Again, Sam (an early foray into magical realism) to his paranoid futuristic fantasy Sleeper, Allen came into his own as a serious artist, with a special talent for depicting wry romantic disappointment in the context of American subcultural conflicts, in films such as his Oscar-winning Annie Hall and Manhattan. A series of marvelously rich tragicomedies of the 1980s, tinged with distinctively Continental colors and experimenting with great success with magical realism and metafictionality as technical means of exploring his perennial interest in the relationships between eros, art, and morality, includes The Purple Rose of Cairo, Crimes and Misdemeanors and Alice-an evolution that has been capped, in more recent years, by such acclaimed later works as Match Point and Vicky Christina Barcelona. His recent films include Midnight in Paris (2011) and Blue Jasmine (2013). In 2014 he was awarded the Cecil B. DeMille Lifetime Achievement Award.
 
2Name:  Dame Gillian Beer
 Institution:  University of Cambridge
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1935
   
 
Gillian Beer is a preeminent interpreter of the Victorian novel, particularly of George Eliot and that daughter of the Victorians, Virginia Woolf. Even more importantly, she has been a pioneer in investigating the relations between scientific discourse and imaginative writing in 19th century England. She is particularly known for her work on Darwin, interpreting the imaginative energies and structures of his writings, so as to account for their cultural, in addition to their scientific, importance. She is equally eminent as a leader in English education and in English cultural life in general. She is the author of: Meredith: A Change of Masks, (1970); Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth Century Fiction, (1983); George Eliot, (1986); Arguing With the Past, (1989); Forging the Missing Link, (1992); Open Fields: Science in Cultural Encounter, (1996); and Virginia Woolf: The Common Ground, (1996). Gillian Beer was awarded the 2017 Truman Capote Award for Literary Criticism for her book Alice in Space: The Sideways Victorian World of Lewis Carroll. She was vice-president of the British Academy and is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
 
3Name:  Dr. R. Howard Bloch
 Institution:  Yale University
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
A native of North Carolina, raised in New York, R. Howard Bloch attended Amherst College and Stanford University. He has taught at the State University of New York at Buffalo, University of California Berkeley, Columbia, and Yale University, where he is currently Sterling Professor of French and Chair of the Humanities Program. R. Howard Bloch has written numerous books and articles on medieval language and literature, law, family structure, economic and social history, visual culture, as well as on the history of medieval studies in the nineteenth century. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an Officer in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, a recipient of the Lowell and the Scaglione Prizes of the Modern Language Association, and a medalist of the Collège de France.
 
4Name:  Dr. Leon Botstein
 Institution:  Bard College
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Leon Botstein has been president of Bard College since 1975. He received his B.A. degree with special honors in history from the University of Chicago and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in European history from Harvard. Dr. Botstein has been the music director of the American Symphony Orchestra since 1992 and was appointed the music director of the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, the orchestra of the Israel Broadcast Authority, in 2003. An active international conductor, he makes frequent guest appearances with major orchestras around the world. His most recent recording is Bruno Walter’s Symphony in D Minor with the NDR Symphony Orchestra. Other recent CDs are John Fould’s A World Requiem, Ernest Chausson’s Le roi Arthus, and Paul Dukas’s Ariane et Barbe-Bleue, all with the BBC Symphony Orchestra; the music of George Perle, Roger Sessions, Bernard Rands, and Aaron Copland with the American Symphony Orchestra; and Popov’s Symphony No. 1, Op. 7, with the London Symphony Orchestra, which was nominated for a 2006 Grammy Award. He is the founder and an artistic director of the Bard Music Festival, now in its twentieth year. Dr. Botstein is the author of Jefferson's Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture, co-editor of Jews and the City of Vienna, 1870-1938, and editor of The Compleat Brahms. A member of the American Philosophical Society, Dr. Botstein has received the Carnegie Corporation Academic Leadership Award, the Award for Distinguished Service to the Arts from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, Harvard University's Centennial Award, and the Austrian Cross of Honour for Science and Art.
 
