Resources in Early American History
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Abolition, emancipation, freedom (1)
Abolitionists -- United States -- Attitudes (1)
Adena culture -- West Virginia (1)
African American churches -- United States (1)
Agriculture (2)
Agriculture -- United States. (1)
American Philosophical Society (2)
Animal magnetism. (1)
Animals -- Habits and behavior of (1)
Anishinaabe (3)
Arctic Indians (1)
Astronomy -- 18th century (1)
Astronomy. (1)
Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Birds of America (1)
Autopsy. (1)
Aztecs. (1)
Banks and banking -- United States -- History -- 19th century. (1)
Banks and banking -- United States. (1)
Barns. (1)
Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pa.) (1)
Bible - Criticism, interpretation, etc. (1)
Biology, genetics, eugenics (1)
Birds -- Migration -- United States. (1)
Birds -- North America (1)
Birds -- Study and teaching (1)
Birds. (2)
Botanical gardens -- France. (1)
Botanists (1)
Botanists. (1)
Botany (4)
Botany -- England. (1)
Botany -- Europe. (1)
Botany -- France. (1)
Botany -- Mexico (1)
Botany -- New York (State) (1)
Botany -- North America. (2)
Botany -- Pennsylvania. (1)
Botany -- Study and teaching -- 19th century (1)
Botany -- United States. (1)
Botany -- Virginia (1)
Botany. (6)
Boundaries, State. (3)
Canals. (1)
Cayuga Indians (1)
Chemistry (2)
Chemistry -- 18th century (1)
Cherokee Indians (2)
Cherokee language (1)
Choctaw Indians (2)
Cholic Acid (1)
 Author:  AnonymousRequires cookie*
 Title:  Electrologia, ca. 1785     
 Dates:  Circa 1785 
 Abstract:  This Italian language notebook contains a range of information on scientific information, especially information pertaining to electrical experiments. It was likely written in the late-18th century and contains references to Benjamin Franklin and Joseph Priestley. The manuscript, likely kept by an Italian, provides insight into the transmission of knowledge in the broader Atlantic World.

