Resources in Early American History
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Abolition, emancipation, freedom (3)
Admiralty -- United States (1)
African American churches -- United States (1)
Agricultural colleges -- Pennsylvania. (1)
Agriculture (1)
Agriculture -- United States. (1)
American Philosophical Society (2)
Americans -- China -- Social life and customs. (1)
Antislavery movements -- Pennsylvania (1)
Apprentices -- Pennsylvania. (1)
Art -- United States. (1)
Aurora (Philadelphia, Pa.) (1)
Balloons -- Early works to 1800 (1)
Bankruptcy -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia. (1)
Banks and banking -- Equipment and supplies. (1)
Banks and banking -- United States -- History -- 19th century. (1)
Banks and banking -- United States. (1)
Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pa.) (1)
Bees. (1)
Birds -- North America (1)
Blasting, Submarine (1)
Blowpipe. (1)
Bonds -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia. (1)
Book industries and trade -- Pennsylvania. (1)
Bookbinding (1)
Botanists (1)
Botany -- Study and teaching -- 19th century (1)
Botany -- Virginia (1)
Brewing industry -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- Accounting. (1)
British -- China -- Social life and customs -- 1644-1912. (1)
Business and politics -- Pennsylvania. (1)
Canals -- Belgium. (1)
Canals -- Design and construction. (1)
Canals -- England. (1)
Canals -- France. (1)
Canals -- Netherlands. (1)
Canals -- New York (State) (1)
Capital punishment. (1)
Carpenters -- Labor unions -- United States. (1)
Carriage and wagon making -- Pennsylvania -- Bucks County (1)
Chemical apparatus (1)
Chemistry (1)
Chemistry -- 18th century (1)
Chemists -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia (1)
Cherokee Indians (1)
Cherokee language (1)
Choctaw Indians (1)
Civil engineering -- United States. (1)
Commerce. (2)
Court calendars -- Pennsylvania. (1)
 Author:  Aitken, Jane, 1764-1832Requires cookie*
 Title:  Jane Aitken Papers     
 Dates:  1784-1814 
 Abstract:  This collection consists of Aitken family papers and correspondence. The bulk of the collection relates to Jane Aitken's life and dates from 1800 to 1814, the height of Jane Aitken's business career. Much of the correspondence is between Aitken and John Vaughan, a wealthy Philadelphia merchant who served as Jane's investor and benefactor when she fell on hard times.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.Ai9 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Philadelphia History | Printing and Publishing | Women's History 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts 
 Subjects:  American Philosophical Society | Bookbinding | Finance, Personal | Printers -- Pennsylvania -- History | Printing -- Pennsylvania -- History | Women Printers 
 Author:  AnonymousRequires cookie*
 Title:  Stock certificates, [ca. 1840-1900]     
 Dates:  Circa 1840-1900 
 Abstract:  This collection contains 121 stock and bond certificates for companies, most of which are railroad companies. The bonds are notable for having engraved depictions of locomotives on them. There is also at least one that is signed by Cornelius Vanderbilt. The majority of the certificates date to the late-nineteenth century.

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 Call #:  Mss.385.St6 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades 
 Genre:  Art | Business Records and Accounts 
 Subjects:  Bonds -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia. | Railroad companies. | Stock certificates. 
 Author:  Audubon, John James, 1785-1851Requires cookie*
 Title:  John James Audubon Papers     
 Dates:  1821-1845 
 Abstract:  This fairly large collection (over 200 letters) of John James Audubon material consists primarily of John's correspondence with his wife Lucy and son Victor. The collection shows a personal side of Audubon who kept his wife and son informed of all aspects of his work and travels. The letters to his wife – "my dearest friend" – are particularly affectionate and open.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.Au25 
 Extent:  0.75 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Literature, Arts, and Culture | Natural history | Printing and Publishing | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Art | Business Records and Accounts | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Birds -- North America | Natural history -- North America | Naturalist | Ornithologist | Ornithology -- North America 
 Author:  Azambuja, Jacob Frederico TorlRequires cookie*
 Title:  Memoria sobre o valor das moedas     
 Dates:  1833 
 Abstract:  This bound volume contains an essay Jacob Frederico Torlade Pereira de Azambuja presented to the American Philosophical Society in 1833. Jacob Azambuja was the Portuguese charge d' affaires in the United States from 1829-1834. The essay describes the monetary history and system of Portugal. Presented after Andrew Jackson's election, banking and currency were important political topics at the time. This essay likely reflects the growing interest APS members had in the subject and in understanding alternative systems to the United States. The essay can offer insight into prevalent European ideas about currency and may offer insight into how these ideas may have influenced how Americans thought about reforming their system.

