Resources in Early American History
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 Author:  Airy, George Biddell, Sir, 1801-1892Requires cookie*
 Title:  Sir George Biddell Airy Papers     
 Dates:  1840-1890 
 Abstract:  This manuscript collection falls outside the geographic scope of the Early American guide (British North America and the United States before 1840). It may be of interest to scholars interested in global history, international relations, imperialism, or the U.S. in the world.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.Ai7p 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Artifacts | Astronomy - Research - England | Electricity - Experiments | Geology - Research - England | Geology, Structural | Magnetism - Experiments | Magnets | Observatoire de Paris | Pendulum | Stars -- Magnitudes. | Telescopes 
 Author:  Alexander, William, 1726-1783Requires cookie*
 Title:  Variation of the compass, 1773     
 Dates:  1773 
 Abstract:  This slender volume is an essay by William Alexander, a prominent figure in New Jersey politics and business. Alexander wrote this essay with the hope that it would spur the American Philosophical Society to support the study of variations in compasses. Alexander's interest in this subject likely had to do with his background as a merchant. He realized compass variations created inefficiencies and risks for captains and the merchants that relied on them. Alexander appeals specifically to the APS's mission by stating that such a study would be "useful to mankind." Alexander's essays shows that he is conversant in many of the current theories about variations. He also proposed a plan for the APS to facilitate a systematic study of compass variations that he believed would produce a clear general law for variations in compasses.

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 Call #:  Mss.522.76.Al2 
 Extent:  1 item(s) 
 Topics:  Science and technology | Surveying and Maps | Trade 
 Genre:  Scientific Correspondence | Scientific Data 
 Subjects:  Astronomy -- 18th century | Compass. | Learned institutions and societies. 
 Author:  Bache, A.D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867Requires cookie*
 Title:  A. D. Bache Collection     
 Dates:  1833-1873 
 Abstract:  This collection consists of a wide-range of general correspondence to and from Alexander Dallas Bache from 1833-1865. The correspondence includes letters to many prominent scientists, such as Louis Agassiz, Maria Mitchell, and Charles Babbage. The content reflects the wide range of Bache's scientific activity and his extensive contacts. Topics range from cartography to lighthouses to education reform to phrenology.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B123 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Antebellum Politics | Early National Politics | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Official Government Documents and Records | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Cooper Union | Education | Geological Survey of the State of New Jersey | Geology | Girard College | Lighthouses | National Academy of Sciences | Natural history | United States Coast Survey 
 Author:  Bartram, John, 1699-1777Requires cookie*
 Title:  Collinson-Bartram Papers, 1732-1773     
 Dates:  1732-1773 
 Abstract:  While the APS has a number of Collinson collections on microfilm, it primary source holdings contain only thirty-seven letters written to Peter Collinson. The majority of the letters discuss natural history. There is a letter written about the culture of bathing in Wales in the 1730s. There is also extended correspondence between Collinson and Lady Petre on the botanical gardens on the Petre's estate and a series of letters from Spanish officials in the Caribbean relaying information to Collinson. There is also notable amount of correspondence between Collinson and various nobility discussing horticultural issues.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692.1 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Gardening -- England. | Gardens -- England. | Horticulture -- England. | Horticulture -- United States. | Plants, Cultivated. | Seed industry and trade -- England. | Seed industry and trade -- United States. 
 Author:  Bartram, John, 1699-1777Requires cookie*
 Title:  John Bartram correspondence, 1735-1775     
 Dates:  1735-1775 
 Abstract:  The John Bartram Collection consists of typed transcriptions of originals held at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The transcripts take up two volumes and are extensive.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B28.w 
 Extent:  719 item(s) 
 Topics:  Colony and State Specific History | Natural history | Pennsylvania History | Philadelphia History 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Botanists. | Botany. | Horticulture. | Horticulturists. | Natural history. | Plant collectors. | Plants -- Collection and preservation. 