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 Call #:  Mss.537.EL23 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Natural history 
 Genre:  Educational Material | Foreign Language | Scientific Data 
 Subjects:  Electricity -- Early works to 1850. | Electricity -- Experiments -- History. | Science and technology 
 Author:  Audubon, John James, 1785-1851Requires cookie*
 Title:  John James Audubon Papers     
 Dates:  1821-1845 
 Abstract:  This fairly large collection (over 200 letters) of John James Audubon material consists primarily of John's correspondence with his wife Lucy and son Victor. The collection shows a personal side of Audubon who kept his wife and son informed of all aspects of his work and travels. The letters to his wife – "my dearest friend" – are particularly affectionate and open.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.Au25 
 Extent:  0.75 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Literature, Arts, and Culture | Natural history | Printing and Publishing | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Art | Business Records and Accounts | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Birds -- North America | Natural history -- North America | Naturalist | Ornithologist | Ornithology -- North America 
 Author:  Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815Requires cookie*
 Title:  Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection     
 Dates:  1783-1817 
 Abstract:  The extensive Benjamin Smith Barton collection contains six sections: Correspondence, Bound Volumes (including notebooks), Subject Files, and Graphic Materials. The material includes numerous images, sketches, notes, printed material, and other correspondence. The collection also has numerous copper plates that were used to print images drawn by Barton. Although a collection this large touches on a variety of interesting and important subjects, the collection's strength is its wealth of data on nineteenth century medical, botanical, and Native American studies.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B284d 
 Extent:  10 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Education | Language and Linguistics | Literature, Arts, and Culture | Medicine | Native America | Natural history | Printing and Publishing | Science and technology | Travel 
 Genre:  Art | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Language Material | Notebooks | Political Correspondence | Sketchbooks | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pa.) | Botanists | Botany -- Study and teaching -- 19th century | Botany -- Virginia | Chemistry -- 18th century | Cherokee Indians | Cherokee language | Choctaw Indians | Dysentery. | Electricity -- 18th century | Ethnobotany | Geology -- 18th century | Gout | Indians of North America | Indians of North America -- Agriculture | Indians of North America -- Languages | Kaigana Indians | Kaskaskia Indians | Mammals -- Classification | Mandan Indians | Mastodons | Materia medica | Medicine -- Practice -- 18th century | Medicine -- Study and teaching -- 18th century | Meteorology -- United States -- 18th century | Meteors | Mineralogy | Natural history -- 18th century | Natural history -- 19th century | Osage language | Physicians -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia | Physics | Rittenhouse, David, 1732-1796 | Seminole Indians | Seneca Indians | Tuscarora Indians | University of Pennsylvania -- Faculty | Venereal disease | Yellow fever | Yellow fever -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- 1793 | Zoology -- 18th century 
 Author:  Bartram, John, 1699-1777Requires cookie*
 Title:  Collinson-Bartram Papers, 1732-1773     
 Dates:  1732-1773 
 Abstract:  While the APS has a number of Collinson collections on microfilm, it primary source holdings contain only thirty-seven letters written to Peter Collinson. The majority of the letters discuss natural history. There is a letter written about the culture of bathing in Wales in the 1730s. There is also extended correspondence between Collinson and Lady Petre on the botanical gardens on the Petre's estate and a series of letters from Spanish officials in the Caribbean relaying information to Collinson. There is also notable amount of correspondence between Collinson and various nobility discussing horticultural issues.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692.1 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Gardening -- England. | Gardens -- England. | Horticulture -- England. | Horticulture -- United States. | Plants, Cultivated. | Seed industry and trade -- England. | Seed industry and trade -- United States. 
 Author:  Bartram, John, 1699-1777Requires cookie*
 Title:  John Bartram correspondence, 1735-1775     
 Dates:  1735-1775 
 Abstract:  The John Bartram Collection consists of typed transcriptions of originals held at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The transcripts take up two volumes and are extensive.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B28.w 
 Extent:  719 item(s) 
 Topics:  Colony and State Specific History | Natural history | Pennsylvania History | Philadelphia History 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Botanists. | Botany. | Horticulture. | Horticulturists. | Natural history. | Plant collectors. | Plants -- Collection and preservation. 
 Author:  Bartram, William, 1739-1823Requires cookie*
 Title:  William Bartram meteorological diary, January 1, 1790 - September 13, 1791     
 Dates:  1790-1791 
 Abstract:  The William Bartram meteorological diary is part of the Barton collection. It is a small journal that contains weather records for Philadelphia, 1790-1791.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B284.d.vol.15 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Meteorological Data 
 Subjects:  Ice on rivers, lakes, etc. -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia. | Icing (Meteorology) -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia. | Meteorology -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Observations. | Weather. 
 Author:  Beccaria, Giambatista, 1716-1781Requires cookie*
 Title:  Ex Phisicis Institutionibus, 1769     
 Dates:  1769 
 Abstract:  Giovanni Battista Beccaria was a leading scientist in eighteenth century Italy. In addition to the manuscript collection, the APS also has a bound handwritten volume of Beccaria entitled Ex Phisics Institutionibus. This volume has the feel of a textbook with chapters on different subjects, most dealing with electricity. The back of the book contains fourteen plates. These plates contain diagrams on weights and measures, mechanics, astronomy, and mathematics.

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 Call #:  Mss.537.B38exp 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Educational Material | Foreign Language | Manuscript Essays | Scientific Data 
 Subjects:  Copernican system | Cosmography. | Education | Electricity -- Early works to 1850. | Electricity -- Experiments. | Mathematics -- Research -- Italy. | Physics -- Research -- Italy. 
 Author:  Bonaparte, Charles Lucian, 1803-1857Requires cookie*
 Title:  Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte letters, 1825-1857     
 Dates:  1825-1857 
 Abstract:  The Charles Lucien Bonaparte collection is noteworthy for its ornithological content and for the exchanges with William Cooper, a fellow ornithologist who had a large collection of bird specimens. The majority of the correspondence surrounds Bonaparte's American Ornithology. The letters are all from Bonaparte to Cooper. Their content shows Cooper to be an engaged and active ornithologist who provided Bonaparte with critical advice on his proofs. Copper founded the Lyceum of Natural History in New York and studied zoology in Europe. He is credited with helping edit Bonaparte's last two works. Bonaparte, for his part, repaid his friend by naming a new species of hawk Cooper's Hawk.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B642.1.7 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Literature, Arts, and Culture | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Learned institutions and societies. | Ornithology. | Science -- Societies, etc. 
 Author:  Bruno, M. deRequires cookie*
 Title:  Essai metaphysique, physique et phisiologistique relativement à la découverte de M. Mesmer, 1786     
 Dates:  1786 
 Abstract:  This is a handwritten essay on Franz Mesmer and his claims to have healing and other metaphysical powers. Mesmer is today thought of as an early user of hypnosis. Throughout the 1770s and 1780s, he captivated French society. Marie Antoinette was particularly interested in his abilities. Finally, King Louis convened a scientific body in 1784 to examine the claims of Mesmer and his disciples. Benjamin Franklin, still in France as an American envoy, headed the committee, which debunked Mesmerism. The report can be found in the Papers of Benjamin Franklin and in the Diary of Benjamin Franklin Bache, both of which are at the APS.