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 Call #:  Mss.332.4946.Az1m 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Diplomatic History | Early National Politics | Government Affairs | International Affairs 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Manuscript Essays 
 Subjects:  Money -- Portugal 
 Author:  Baldwin, Loammi, 1780-1838Requires cookie*
 Title:  Loammi Baldwin diary, 9 September 1823 - 29 November 1823     
 Dates:  1823 
 Abstract:  The Diary of Loammi Baldwin (September 9 – November 29, 1823) chronicles a portion of Baldwin's trip to Europe where he observed European canals and other internal improvements. Baldwin was a leading civil engineer in antebellum America, and he traveled to Europe to learn about tested methods and good practices that he could bring back to America. The journal begins with Baldwin departing London for Dover and follows his trip through Holland and France. The diary contains numerous sketches of machinery, including carriages, canals, locks, boats, and steam-engine parts. There are also observations on European cities, towns, and customs. Many of the canal sketches are elaborate and detailed.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B189 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Americans Abroad | Business and Skilled Trades | Engineering | International Travel | Science and technology | Travel 
 Genre:  Art | Scientific Data | Sketchbooks | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Canals -- Belgium. | Canals -- Design and construction. | Canals -- England. | Canals -- France. | Canals -- Netherlands. | Technology - History 
 Author:  Bancker familyRequires cookie*
 Title:  Charles Nicoll Bancker family papers, 1733-1894     
 Dates:  1733-1894 
 Abstract:  This extensive collection (13 boxes) contains a range of correspondence, although the bulk of it relates to Charles Nicoll Bancker, a prominent Philadelphia businessman in the 1800s. The letters provide a picture of the family life and business career of Bancker from his earliest beginnings to his success later in life. Aside from the Charles Bancker portion of the collection, the holdings contain a wide variety of other documents, ranging from colonial era documents written in Dutch in Albany to letters from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson from the nineteenth century on religious education.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B22.c 
 Extent:  3.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  American Revolution | Antebellum Politics | Business and Skilled Trades | Colonial Politics | Colony and State Specific History | Early National Politics | Education | Land and Speculation | Literature, Arts, and Culture | Marriage and Family Life | Pennsylvania History | Philadelphia History | Social Life and Custom | Trade | Travel | Women's History 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Literature | Manuscript Essays | Political Correspondence | Sketchbooks | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Insurance agents -- United States. 
 Author:  Bancker, James A.Requires cookie*
 Title:  James A. Bancker papers, 1842-1849     
 Dates:  1842-1849 
 Abstract:  This collection of letters (40+) consists primarily of James Bancker writing to his family from Asia in the 1840s. The collection offers a vivid depiction of an American's life abroad in the nineteenth century. The letters convey quotidian information, such as the type of food he is eating, to more remarkable events, such as witnessing a comet. Bancker also witnessed a number of significant political events while in China, including the acquisition of Hong Kong by Great Britain and resistance to this takeover from the Hong Kong residents (1842-1843). These events, the rioting in particular, are recounted in his often long and detailed correspondence to his Philadelphia-based family. Bancker spent much of his time in Canton, but he also described visits to the Philippines and voyage to and from China. Combined, the collection provides a lens in the experiences of a wealthy American traveling abroad in the midst of the nineteenth century.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B22 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Americans Abroad | Beyond Early America | Business and Skilled Trades | International Trade. | International Travel | Marriage and Family Life | Trade | Travel 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Americans -- China -- Social life and customs. | British -- China -- Social life and customs -- 1644-1912. | Voyages and travels. 
 Author:  Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815Requires cookie*
 Title:  Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection     
 Dates:  1783-1817 
 Abstract:  The extensive Benjamin Smith Barton collection contains six sections: Correspondence, Bound Volumes (including notebooks), Subject Files, and Graphic Materials. The material includes numerous images, sketches, notes, printed material, and other correspondence. The collection also has numerous copper plates that were used to print images drawn by Barton. Although a collection this large touches on a variety of interesting and important subjects, the collection's strength is its wealth of data on nineteenth century medical, botanical, and Native American studies.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B284d 
 Extent:  10 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Education | Language and Linguistics | Literature, Arts, and Culture | Medicine | Native America | Natural history | Printing and Publishing | Science and technology | Travel 
 Genre:  Art | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Language Material | Notebooks | Political Correspondence | Sketchbooks | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pa.) | Botanists | Botany -- Study and teaching -- 19th century | Botany -- Virginia | Chemistry -- 18th century | Cherokee Indians | Cherokee language | Choctaw Indians | Dysentery. | Electricity -- 18th century | Ethnobotany | Geology -- 18th century | Gout | Indians of North America | Indians of North America -- Agriculture | Indians of North America -- Languages | Kaigana Indians | Kaskaskia Indians | Mammals -- Classification | Mandan Indians | Mastodons | Materia medica | Medicine -- Practice -- 18th century | Medicine -- Study and teaching -- 18th century | Meteorology -- United States -- 18th century | Meteors | Mineralogy | Natural history -- 18th century | Natural history -- 19th century | Osage language | Physicians -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia | Physics | Rittenhouse, David, 1732-1796 | Seminole Indians | Seneca Indians | Tuscarora Indians | University of Pennsylvania -- Faculty | Venereal disease | Yellow fever | Yellow fever -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- 1793 | Zoology -- 18th century 
 Author:  Billings, William, 1746-1800Requires cookie*
 Title:  Journals of the Ship Apollo, 1789-1791     
 Dates:  1789-1791 
 Abstract:  These journals (three volumes) chronicle the voyages of Apollo across the Atlantic Ocean in 1789-1791. William Billings was the captain of this Philadelphia-based ship. The destinations were Oporto and Corunna, and trade was the purpose for the voyages. Nonetheless, the ship's captain, William Billings, used the opportunity to study the Gulf Stream. He made numerous observations about the ocean temperature and weather with the apparent intention of submitting his findings to the American Philosophical Society. He paid particular attention to marking and studying the Gulf Stream. The journals were partially published in with a note in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society shortly after they were received in 1793. The originals are much longer than those published and include additional observations not published and graphs that could not be replicated.