 Author:  Beccaria, Giambatista, 1716-1781Requires cookie*
 Title:  Giambatista Beccaria Papers     
 Dates:  1766-1780 
 Abstract:  The Beccaria Collection consists of a folio size volume of collected letters and essays. Giovanni Battista Beccaria was a leading scientist in eighteenth century Italy. The collection includes letters Beccaria wrote to Franklin as well as drafts of essays he prepared for publication. The topics of the letters include discussions of electricity, meteorology, and astronomy.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B385 
 Extent:  0.75 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Foreign Language | Manuscript Essays | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Auroras. | Earthquakes -- Early works to 1800 | Electricity -- Early works to 1800 | Electricity -- Experiments | Lightning | Lightning rods | Meteorology -- Italy -- Observations | Phosphorescence | Physics -- Early works to 1800 | Scientific apparatus and instruments -- 18th century | Sunspots 
 Author:  Bonaparte, Charles Lucian, 1803-1857Requires cookie*
 Title:  Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte letters, 1825-1857     
 Dates:  1825-1857 
 Abstract:  The Charles Lucien Bonaparte collection is noteworthy for its ornithological content and for the exchanges with William Cooper, a fellow ornithologist who had a large collection of bird specimens. The majority of the correspondence surrounds Bonaparte's American Ornithology. The letters are all from Bonaparte to Cooper. Their content shows Cooper to be an engaged and active ornithologist who provided Bonaparte with critical advice on his proofs. Copper founded the Lyceum of Natural History in New York and studied zoology in Europe. He is credited with helping edit Bonaparte's last two works. Bonaparte, for his part, repaid his friend by naming a new species of hawk Cooper's Hawk.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B642.1.7 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Literature, Arts, and Culture | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Learned institutions and societies. | Ornithology. | Science -- Societies, etc. 
 Author:  Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768Requires cookie*
 Title:  Peter Collinson letters, [ca. 1740]-1770     
 Dates:  1740-1770 
 Abstract:  The APS has a number of Collinson collections on microfilm. Its primary source holdings contain approximately thirty-seven letters written to Peter Collinson, a prominent figure in the eighteenth century British scientific community. Because of his networks in trade and science, he served as an important node in the conveyance of knowledge throughout the Atlantic World.The majority of the letters involve discussions of natural history. The letters offer a range of correspondence. There is a letter written about the culture of bathing in Wales in the 1730s to extended correspondence between Collinson and Lady Petre on the botanical gardens on the Petre's estate, and a series of letters from Spanish officials in the Caribbean relaying information to Collinson. There is also a notable amount of correspondence between Collinson and various nobility discussing horticultural issues.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Natural history. 
 Author:  Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768Requires cookie*
 Title:  Peter Collinson transcripts, 1721-1768     
 Dates:  1721-1768 
 Abstract:  The Peter Collinson Collection contains copies of correspondence directed primarily to Collinson's North American contacts, especially those based in Pennsylvania. His correspondents include members of the Penn family and Benjamin Franklin. The letters discuss current affairs, politics, and scientific matters.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692a 
 Extent:  0.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Colonial Politics | Natural history 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Author:  Cutler, Manasseh, 1742-1823Requires cookie*
 Title:  Manasseh Cutler papers, 1787-1806     
 Dates:  1787-1806 
 Abstract:  The Mannasseh Cutler Collection contains photocopies of Cutler correspondence to prominent scientists in the early republic (1787-1806). Correspondents include Benjamin Smith Barton and Henry Muhlenberg.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C974m 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Botany -- England. | Botany -- Europe. | Botany -- United States. | Zoology -- England. | Zoology -- Europe. | Zoology -- United States. 