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 Call #:  Mss.134.B83 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Medicine | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Manuscript Essays 
 Subjects:  Animal magnetism. | Hypnotism. | Mesmerism. 
 Author:  Bunbury, Charles James Fox, Sir, 1809-1886Requires cookie*
 Title:  Sir Charles James Fox Bunbury papers, 1845-1852     
 Dates:  1845-1852 
 Abstract:  The Charles Bunbury Collection contains a wealth of information on fossils. Sir Charles Bunbury was a nineteenth century geologist and paleontologist. The majority of the documents in collection are Bunbury's own notes on the subject of fossils. These very detailed notes contain a wealth of information on fossil finds and can provide insight into the prevailing ideas and debates about fossil remains. The collection includes a range of material, including a draft of an essay on algae, reports and analysis of important fossil finds, and reviews and notes on recent publications. The collection also includes a number of Bunbury's private notebooks in which he describes fossils he has seen or read about in great detail, thus giving modern researchers access to information on remains that may no longer be in existence.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B88 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Manuscript Essays | Notebooks | Scientific Data | Sketchbooks 
 Subjects:  Fossil fuels -- Pennsylvania. | Mineralogy | Paleobotany -- Germany -- Aachen. | Paleobotany -- Nova Scotia -- Cape Breton Island. | Paleobotany -- Pennsylvania. 
 Author:  Byrd, William, 1674-1744Requires cookie*
 Title:  The history of the dividing line between Virginia and North Carolina, 1728     
 Dates:  1728 
 Abstract:  The collection of William Byrd's writings consists of two leather bound, handwritten copies of Byrd's History of the Dividing Line Run in the Year 1728 (Mss.975.5.B99h) and A Secret History of the Dividing Line (Mss.975.5.B99s). The former was likely written for public audiences and contains the details of drawing the lines, interactions with Indians, observations of the flora and fauna of the area, the health and culture of settlers, and the official actions of the commissioners. Byrd regularly wrote Peter Collinson, an English scientist, about his journal and his hope that it would be of interest and benefit to a wide audience. The Secret History, on the other hand, contains a wealth of the more personal, private, and often humorous anecdotes of the trip. Neither manuscript was published in Byrd's lifetime, although both were eventually published.

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 Call #:  Mss.975.5.B99h 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Colony and State Specific History | Exploration. | Native America | Natural history | Surveying and Maps 
 Genre:  Manuscript Essays | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Boundaries, State. 
 Author:  Byrd, William, 1674-1744Requires cookie*
 Title:  The secret history of the line between Virginia and North Carolina, [1728]     
 Dates:  Circa 1728 
 Abstract:  The collection of William Byrd's writings consists of two leather bound, handwritten copies of Byrd's History of the Dividing Line Run in the Year 1728 (Mss.975.5.B99h) and A Secret History of the Dividing Line (Mss.975.5.B99s). The former was likely written for public audiences and contains the details of drawing the lines, interactions with Indians, observations of the flora and fauna of the area, the health and culture of settlers, and the official actions of the commissioners. Byrd regularly wrote Peter Collinson, an English scientist, about his journal and his hope that it would be of interest and benefit to a wide audience. The Secret History, on the other hand, contains a wealth of the more personal, private, and often humorous anecdotes of the trip. Neither manuscript was published in Byrd's lifetime, although both were eventually published.

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 Call #:  Mss.975.5.B99s 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Colony and State Specific History | Exploration. | Land and Speculation | Natural history | Surveying and Maps 
 Genre:  Manuscript Essays | Maps and Surveys | Official Government Documents and Records | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Boundaries, State. 
 Author:  Cercle des PhiladelphesRequires cookie*
 Title:  Cercle des Philadelphes du Cap François Collection     
 Dates:  1784-1787 
 Abstract:  This collection contains records of the Haitian science society called the Cercle des Philadelphes. The collection is small, containing only seven documents, and most of these are certificates. There are two addresses made by Louis Narcisse Baudry de Lozières, the president of the society, that might be of interest to historians of science. MOLE contains a detailed description and inventory of the collection.