5Name:  The Honorable Michael Boudin
 Institution:  U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  502. Physicians, Theologians, Lawyers, Jurists, Architects, and Members of Other Professions
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1939
   
 
Since 1992, Michael Boudin has been a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit in Boston, serving as chief judge from 2001 to 2008. After graduating from Harvard College and Harvard Law School, where he served as President of the Harvard Law Review, he clerked for Judge Henry Friendly and then for Justice John Harlan. He practiced law, first as associate and then as partner, at Covington & Burling in Washington, D.C (1965-87); held office as deputy assistant attorney general in the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice (1987-90); and served on the federal district court in Washington, D.C. (1990-92). Since 1982, he has generally taught antitrust law and other subjects part time at Harvard Law School and, in one semester, at University of Pennsylvania Law School. For many years, he served as a member of the Council of the American Law Institute, taking emeritus status at the end of 2009. He is also the author of sundry law journals articles and book reviews.
 
6Name:  Dr. Janet Browne
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Subdivision:  404c
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Janet Browne’s interests range widely over the history of the life sciences and natural history. After a first degree in zoology she studied for a PhD in the history of science at Imperial College London, published as The Secular Ark: Studies in the History of Biogeography (1983). Ever since then she has specialized in Charles Darwin’s work, first as associate editor of the early volumes of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, and more recently as author of a biographical study that integrated Darwin’s science with his life and times. The biography was awarded several prizes, including the James Tait Black award for non-fiction, the WH.Heinemann Prize from the Royal Literary Society, and the Pfizer Prize from the History of Science Society. From 2006 she has been a member of the History of Science Department at Harvard University. She was previously based for many years at the Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University College London.
 
7Name:  Ms. Rosalind Chast
 Institution:  The New Yorker
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  501. Creative Artists
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1954
   
 
Rosalind (Roz) Chast received a BFA at the Rhode Island School of Design. In 1998 she was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Pratt Institute and in 2004 she was given the Museum of Cartoon and Comic Art Festival Award. She is the author and illustrator of Last Resorts, 1979; Unscientific Americans, 1982; Parallel Universes, 1984; Mondo Boxo, 1987; The Four Elements, 1988; Proof of Life on Earth, 1992; The Joy of Being Single, 1992; Childproof, 1997; Rationalizations To Live By, 2002; Weird and Wonderful Words, 2004; The Party, After You Left, 2004; Theories of Everything: Selected, Collected, and Health-Inspected Cartoons 1978-2006, 2006; with Steve Martin, The Alphabet from A to Y With Bonus Letter Z!, 2007; What I Hate: From A to Z, 2011; and Can't We Talk About Something More Pleasant? 2014 (which won the National Book Award in Autobiography). She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2010. Ms. Chast is one of the most gifted cartoonists of her generation. Since 1979 she has been on the staff of The New Yorker, where she has now published more than a thousand cartoons. Her first of many covers for The New Yorker appeared in 1986. Her work also appears in other publications, including Scientific American and Harvard Business Review. If her cartoons have a common denominator it must be that they are very clever and quietly and irresistibly funny. She draws little figures, sometimes inquisitive, sometimes abashed, and most often bewildered. Chast's subjects are usually domestic or family oriented. Her art is deceptively simple; many surprises await the reader who parses carefully the backgrounds against which her figures appear. Her comics reflect a "conspiracy of inanimate objects," an expression she credits to her mother. Her most recent book, Theories of Everything: Selected, Collected, and Health-Inspected Cartoons 1978-2006, offers a splendid review of Chast's work; amusement, with moments of breaking into uncontrollable laughter, is guaranteed.
 
8Name:  Dr. Robin J. H. Clark
 Institution:  University College London
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  102. Chemistry and Chemical Biochemistry
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1935
 Death Date:  December 6, 2018
   
 
Robin Clark’s work employing Raman microscopy changed the thinking of art historians and conservators on much artwork and many archaeological artifacts. His identification of the blue pigment on the priceless Lindisfarne Gospels (715 AD) in the British Library as solely indigo, not lazurite, removed the need for the then (2004) current but improbable proposition that trade in lazurite from Afghanistan to Northumbria existed in 715 AD; in fact we know from Clark’s work that it was not established until more than two centuries later. The identification of key pigments on "Young Woman Seated on a Virginal" provided persuasive evidence consistent with a reattribution of this painting to Vermeer, in consequence of which it was sold in London for 30 million dollars in 2004. However, many Egyptian papyri supposedly worth $3 million each and dating to 1250 BC were easily identified to have been illuminated with at least 7 modern pigments, including copper phthalocyanine blue (first made in Manchester in 1936); they thus proved to be virtually worthless. Robin Clark was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2010. He died in London on December 6, 2018 at the age of 83.
 