 Author:  De Morgan, Augustus,1806-1871.Requires cookie*
 Title:  Augustus De Morgan letters, 1841-1866     
 Dates:  1841-1866 
 Abstract:  The contents of the Augustus De Morgan Collection are almost entirely beyond the scope of this guide. One letter dates to 1841; most date to after the Civil War. The correspondence is almost all from De Morgan to William Hepworth Dixon, the editor of the Athenaeum.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.D396 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Printing and Publishing 
 Genre:  Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Astronomy. | Publishers and publishing. | Science publishing. 
 Author:  Fabbroni, Giovanni Valentino Mattia, 1752-1822Requires cookie*
 Title:  Giovanni Valentino Mattia Fabbroni papers, ca. 1770s-1875     
 Dates:  Circa 1770-1875 
 Abstract:  This Collection of Giovanni Fabbroni letters contain a range of correspondence that Fabbroni carried on with fellow scientists throughout Europe. Although much of Fabbroni's travel and correspondence focused on Continental Europe, his wide-ranging correspondence can offer insight into the British Atlantic World and the flow of ideas and information within it.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.F113 
 Extent:  8 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Foreign Language | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Agriculture | Botany. | Bridges. | Coinage. | Geology. | Locks (Hydraulic engineering) -- Middle Atlantic states -- History. | Machinery -- Drawings. | Manufacturing processes. | Museums -- History. | Natural history. | Tools -- Drawings. | Weights and measures. 
 Author:  Featherstonhaugh, George William, 1780-1866Requires cookie*
 Title:  George William Featherstonhaugh papers, 1809-1840     
 Dates:  1809-1840 
 Abstract:  This collection of George William Featherstonhaugh Correspondence. Featherstonhaugh was a prominent British scientist who traveled to America numerous times and helped promote internal improvements. The single original letter is to Benjamin Franklin Peale and discusses mineralogy. The other documents, all photocopies of originals in private hands, discuss science and APS business and are from APS members Peter Du Ponceau, John Vaughan, and James Mease.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.F31 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Science -- Societies, etc. 
 Author:  Fothergill, John, 1712-1780Requires cookie*
 Title:  John Fothergill letters, 1737-1778     
 Dates:  1737-1750 
 Abstract:  The John Fothergill Letters Collection, 1737-1778 (bulk 1737-1750), consists of fourteen copies of letters Fothergill wrote. Most of the letters are addressed to Charles Aston and most discuss medicine.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.F82 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Education | Medicine 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Botany. | Medicine. | Science. 
 Author:  Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790Requires cookie*
 Title:  Benjamin Franklin Papers, 1642-1841     
 Dates:  1642-1841 
 Abstract:  The Papers of Benjamin Franklin are a rich source as varied and expansive as Dr. Franklin's storied life. The Collection has been calendared, catalogued, and much of it is transcribed in printed volumes and online at www.franklinpapers.org.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.F85 
 Extent:  85.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  American Revolution | Americans Abroad | Business and Skilled Trades | Diplomatic History | Government Affairs | International Travel | Land and Speculation | Marriage and Family Life | Military History | Pennsylvania History | Printing and Publishing | Social Life and Custom 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Diplomatic Material | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Manuscript Essays | Political Correspondence | Printed Material | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Abolition, emancipation, freedom | Electricity -- Early works to 1800 | Postal service -- United States | Printers -- Pennsylvania | Slaves, slavery, slave trade | Social conditions, social advocacy, social reform 
 Author:  Frazer, John Fries, 1812-1872Requires cookie*
 Title:  John Fries Frazer papers, 1834-1871     
 Dates:  1834-1871 
 Abstract:  John Fries Frazer was a prominent Pennsylvania scientist in nineteenth century America, serving as a professor at the University of Pennsylvania and very active in both the Franklin Institute and the APS. This large collection of his correspondence provides a snapshot of the growing scientific community in mid-nineteenth century America. Frazer's correspondence involves a wide range of topics: science and scientific institutions (shipbuilding, mechanical engineering, geology, geography, astronomy, chemistry, among others), although there are fragments of personal correspondence. His range of correspondents is as diverse as the topics, but there is a notably large collection of letters from scientific heavyweights Titian Ramsey Peale, Louis Aggasiz, Joseph Henry, and Alexander Dallas Bache.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.F865 
 Extent:  3 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Education | Philadelphia History | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Boilers. | Education -- United States. | Electricity. | Geology -- United States. | Haida Indians | Magnetism. | Natural history. | Paleontology. | Scientific apparatus and instruments. | Scientists -- United States. | Solar eclipses. | Tsimshian Indians | Weights and measures. 