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 Call #:  Mss.506.7294.C33.1 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Miscellaneous 
 Subjects:  Learned institutions and societies -- Saint Domingue 
 Author:  Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768Requires cookie*
 Title:  Peter Collinson letters, [ca. 1740]-1770     
 Dates:  1740-1770 
 Abstract:  The APS has a number of Collinson collections on microfilm. Its primary source holdings contain approximately thirty-seven letters written to Peter Collinson, a prominent figure in the eighteenth century British scientific community. Because of his networks in trade and science, he served as an important node in the conveyance of knowledge throughout the Atlantic World.The majority of the letters involve discussions of natural history. The letters offer a range of correspondence. There is a letter written about the culture of bathing in Wales in the 1730s to extended correspondence between Collinson and Lady Petre on the botanical gardens on the Petre's estate, and a series of letters from Spanish officials in the Caribbean relaying information to Collinson. There is also a notable amount of correspondence between Collinson and various nobility discussing horticultural issues.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Natural history. 
 Author:  Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768Requires cookie*
 Title:  Peter Collinson transcripts, 1721-1768     
 Dates:  1721-1768 
 Abstract:  The Peter Collinson Collection contains copies of correspondence directed primarily to Collinson's North American contacts, especially those based in Pennsylvania. His correspondents include members of the Penn family and Benjamin Franklin. The letters discuss current affairs, politics, and scientific matters.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692a 
 Extent:  0.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Colonial Politics | Natural history 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Author:  Coxe, John Redman, 1773-1864Requires cookie*
 Title:  Observations & remarks tending to explain certain parts of the sacred scriptures, 1812-1813     
 Dates:  1812-1813 
 Abstract:  John Redman Coxe was a premier physician in nineteenth century America best known for his work in medicine as a physician, teacher, and author. The John Redman Coxe Collection shows a different side of Coxe. The APS Collection is a bound, handwritten essay by Coxe entitled, "Observations and Remarks Tending to Explain Certain Parts of the Sacred Scriptures, 1812-1813." This fascinating and often-sophisticated volume deals with various arguments put forward by skeptics that challenge the accuracy of the Bible, with particular attention paid to Genesis. Coxe then offers his own rebuttal or the rebuttal of others. Coxe frequently challenges prevailing translations of Hebrew words, believing that more accurate definitions can sometimes solve confusion or controversy. Although the work was never published, it does offer insight into the types of debates about the Bible accessible to Americans in the nineteenth century.

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 Call #:  Mss.220.2.C836 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Natural history | Religion | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Manuscript Essays 
 Subjects:  Bible - Criticism, interpretation, etc. 
 Author:  Cutler, Manasseh, 1742-1823Requires cookie*
 Title:  Manasseh Cutler papers, 1787-1806     
 Dates:  1787-1806 
 Abstract:  The Mannasseh Cutler Collection contains photocopies of Cutler correspondence to prominent scientists in the early republic (1787-1806). Correspondents include Benjamin Smith Barton and Henry Muhlenberg.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C974m 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Botany -- England. | Botany -- Europe. | Botany -- United States. | Zoology -- England. | Zoology -- Europe. | Zoology -- United States. 
 Author:  Denke, Christian Frederick,177Requires cookie*
 Title:  Letters, 1798-1811, to Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst (Henry) Muhlenberg     
 Dates:  1798-1811 
 Abstract:  The APS has approximately nineteen letters written between Christian Denke and Gothilff Muhlenberg, one of the sons of Henry Muhlenberg. Gothilff followed his father's calling and was a prominent religious and cultural leader. Muhlenberg served as a pastor of Lutheran Church in Lancaster and became a prominent educator, serving as President of Franklin College – now Franklin and Marshall. The APS has a large amount of Muhlenberg's papers, including a large and detailed collection of his journals from the early republic; all of which are in German or occasionally Latin. Muhlenberg had a keen interest in natural history, especially botany, and much of his work is detailed in these journals, as are regular daily activities. The Denke correspondence is part of this larger collection of Muhlenberg papers.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.M89.d 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Religion 
 Genre:  Foreign Language 
 Subjects:  Botany. | Herbaria. 
 Author:  Evans, David, 1681-1751Requires cookie*
 Title:  Aliquot rudimenta philosophiae sive pauca introductoria compendia, technologiae, logicae, rhetoricae et physicae     
 Dates:  1747 
 Abstract:  Written in Latin, this essay on natural philosophy written by Pennsylvania minister David Evans in 1747 reflects his broad knowledge of natural history. Please see the entire MOLE entry for a more detailed summary of the volume's content.

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 Call #:  Mss.509.Ev5 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Education | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Educational Material | Foreign Language | Manuscript Essays | Scientific Data 
 Subjects:  Logic -- Early work to 1800 | Natural theology -- Early works to 1800 | Physics -- Early work to 1800 | Religion and science | Rhetoric -- Early work to 1800 
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