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 Call #:  Mss.656.B49 
 Extent:  2 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | International Travel | Trade 
 Genre:  Meteorological Data | Scientific Data 
 Subjects:  Meteorology -- Observations. | Voyages and travels. 
 Author:  Binny, Archibald, 1762-1838Requires cookie*
 Title:  Binny & Ronaldson ledgers, 1796-1798, 1798-1800, 1800-1801     
 Dates:  1796-1801 
 Abstract:  These three volumes contain the business records of the Binny and Ronaldson type foundry that operated in Philadelphia for the years 1796-1801. Archibald Binny and James Ronaldson established the first type foundry in America in 1796. Binny was trained and worked in Scotland as a punchcutter before setting off for Philadelphia in 1796. There he met a fellow Scot, James Ronaldson, who provided the business background to launch the firm. Binny and Ronaldson printed the first dollar marks in 1797 and in 1806 purchased the remnants of Benjamin Franklin's press operations.

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 Call #:  Mss.655.21.B51 
 Extent:  3 volume(s) 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Philadelphia History | Printing and Publishing 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts 
 Subjects:  Printing -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia. | Type and type-founding -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia. 
 Author:  Bohlen, JohnRequires cookie*
 Title:  John Bohlen Collection     
 Dates:  1889-1912 
 Abstract:  John Bohlen was a prominent Philadelphia merchant in the nineteenth century, dying a millionaire. Bohlen, a Hollander, established a firm with his brother that specialized in trade with his native country. His greatest success came in the lucrative gin trade. As his business increased, so too did his connections. He served on the Board of the first Bank of the United States and was well-connected with highest the political and business leaders in the nation. Although John Bohlen was a prominent and successful businessman, these documents have little bearing on Bohlen himself. Instead, they are a series of letters (ten total) written by prominent Americans either to Bohlen or to his relatives.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B63 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | International Trade. | Philadelphia History | Religion | Trade 
 Genre:  General Correspondence 
 Author:  Breck, Samuel, 1771-1862Requires cookie*
 Title:  Historical Sketch of the Continental Bills of Credit, from 1775 to 1781, with Specimens thereof     
 Dates:  1840, 1862 
 Abstract:  The Samuel Breck Collection consists of two bound volumes. The first is a long manuscript essay on Continental Bills of credit from 1775 – 1781, which reflects Breck's interest in historical matters. The second volume is a handwritten account of Breck at 92 years old reminiscing on prominent APS members he had met.

