Resources in Early American History
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 Author:  Audubon, John James, 1785-1851Requires cookie*
 Title:  John James Audubon Papers     
 Dates:  1821-1845 
 Abstract:  This fairly large collection (over 200 letters) of John James Audubon material consists primarily of John's correspondence with his wife Lucy and son Victor. The collection shows a personal side of Audubon who kept his wife and son informed of all aspects of his work and travels. The letters to his wife – "my dearest friend" – are particularly affectionate and open.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.Au25 
 Extent:  0.75 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Literature, Arts, and Culture | Natural history | Printing and Publishing | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Art | Business Records and Accounts | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Birds -- North America | Natural history -- North America | Naturalist | Ornithologist | Ornithology -- North America 
 Author:  Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815Requires cookie*
 Title:  Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection     
 Dates:  1783-1817 
 Abstract:  The extensive Benjamin Smith Barton collection contains six sections: Correspondence, Bound Volumes (including notebooks), Subject Files, and Graphic Materials. The material includes numerous images, sketches, notes, printed material, and other correspondence. The collection also has numerous copper plates that were used to print images drawn by Barton. Although a collection this large touches on a variety of interesting and important subjects, the collection's strength is its wealth of data on nineteenth century medical, botanical, and Native American studies.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B284d 
 Extent:  10 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Business and Skilled Trades | Education | Language and Linguistics | Literature, Arts, and Culture | Medicine | Native America | Natural history | Printing and Publishing | Science and technology | Travel 
 Genre:  Art | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Language Material | Notebooks | Political Correspondence | Sketchbooks | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pa.) | Botanists | Botany -- Study and teaching -- 19th century | Botany -- Virginia | Chemistry -- 18th century | Cherokee Indians | Cherokee language | Choctaw Indians | Dysentery. | Electricity -- 18th century | Ethnobotany | Geology -- 18th century | Gout | Indians of North America | Indians of North America -- Agriculture | Indians of North America -- Languages | Kaigana Indians | Kaskaskia Indians | Mammals -- Classification | Mandan Indians | Mastodons | Materia medica | Medicine -- Practice -- 18th century | Medicine -- Study and teaching -- 18th century | Meteorology -- United States -- 18th century | Meteors | Mineralogy | Natural history -- 18th century | Natural history -- 19th century | Osage language | Physicians -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia | Physics | Rittenhouse, David, 1732-1796 | Seminole Indians | Seneca Indians | Tuscarora Indians | University of Pennsylvania -- Faculty | Venereal disease | Yellow fever | Yellow fever -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- 1793 | Zoology -- 18th century 
 Author:  Bartram, John, 1699-1777Requires cookie*
 Title:  John Bartram correspondence, 1735-1775     
 Dates:  1735-1775 
 Abstract:  The John Bartram Collection consists of typed transcriptions of originals held at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The transcripts take up two volumes and are extensive.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B28.w 
 Extent:  719 item(s) 
 Topics:  Colony and State Specific History | Natural history | Pennsylvania History | Philadelphia History 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Botanists. | Botany. | Horticulture. | Horticulturists. | Natural history. | Plant collectors. | Plants -- Collection and preservation. 
 Author:  Bonaparte, Charles Lucian, 1803-1857Requires cookie*
 Title:  Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte letters, 1825-1857     
 Dates:  1825-1857 
 Abstract:  The Charles Lucien Bonaparte collection is noteworthy for its ornithological content and for the exchanges with William Cooper, a fellow ornithologist who had a large collection of bird specimens. The majority of the correspondence surrounds Bonaparte's American Ornithology. The letters are all from Bonaparte to Cooper. Their content shows Cooper to be an engaged and active ornithologist who provided Bonaparte with critical advice on his proofs. Copper founded the Lyceum of Natural History in New York and studied zoology in Europe. He is credited with helping edit Bonaparte's last two works. Bonaparte, for his part, repaid his friend by naming a new species of hawk Cooper's Hawk.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.B642.1.7 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Literature, Arts, and Culture | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Learned institutions and societies. | Ornithology. | Science -- Societies, etc. 