9Name:  Dr. Stanislas Dehaene
 Institution:  Collège de France
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  305
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1965
   
 
Stanislas Dehaene was initially trained in mathematics, at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (1984), before receiving his PhD in cognitive psychology at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (1989), under the direction of psycholinguist Jacques Mehler. He simultaneously developed neuronal models of cognitive functions with molecular neurobiologist Jean-Pierre Changeux (1987-present). After a post-doctoral stay with Michael Posner at the University of Oregon, he oriented his research towards the cognitive neuroscience of language and mathematical abilities. His experiments use brain imaging methods to investigate the mechanisms of cognitive functions such as reading, calculation and language processing, with a particular interest for the differences between conscious and non-conscious processing. Since 2005, he teaches at the Collège de France, where he holds the chair of Experimental Cognitive Psychology. He also directs the INSERM-CEA Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit at NeuroSpin in Saclay, just south of Paris -- France’s advanced neuroimaging research center.
 
10Name:  Dr. Avinash K. Dixit
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  3. Social Sciences
 Subdivision:  302. Economics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1944
   
 
Avinash Dixit is the John J. F. Sherrerd ’52 University Professor of Economics at Princeton University. He is also Distinguished Adjunct Professor of Economics at Lingnan University, Hong Kong, and a Senior Research Fellow, Nuffield College, Oxford. His research interests have included microeconomic theory, game theory, international trade, industrial organization, growth and development theories, public economics, political economy, and the new institutional economics. His book publications include Theory of International Trade (with Victor Norman), The Art of Strategy (with Barry Nalebuff), Investment Under Uncertainty (with Robert Pindyck), Games of Strategy (with Susan Skeath), Lawlessness and Economics: Alternative Modes of Governance, and The Making of Economic Policy: A Transaction Cost Politics Perspective. He has also published numerous articles in professional journals and collective volumes. He was President of the Econometric Society in 2001, and of the American Economic Association in 2008. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992, the National Academy of Sciences in 2005, and the American Philosophical Society in 2010, and was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy in 2006. Dixit was born in Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1944, and is a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was educated at St. Xavier’s College (Bombay), Corpus Christi College (Cambridge) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was an assistant professor at the University of California, Berkeley, a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and professor at the University of Warwick, before joining Princeton in 1981. He has held visiting professorships at MIT, and visiting scholar positions at the International Monetary Fund, the London School of Economics, the Institute for International Economic Studies (Stockholm), and the Russell Sage Foundation.
 
11Name:  Dr. Jack E. Dixon
 Institution:  University of California, San Diego
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  201. Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1943
   
 
Jack E. Dixon is a leading American biochemist, born in Nashville, Tennessee on June 16, 1943. He is currently Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology, Cellular & Molecular Medicine, and Chemistry & Biochemistry at the University of California, San Diego. He also served as Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer from 2007 to 2013. Dixon's laboratory has pioneered the study of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the enzymes that remove phosphate from proteins. His work on the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes included the demonstration that they function via a novel cysteine-phosphate intermediate. In an unexpected development, Dixon also showed that the bacterium responsible for the plague or "black death", Yersinia pestis, harbors the most active PTPase ever described. Dixon, in collaboration with Stanley Falkow, went on to demonstrate that this PTPase is essential for pathogenesis. In fact, this PTPase functions as a "lethal weapon" which is "injected" into mammalian cells to block the immune response. This was the first conclusive demonstration of a widely used strategy for pathogenic bacteria to disarm the host immune system. Dixon's interest in phosphatases led his laboratory to determine the function of the tumor suppressor protein, PTEN, which shares sequence identity with the PTPases. Although most PTPases function to dephosphorylate phosphoproteins, PTEN dephosphorylates a lipid, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP33). The loss of the PTEN gene elevates PIP3 levels causing cells to survive and become oncogenic. The insightful determination of how PTEN functions has radically altered thinking about this tumor suppressor gene. Jack Dixon has received numerous awards including the Michigan Scientist of the Year, the William Rose and Merck Award from the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Jack Dixon is married to Claudia M. Kent, a retired professor of Biological Chemistry. Dr. Kent is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
 