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 Call #:  Mss.332.5.B74h 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Early National Politics 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Miscellaneous | Official Government Documents and Records 
 Subjects:  Diplomats | Paper money -- United States -- Forgeries | Paper money -- United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 | Physicians | Presidents | Scholars | Statesmen 
 Author:  Breck, Samuel, 1771-1862Requires cookie*
 Title:  Recollections of my acquaintance with deceased members of the American Philosophical Society, 1862     
 Dates:  1862 
 Abstract:  The Samuel Breck Collection consists of two separately-cataloged, bound volumes. The first, "Historical Sketch of the Continental Bills of Credit, from 1775 to 1781, with Specimens thereof" (332.5 B74h), is a long manuscript essay on Continental Bills of credit from 1775 – 1781, which reflects Breck's interest in historical matters. The second volume is a handwritten account of Breck at 92 years old reminiscing on prominent APS members he had met.

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 Call #:  Mss.920.B74 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  American Revolution | Business and Skilled Trades | Philadelphia History 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Manuscript Essays 
 Author:  Brice, JamesRequires cookie*
 Title:  Materials on revenue from the distilling and retailing of liquors, 1794-1803     
 Dates:  1794-1803 
 Abstract:  This collection contains a number of tax lists for the collection of revenue on spirits. It begins in 1794, the year of the Whiskey Rebellion, and continues to 1803. The lists appear to be for sellers of "wine and foreign distilled spirits," meaning that this was not the tax Whiskey rebels found odious. Although the documents are not uniform, most lists contain the distiller's name, place of operation, and amount of tax paid.

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 Call #:  Mss.336.27.M414 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Early National Politics | Government Affairs 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Official Government Documents and Records 
 Subjects:  Liquor industry -- Pennsylvania. | Tariff on liquors -- Pennsylvania. 
 Author:  Burd, James, 1726-1793Requires cookie*
 Title:  Burd-Shippen Papers     
 Dates:  1708-1792 
 Abstract:  This collection is one of the largest early American collections the APS holds. Its breadth of sources provides insight into colonial Pennsylvania history, especially that of Lancaster County. Although largely material composed of material from James Burd, there are also significant documents relating to the Shippen family. Documents touch on matters financial, political, and social. While the collection is of wide ranging material, its strength lies in three main parts: the Seven Years' War and Pontiac's Rebellion in Pennsylvania, Burd's business records, and life in Lancaster County from 1754-1776.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B892 
 Extent:  6.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Colonial Politics | Government Affairs | Land and Speculation | Military History | Native America | Pennsylvania History | Seven Years' War | Surveying and Maps | Trade 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Diaries | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Miscellaneous | Official Government Documents and Records | Political Correspondence | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Court calendars -- Pennsylvania. | Fort Augusta (Pa.) | Fort Duquesne | Fort Granville (Pa.) | Fort Hunter | Fort Pitt (Pa.) | Fort William Henry (N.Y.) | Fortification -- Pennsylvania. | Iroquois Indians | Lancaster County (Pa.) -- History | Meteorology -- Pennsylvania -- Observations | Military supplies. | Pennsylvania -- History -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775 | Pennsylvania -- History -- French and Indian War, 1755-1763 | Philadelphia (Pa.) -- Commerce | Shippenburg Library Company | United States -- History -- French and Indian War, 1755-1763 | United States. Army. Supplies and stores 
 Author:  Cadwalader, LambertRequires cookie*
 Title:  Lambert Cadwalader Papers     
 Dates:  1779-1798 
 Abstract:  This collection of letters, while tiny, is actually quite rich in content. Cadwalader wrote to Samuel Meredith, a politician and fellow Revolutionary War soldier, concerning the war, his real estate holdings in Philadelphia, and the local political climate. The seven items are dated from October 5, 1779 to March 9, 1798, during which Cadwalader served in the military, reentered politics, got married, and then retired from public service.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C625.1 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  American Revolution | Business and Skilled Trades | Land and Speculation | Philadelphia History 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Political Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Inoculation | Smallpox | Taxation -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia 
 Author:  Carpenters' Company of the City and County of PhiladelphiaRequires cookie*
 Title:  Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia Records, 1683-1983     
 Dates:  1683-1983 
 Abstract:  The Carpenter's Company Collection is a potentially rich source for those interested in Philadelphia history and early trade unions. The Carpenters' Company was one of the most prominent trade associations in colonial Philadelphia and the early national period. The collection includes official minutes of the Carpenter's Company for nearly all of early America. These volumes capture the inner workings of one of the most prominent business institutions in the city. The minute books capture a wide range of company business, including establishing prices for the public, member procedures, and public relations. The collection also includes the minutes of the Friendship Company from its founding in 1769 – 1775 and their accounts from 1769-1799.