 Author:  Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768Requires cookie*
 Title:  Peter Collinson letters, [ca. 1740]-1770     
 Dates:  1740-1770 
 Abstract:  The APS has a number of Collinson collections on microfilm. Its primary source holdings contain approximately thirty-seven letters written to Peter Collinson, a prominent figure in the eighteenth century British scientific community. Because of his networks in trade and science, he served as an important node in the conveyance of knowledge throughout the Atlantic World.The majority of the letters involve discussions of natural history. The letters offer a range of correspondence. There is a letter written about the culture of bathing in Wales in the 1730s to extended correspondence between Collinson and Lady Petre on the botanical gardens on the Petre's estate, and a series of letters from Spanish officials in the Caribbean relaying information to Collinson. There is also a notable amount of correspondence between Collinson and various nobility discussing horticultural issues.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Natural history. 
 Author:  Collinson, Peter, 1694-1768Requires cookie*
 Title:  Peter Collinson transcripts, 1721-1768     
 Dates:  1721-1768 
 Abstract:  The Peter Collinson Collection contains copies of correspondence directed primarily to Collinson's North American contacts, especially those based in Pennsylvania. His correspondents include members of the Penn family and Benjamin Franklin. The letters discuss current affairs, politics, and scientific matters.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.C692a 
 Extent:  0.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Colonial Politics | Natural history 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Author:  Hare-Willing family.Requires cookie*
 Title:  Hare-Willing Family Papers     
 Dates:  1724-1965 
 Abstract:  This is a large and wide ranging collection on materials. The collection contains over 1300 individual items along with 53 bound volumes, which range from letter books to records of the First Colored Wesley Methodist Church. Letters to and from the various members of the extended Hare-Willing family compose the bulk of the loose correspondence.

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 Call #:  Mss.Ms.Coll.104 
 Extent:  52 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  African American | Americans Abroad | Business and Skilled Trades | Early National Politics | Education | International Travel | Law | Natural history | Philadelphia History | Religion | Science and technology | Travel | Women's History 
 Genre:  Business Records and Accounts | Educational Material | Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Institutional Records | Legal Records | Miscellaneous | Notebooks | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  African American churches -- United States | Banks and banking -- United States -- History -- 19th century. | Religion, religious organizations | Science -- United States -- 19th century. | Social conditions, social advocacy, social reform | Steam-engines. | Titantic (Steamship) | World War I | World War II 
 Author:  Hays, Isaac,1796-1879.Requires cookie*
 Title:  Isaac and I. Minis Hays papers     
 Dates:  Circa 1820-1925 
 Abstract:  Isaac Hays was a Philadelphia ophthalmologist who was also deeply involved in natural history. The Isaac Hays material has two discreet sections: a volume of correspondence for 1824-1855 and a collection of loose manuscripts. The first part of the collection is a bound volume that contains the correspondence Hays carried on with other prominent naturalists in the nineteenth century from 1824–1855, although the bulk come from the 1820s and early 1830s. Prominent correspondents in this series include Charles Lucien Bonaparte, George Ord, Thomas Say, and Charles Lesueur. All of the correspondence is incoming, addressed to Hays. Occasionally the correspondence involves commentary on other current events in addition to the obvious scientific nature of the correspondence. A letter from Bonaparte, for instance, discusses the rivalry between the Philadelphia and New York orchestras. The Ord correspondence, written mostly from Europe, makes reference to Audubon, Ord's ornithological rival, and scientific publications and thought prominent in Europe. The Say correspondence, written from New Harmony, also provides insight on that utopian experiment and his relationship with Lesueur, who also settled in New Harmony. There are only a few Lesueur letters, all of which are in French and written from New Harmony.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.H334 
 Extent:  1.75 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Science and technology | Social Life and Custom 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Data 
 Subjects:  Medical publishing -- United States -- 19th century. | Medical publishing -- United States. | Medicine -- Societies, etc. | Medicine -- United States -- 19th century. | Medicine -- United States. | Natural history. | Paleontology. 