12Name:  Dr. Jean-Michel Dubernard
 Institution:  Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1; E. Herriot Hospital; French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de Santé)
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  204. Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and Immunology
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Jean-Michel Dubernard is a surgeon in the Department of Urology and Transplantation Surgery at E. Herriot Hospital in Lyon. He is also a former Deputy Mayor of Lyon and a former member of the French National Assembly. Dr. Dubernard attended medical school in Lyon. He then served as a Research Fellow with Joseph Murray at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital (1965-1967) in Boston. Dr. Dubernard received his Docteur en Medecine from Lyon University in 1967. He subsequently received his Docteur en Biologie Humaine in Transplantation Immunology in 1971. As a surgeon, Dr. Dubernard is an important pioneer. His research interests continue to lie in experimental surgery, clinical transplantation (especially renal transplantation in children), medical technology, general urology, renal and pancreatic lithotripsy, endoscopy of the upper urinary tract investigations of male impotence, vascular surgery and microsurgery. In 1998 he led the international team that performed the world’s first modern hand-forearm transplant and in 2005 Dr. Dubernard's team performed the world’s first partial face transplant. Dr. Dubernard is the President of the International Hand and Composite Tissue Allografts, as well as the Founder and President of the European College of Transplantation. Since 1980 he has been a member of the European Society for Organ Transplantation’s Founding Council. Dr. Dubernard was President of the International Microsurgical Society (1984-1986), President of the Société Française de Transplantation (1991-1994), and President of the International Pancreatic and Islet Transplant Association (1996-1997). His work has more than 400 scientific references in the form of articles, chapters of books, books, and films. In 2008 Dr. Dubernard received the Medawar Prize, the highest award of the International Transplantation Society.
 
13Name:  Dr. Zachary Fisk
 Institution:  University of California, Irvine
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  106. Physics
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1941
   
 
Following an undergraduate physics major at Harvard, I trained with Bernd Matthias at the then new University of California, San Diego, graduating in 1969. After a post doctoral year at Imperial College with Bryan Coles and a year as assistant professor at the University of Chicago, I returned as a research physicist to San Diego and spent the next decade in research on new superconducting and magnetic materials. In 1981, I went to Los Alamos National Laboratory as a staff member with the idea to study the f-electron physics of actinides from a materials driven standpoint. There followed the discovery of so-called heavy Fermion superconductivity in UBe13 and UPt3, the first examples known in this class of superconducting materials after their original discovery of in CeCu2Si2 by Steglich. These materials provided the first convincing evidence of a non-BCS and hence non-trivial superconducting order which has since been found in materials such as the high Tc cuprates. This research on superconductivity at the remarkably fertile boundary with magnetism has been my main research focus and has continued at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee (1994 - 2004) and then at the Universities of California at Davis and now Irvine. A long standing amateur interest has been investigating the Gallina Culture of northern New Mexico. These people occupied hundreds of square miles in canyons and on high mesas along the continental divide in small, often highly defensive, villages over several centuries before vanishing in the late 13th century. My interest has been in trying to understand the physical layout of sites, many of which are well removed from food and water sources.
 
14Name:  Dr. Wolfgang F. Fruehwald
 Institution:  Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation; Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  5. The Arts, Professions, and Leaders in Public & Private Affairs
 Subdivision:  503. Administrators, Bankers and Opinion Leaders from the Public or Private Sectors
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Deceased
 Birth Date:  1935
 Death Date:  January 18, 2019
   