 Author:  Gray, Asa, 1810-1888Requires cookie*
 Title:  Asa Gray papers, 1838-1887     
 Dates:  1838-1887 
 Abstract:  This Collection consists of a variety of correspondence Asa Gray carried on with fellow scientists and collectors in the United States and Europe. Asa Gray was a leading nineteenth American botanist; securing a professorship at Harvard in 1842, he became perhaps the first professional botanist in America. The topic of the letters is almost exclusively botanical in nature. The correspondence includes discussions of publications, current specimens, and fossilized flora. Although Gray carried on extensive correspondence with Charles Darwin, none of that is in this manuscript collection, although the APS does have microfilm of Asa Gray's correspondence that contains some of this Darwin material.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.G78 
 Extent:  0.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Science and technology 
 Genre:  Educational Material | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Botanical gardens. | Botany. | Education -- United States. | Plants -- Collection and preservation. | Shells. 
 Author:  Morgan, John, 1735-1789Requires cookie*
 Title:  John Morgan correspondence, 1749-1788     
 Dates:  1749-1788 
 Abstract:  The John Morgan Collection consists of photocopies of Morgan's correspondence, 1763-1768. Many of the letters discuss medicine and medical education.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.M82 
 Extent:  26 item(s) 
 Topics:  Education | Medicine | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Educational Material | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Medicine -- Study and teaching. | Natural history. | Paleontology -- North America. 
 Author:  Morton, Samuel George, 1799-1851Requires cookie*
 Title:  Samuel George Morton Papers     
 Dates:  1819-1850 
 Abstract:  The Samuel George Morton Collection provides a window into the life of this nineteenth century scientist, explorer, and natural historian. The collection holds a wide-range of materials, and the correspondence touches on many different subjects. The entry in MOLE contains an item level accounting of the collection and its contents. The collection begins in the 1820s, when Morton is just beginning his career and continues through to the 1840s. Letters touch on topics, such as the treatment of Native Americans, Indian burial grounds, discoveries of fossilized remains, and medical education. Material on the Wilkes Expedition and especially on Morton's early medical career is covered in depth. One letter contains a request from General Lafayette for a skull of an Indian for his own scientific collection. Most of the letters are to Morton and contain results of experiments or observations from travel and exploration. Additionally, the Diary to the West Indies form 1834 offers insight into the culture of the islands. Morton's own involvement in the scientific racism is prominent in much of his later writing. Included in the collection are sketches of his "craniometrical drawings," which were used by pro-slavery advocates.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.M843 
 Extent:  2.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  African American | Exploration. | International Travel | Travel 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Archaeology | Aymara Indians | Botany | Craniology. | Craniometry | Education | Egyptology. | Geology | Indians of North America -- Kentucky | Indians of North America -- Massachusetts | Indians of North America -- Mississippi | Indians of North America -- Ohio | Indians of North America -- Physical characteristics | Indians of North America -- Rhode Island | Indians of North America -- Tennessee | Indians of South America -- Peru | Indians of South America -- Physical characteristics | Medicine | Mineralogy | Miscegenation | Natural history | Naumkeag Indians | Ornithology | Paleontology | Pentland, Joseph Barclay | Phrenology | Race | Race, race relations, racism | Science and technology | Skull. | Slavery -- Barbados | Slaves, slavery, slave trade | United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842) 
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