 Author:  Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826Requires cookie*
 Title:  Thomas Jefferson papers, 1775-1825     
 Dates:  1775-1825 
 Abstract:  This is the primary collection of Thomas Jefferson Papers at the APS. The collection is rich and extensive. The collection is well-described and inventoried in MOLE. What follows below is a general summary of some of the more noteworthy pieces.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.J35 
 Extent:  0.5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  American Revolution | Colony and State Specific History | Diplomatic History | Early National Politics | Government Affairs | Native America | Natural history | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Official Government Documents and Records | Political Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Boundaries, State. | Canals. | Chemistry | Indians of North America -- Languages | Linguistics. | Louisiana Purchase -- Enclopedias. | Plants. | Science -- United States -- 18th century. | Scientific apparatus and instruments. | Seeds. 
 Author:  Muhlenberg family.Requires cookie*
 Title:  Muhlenberg family papers, 1769-1866     
 Dates:  1769-1866 
 Abstract:  The collection contains miscellaneous papers from this prominent Pennsylvania family. Some of the material is in German. Included in the collection are diplomas and various certificates of family members, including Peter Muhlenberg's original certificate of membership in the Society of the Cincinnati. There is a significant amount of correspondence from Christian Dencke to the Muhlenbergs in 1798-1799, a period when he was setting up a mission to Indians in Ontario. The letters, in German and Latin, seem to discuss natural history.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.M891 
 Extent:  4.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  American Revolution | Military History | Native America | Natural history | Pennsylvania History | Religion 
 Genre:  Family Correspondence | Foreign Language | General Correspondence | Military Records | Travel Narratives and Journals 
 Subjects:  Agriculture -- United States. | Barns. | Botany | Delaware Indians | Fungi. | Grasses. | Herbaria. | Lichens. | Lutheran Church -- Clergy. | Meteorology - Observations | Natural history. | Plants. | Shrubs. | Trees. | Zoology -- Vermont. 
 Author:  Ord, George, 1781-1866Requires cookie*
 Title:  George Ord Collection     
 Dates:  1831-1864 
 Abstract:  The collection of George Ord correspondence is a relatively small but significant collection. Most of the letters are from George Ord to Charles Waterton, a British naturalist, and reflect their shared interest in natural history, especially ornithology. The letters deal with Ord's rivalry with Audubon. Many of Ord's letters question the accuracy of Audobon's work. Other letters touch on Alexander Wilson and on new techniques for capturing images of animal life, such as the use of the Daguerre process.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.Or2 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Early National Politics | Exploration. | Natural history | Philadelphia History | Science and technology 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Abolitionists -- United States -- Attitudes | Animals -- Habits and behavior of | Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Birds of America | Banks and banking -- United States. | Birds -- Study and teaching | Birds. | Cholic Acid | Church buildings -- Pennsylvania-Philadelphia | Cicada (Genus) | Columbidia | Cuckoos | Daguerreotypes | Dictionary of the English language. Johnson, Samuel, 1709-1784 | Dove | English language -- Dictionaries | Famines -- Ireland | France -- 19th century | Frogs -- United States | Frost -- Great Britain | Geese | Gold mines and mining -- California -- 19th century | Heatstroke | Immigrants -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia | Influenza -- United States | Irish -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia | Memorials -- Great Britain | Mercury | Mexican War, 1846-1848 | Monk, Maria, d. 1850 | Partridges | Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827 -- Art collections. | Potatoes | Railroads -- 19th century | Rattlesnake | Religion | Reptiles | Sea monsters | Secession -- Southern States | Skin -- Diseases-Treatment | Slaves -- Emancipation-America | Smoking -- Health aspects -- United States | Soap trade -- Pennsylvania | Steam-navigation -- Atlantic Ocean | Steamboat disasters | Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 1811-1896 Uncle Tom's Cabin. | Telegraph | United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842). | Wilkes, Charles, 1798-1872. Narrative of the United States exploring expedition. | Williams, Eleazer, 1787-1858 
 Author:  Say, Thomas, 1787-1834Requires cookie*
 Title:  Thomas Say papers, 1819-1883, 1955     
 Dates:  1819-1883 
 Abstract:  The Thomas Say Collection contains correspondence and scientific material relating to Say's work as a conchologist. The correspondence has a few items written to the New Harmony utopian community before Say decided to live there. The scientific correspondence contains letters to prominent fellow natural historians, such as Charles Lucien Bonaparte. The data includes sketches of shells, some in color. There is also a relatively detailed biographical profile, likely written in the late-nineteenth century.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.Sa95.g 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Land and Speculation | Natural history | Science and technology | Surveying and Maps 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Maps and Surveys | Scientific Data | Sketchbooks 
 Subjects:  Entomology. | Mollusks. | Natural history. 