 
Wolfgang Fruehwald died on January 18, 2019 in Augsburg, Germany at the age of 83. Below is a biographical essay he wrote following his election to the American Philosophical Society in 2010. Augsburg, where I was born in August 1935, is a city in the Swabian part of Bavaria with about 250,000 residents. Thus, until today I speak with a Swabian accent. I grew up in a small family of four persons, father, mother and my brother who is four years my senior. We lived in a small green suburb, called "garden-town," that means we had a big garden with flowers, fruits and vegetables, and a huge forest was nearby. When I was four years old, the world turned into fire and war. The Nazis started the Second World War, and some years later my school was bombed. But as luck would have it our family survived. In April 1945, peace was a brand new experience for me. It was a godsend that the following decades, the decades of my life as a boy and a man, are the longest periods of peace which Europe ever experienced in modern history. In autumn 1945, the schools were reopened. I went to high school and studied Latin, Greek, English, a little bit of French and Hebrew. When I received my high school-diploma in 1954 I was 19 years old. My fiancée, Victoria Schwarzkopf, was my classmate in the last classes of high school. We married four years later and are lucky enough to have now been married for more than 50 years. We have five children, two daughters and three sons (also three daughters in law), and 11 grandchildren. In 1954, when I began to study at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, I was an outsider in my family. I studied German Language and Literature, History, Geography and Philosophy to become a high school-teacher in Bavaria. My grandfather and my father were railway employees in Germany. My brother chose the same career. In 1958, I received my first university degree (Staatsexamen) and was appointed assistant professor at the Institute of German Philology at Munich University. I received my Ph.D. in 1961, with a dissertation about medieval sermons from the 13th century, in 1969 I received the postdoctorate qualification (Habilitation) with a book about the German poet Clemens Brentano. My first appointment as full professor of History of German Literature was in 1970 at the University Trier-Kaiserslautern. In 1974, I accepted an offer for a chair at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich. I declined offers from the University of Augsburg (1973) and the Free University of Berlin (1985). In 1985, I accepted an invitation as Distinguished Max Kade Visiting Professor at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. In 1984, when I was elected a member and four years later chairman of a reviewers committee (Fachausschuss) of the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft), a busy period began in my life. Working for nongovernmental organizations of science and scholarship in Germany, Austria, Israel and the European Union I met very experienced colleagues and learned something new every day. It is not possible to enumerate all the functions and appointments which I had in science policy, science management and science organizations during more than twenty years. But, in addition to my chair at an institute with more than 6,000 students, my work for the German Research Association and the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation were the main obligations which I held. I was elected a member of the senate and the grants committee of the German Research Association in 1986. In 1991, I was elected and 1994 reelected President of Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. After six years in office (two terms, 1991 - 1997) I returned to my chair in Munich. In 1999, I was elected President of the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation. The foundation has alumni-clubs in more than 50 countries of the world. During the eight years of my presidency (1999 - 2007) I visited 32 of them on different continents, in Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, in the United States, in Canada and in some countries of South America. I travelled once or twice every year around the world and I met new and old members of the worldwide Humboldt-Family. Looking back at 45 years as a scholar and a science manager I am very grateful that in many difficult situations and in each country which I visited I found collaborators, members and friends of the big science community which gave me the confidence that we are together able to increase the quality of life. Since 2003, I have been Professor Emeritus, since 2008 Honorary President of the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation.
 
15Name:  Dr. Fred H. Gage
 Institution:  Salk Institute for Biological Studies
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  208. Plant Sciences
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1950
   
 
Fred H. Gage received his Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins University in 1976. He is president and professor in the Laboratory of Genetics at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, and Vi and John Adler Chair for Research on Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. In January 2019 the the Board of Trustees of the Salk Institute coted to extend his term as President through 2024. Gage's work concentrates on the adult central nervous system and unexpected plasticity and adaptability to environmental stimulation that remains throughout the life of all mammals. His work may lead to methods of replacing or enhancing brain and spinal cord tissues lost or damaged due to Neurodegenerative disease or trauma. Gage's lab showed that, contrary to accepted dogma, human beings are capable of growing new nerve cells throughout life. Small populations of immature nerve cells are found in the adult mammalian brain, a process called Neurogenesis. Gage is working to understand how these cells can be induced to become mature functioning nerve cells in the adult brain and spinal cord. They showed that environmental enrichment and physical exercise can enhance the growth of new brain cells and they are studying the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that may be harnessed to repair the aged and damaged brain and spinal cord. Several of his numerous prizes and awards include the IPSEN Prize for Neuroplasticity, the Charles A. Dana Award, Metropolitan Life Research Award, the Keio Medical Science Prize, and the ARCS Scientist of the Year award. He is President of the International Society for Stem Cell Research. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a Member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; an Associate Member of the European Molecular Biology Organization. He was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2010.
 