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 Call #:  Mss.974.811.C22.a 
 Extent:  18 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Philadelphia History 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Institutional Records | Miscellaneous 
 Subjects:  Carpenters -- Labor unions -- United States. | Guilds -- United States. 
 Author:  Clymer, George, 1739-1813Requires cookie*
 Title:  George Clymer Papers, 1745-1848     
 Dates:  1745-1848 
 Abstract:  This small collection contains just twenty-seven documents relating to the life of George Clymer, one of the most prominent politicians in revolutionary Philadelphia. The majority of the collection dates to after Clymer's death and relates to his estate, beginning first with his will dated January 22, 1813. There are a few documents written by Clymer in the collection. The most notable one may be a long letter from Clymer that discusses education, particularly mathematics and mathematicians.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C625 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Education | Land and Speculation | Marriage and Family Life 
 Genre:  Educational Material | General Correspondence | Legal Records 
 Subjects:  Estate -- Valuation | Finance,Personal | Patents -- Pennsylvania | Power of Attorney -- Pennsylvania | Trust indentures-United States 
 Author:  Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844Requires cookie*
 Title:  Peter Stephen Du Ponceau Collection     
 Dates:  1781-1844 
 Abstract:  The Peter Stephen Du Ponceau Collection has a wide array of material. This entry refers to his correspondence. Although Du Ponceau is most well-known today for his work in Native American linguistics, the Du Ponceau Collection includes a significant amount of correspondence from Du Ponceau's legal career in the nineteenth century (B D92p). As a practicing lawyer often working on trade issues, his correspondence also includes large collection of business news and legal affairs happening in Philadelphia. Most of these documents are from cases Du Ponceau worked on, and many of these cases involve international trade and merchant concerns. One of the more interesting case files includes a brief on whether or not the family of a mariner lost at sea can recover lost wages.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.D92p 
 Extent:  0.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | International Trade. | Law 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | General Correspondence | Legal Records 
 Subjects:  Admiralty -- United States | Indians of North America -- Languages | Law -- United States -- History -- 19th century | Maritime law -- United States | Merchant mariners -- United States | Silk 
 Author:  Duane familyRequires cookie*
 Title:  Duane Family Collection     
 Dates:  1764-1933 
 Abstract:  The Duane Family Collection is a rich and diverse collection that includes papers from numerous prominent citizens from the colonial era to the antebellum period. The bulk of the collection is from 1800-1840. These letters often touch on political affairs as they relate to Duane's editorship of the Aurora. Also of particular note, the collection contains a series of letters on early national politics with some significant presidential correspondence. There are also family letters between William John Duane's son, also named William Duane, and his sisters Mary and Sarah Duane that discusses social events, courtship, and gossip about individuals, including details on the deaths of two of Duane's friends in a duel. Some of the early documents (before 1800) include records of Duane's newspaper business in India, where he operated in the 1790s as a dissenting voice against the East India Company's policies.

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 Call #:  Mss.SMs.Coll.2 
 Extent:  2 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Business and Skilled Trades | Early National Politics | Government Affairs | Printing and Publishing | Social Life and Custom 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Political Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Aurora (Philadelphia, Pa.) | Jackson, Andrew -- 1767-1845 -- Correspondence. | Newspapers -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia | Presidents -- United States -- Correspondence. 
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