16Name:  Dr. Philip D. Gingerich
 Institution:  University of Michigan
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1946
   
 
Philip Gingerich is Ermine Cowles Case Professor of Paleontology and Professor of Geological Sciences, Biology, and Anthropology at the University of Michigan. Dr. Gingerich received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1974 and joined the University of Michigan faculty the same year. He has been director of the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology since 1981. Dr. Gingerich studies evolutionary history in the context of environmental change, focusing on the Paleocene-Eocene transition 55 million years ago, the diversification of primates, and the evolution of whales from land to sea. He has directed more than 50 empirical field expeditions in Egypt, Pakistan, and Wyoming. His Egyptian study area at Wadi Hitan is now a UNESCO world heritage site. Dr. Gingerich developed methods for quantifying and comparing evolutionary rates, unifying our understanding that evolution is fast and populations change rapidly in response to natural selection. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2001), recipient of the André Dumont Medal of the Belgian Geological Society (2005), the recipient of the Romer-Simpson Medal of the Societ of Vertebrate Paleontology (2012), and was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 2010.
 
17Name:  Dr. William Timothy Gowers
 Institution:  University of Cambridge & Trinity College
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  104. Mathematics
 Residency:  International
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1963
   
 
Early in his career, Timothy Gowers did outstanding work in abstract Banach space theory, a theory which involves sets which are operators or functions. In a series of brilliant papers, he solved several long-standing problems, introducing extensive use of methods from combinatorial number theory. One of his surprising results is the construction of a Banach space with almost no symmetry. He is now better known to the broad mathematical community by his later work in combinatorial number theory. His very original ideas (for example "Gowers norms"), led to a new proof of Szmeredi's theorem, which concerns the occurrence of arithmetic progressions in sets of integers. His ideas have led to many breakthroughs in the field, in particular concerning the occurrence of arithmetic progressions in the primes (a longstanding conjecture of Erdos and now a theorem of Gowers’ students Ben Green and Terry Tao.) He continues to lead the research in this combinatorial number theory, which is now having impact on and benefiting computer science. Gowers has also put much effort into bringing mathematics to the public in his writing which includes his book Mathematics: A Very Short Introduction (2002) and his many public lectures. He recently organized the writing of The Princeton Companion to Mathematics (2008). This is a book of over 1,000 pages, incorporating sections by over 100 of the world's best mathematicians. It is aimed at giving anyone with some undergraduate training in mathematics a taste of current knowledge in all of modern mathematics. This kind of contribution, by one of the world's leading researchers at the height of his productive years, is very unusual.
 
18Name:  Dr. B. Rosemary Grant
 Institution:  Princeton University
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  2. Biological Sciences
 Subdivision:  203. Evolution & Ecology, Systematics, Population Genetics, Paleontology, and Physical Anthropology
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1936
   
 
Rosemary Grant is interested in the Darwinian problem of explaining how new species arise. In 1973 she and her husband Peter began a long-term and continuing study of the adaptive radiation of Darwin’s finches on the Galápagos Islands. Her research combines studies of archipelago-wide patterns of evolution with detailed investigations of ecological, behavioral and genetic mechanisms of change on the two islands of Genovesa and Daphne. This work has been published in numerous scientific papers and two books, the most recent being How and Why Species Multiply (Princeton University Press 2008). Rosemary Grant was initially trained at the University of Edinburgh, received a PhD from Uppsala University in Sweden, and was Senior Research Scholar with rank of Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at Princeton University. She is now emeritus. She has also shared numerous awards with her husband, fellow evolutionary ecologist Peter Grant. These include the Academy of Natural Science's Leidy Medal (1994), the E.O. Wilson Prize of the American Society of Naturalists (1998), the Darwin Medal for Evolutionary Biology (2003), the A.I.B.S. Outstanding Scientist Award (2005), the Balzan Prize in Population Biology (2005), the Linnean Society of London's Darwin-Wallace Medal (2008), the Kyoto Prize from the Inamori Foundation (2009), the Royal Medal in Biology from the Royal Society of London (2017), and the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award (2017).
 
19Name:  Dr. Jeffrey Hamburger
 Institution:  Harvard University
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  4. Humanities
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1957
   
 
Professor Hamburger's teaching and research focus on the art of the High and later Middle Ages. Among his areas of special interest are medieval manuscript illumination, text-image issues, the history of attitudes towards imagery and visual experience, and German vernacular religious writing of the Middle Ages, especially in the context of mysticism. Beginning with his dissertation on the Rothschild Canticles (Yale, 1987), much of his scholarship has focused on the art of female monasticism, a program of research that culminated in 2005 in an international exhibition, Krone und Schleier (Crown and Veil) that was sponsored by the German government and held jointly in Bonn and Essen. An English translation of the essays in the exhibition catalog was published by Columbia University Press in 2008. His current research includes a project that seeks to integrate digital technology into the study and presentation of liturgical manuscripts, a study of narrative imagery in late medieval German prayer books and a major international exhibition on German manuscript illumination in the age of Gutenberg. The recipient of numerous awards, including fellowships from the John S. Guggenheim Foundation, the American Philosophical Society, the NEH, and the Humboldt-Stiftung, Prof. Hamburger was elected a Fellow of the Medieval Academy of America in 2001 and a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in 2009. He serves on numerous advisory boards, among them, those of the German Manuscript Cataloguing Centers, the Europäisches Romanikzentrum, the Centre International de Codicologie, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, Brussels, and the Katalog der deutschsprachigen illustrierten Handschriften des Mittelalters, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich. He is currently Chair of Harvard's Medieval Studies Committee. In addition to numerous articles, Prof. Hamburger's books include: The Mind's Eye: Art and Theological Argument in the Medieval West , co-edited with Anne-Marie Bouché (Princeton: Department of Art & Archaeology, Princeton University, Princeton University Press, 2005); Die Ottheinrich-Bibel. Kommentar zur Faksimile-Ausgabe der Handschrift Cgm 8010/1.2 der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München co-authored with Brigitte Gullath, Karin Schneider, & Robert Suckale (Luzern: Faksimile-Verlag, 2002); St. John the Divine: The Deified Evangelist in Medieval Art and Theology (Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2002); The Visual and the Visionary: Art and Female Spirituality in Late Medieval Germany (New York: Zone Books, 1998), awarded the Charles Rufus Morey Prize of the College Art Association and the Roland H. Bainton Book Prize in Art & Music; Nuns as Artists: The Visual Culture of a Medieval Convent (Berkeley-Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1996, awarded the Jacques Barzun Prize in Cultural History of the American Philosophical Society and the Otto Gründler Prize of the International Congress of Medieval Studies; and The Rothschild Canticles : Art and Mysticism in Flanders and the Rhineland circa 1300 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), awarded the Arlt Award in the Humanities by the Council of Graduate Schools and the John Nicholas Brown Prize of the Medieval Academy of America. His most recent book, Leaves from Paradise: The Cult of John at the Dominican Convent of Paradies bei Soest , Houghton Library Studies, vol. 2 (Cambridge: Houghton Library, distributed by Harvard University Press), was published in 2008. Prof. Hamburger holds both his B.A. and Ph.D. in art history from Yale University . He previously held teaching positions at Oberlin College and the University of Toronto. He has been a guest professor in Zurich, Paris, Oxford and Fribourg, Switzerland. In 2015 he was awarded the Anneliese Maier Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung Foundation.
 
20Name:  Dr. Anita K. Jones
 Institution:  University of Virginia
 Year Elected:  2010
 Class:  1. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
 Subdivision:  107
 Residency:  Resident
 Living? :   Living
 Birth Date:  1942
   
 
Anita Jones, who is now University Professor Emerita at the University of Virginia, is a computer scientist who has made significant contributions to national science and engineering policy. Her technical work focuses on protection mechanisms and secure systems that make guarantees about how information is used. Her current focus is survivable information systems and interactive, distributed computer simulation for training, analysis, and entertainment. In June 1993, when she was appointed the Director of Defense Research and Engineering for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), she assumed responsibility for the management of the DoD's Science and Technology Program, including responsibility for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and oversight of the DoD laboratories. Her duties also incorporated being the principal advisor to the Secretary of Defense for defense-related scientific and technical matters. As Director, she served in one of the nation's top technical positions and oversaw the largest defense research and development organization in the world. Jones focused the DoD program to ensure military and national preeminence in important strategic technologies while expanding the program's scope and the speed at which technology was developed and transitioned into use. Dr. Jones received her Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University in 1973, joining their faculty that same year. In 1988 she moved to the University of Virginia, serving as professor and department head. She is the author of numerous papers, as well as Foundations of Secure Computation (with R. De Millo, et al, 1978). She is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, and was elected to membership in the American Philosophical Society in 2010. In 2011, the National Academy of Engineering presented her with the Arthur M. Bueche Award.
 
Election Year
2010[X]
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