 Author:  Various authorsRequires cookie*
 Title:  Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection, 1668-1983     
 Dates:  1668-1983 
 Abstract:  J. Stephen Catlett wrote of the Miscellaneous Manuscripts collection that "there is no other way to describe these manuscript letters, essays, and other papers that are contained presently in 49 boxes." Catlett then listed a random assortment of names of authors found in the collection. Each individual item was catalogued in the card catalogue, but his data has now been put online. Rather than try to replicate that data, this entry will focus on some of the main themes of the collection and some of the most notable documents.

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 Call #:  Mss.Ms.Coll.200 
 Extent:  25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Beyond Early America | Colonial Politics | Early National Politics | Natural history 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Miscellaneous | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Anishinaabe | Arctic Indians | Autopsy. | Cayuga Indians | Cytology. | Egyptians | Franklin, Benjamin, 1706-1790 | Genetics. | History of science and technology. | History, Ancient. | Inuit -- Canada | Iroquois Indians | Isleta Indians | Micmac language | Mohawk Indians | Morgan, Thomas Hunt | Mythology, Egyptian. | Ojibwa Indians | Ojibwa Indians -- Folklore | Ojibwa language | Ojibwe people | Oneida Indians | Onondaga Indians | Ottawa language | Penobscot Indians | Physics -- History. | Sacco-Vanzetti case | Scientific apparatus and instruments. | Seneca Indians | Southwest Indians | Tuscarora Indians | Tyrrhenians | United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 | United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842) | Women -- Education | World War, 1939-1945 
 Author:  Vaughan, John, 1756-1841Requires cookie*
 Title:  John Vaughan papers, 1768 - Circa 1936     
 Dates:  1768 - Circa 1936 
 Abstract:  The John Vaughan Collection is a large collection that reflects the life of this prominent Philadelphian and active member of the American Philosophical Society. The collection is large, but not as large as the Benjamin Vaughan Collection, the collection of John's brother's papers. John lived in Philadelphia and his correspondence contains information on elite society in this city. It also contains data on the operations of the APS during his lifetime. The collection has been well described and inventoried in MOLE.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.V462 
 Extent:  5 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Natural history | Philadelphia History | Science and technology 
 Genre:  Family Correspondence | General Correspondence | Institutional Records | Political Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Medicine. | Planetariums. 
 Author:  Wilson, Alexander, 1766-1813Requires cookie*
 Title:  Alexander Wilson papers, 1806-1813     
 Dates:  1806-1813 
 Abstract:  Alexander Wilson was a prominent ornithologist in nineteenth century America. This collection includes poetry, a copy of an advertisement for Wilson's book in the Albany Gazette and Charleston Courier, some correspondence, and a copy of Wilson's will. His letters to William Bartram describe a conversation he had with others about their travels into the west.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.W692 
 Extent:  0.25 Linear Feet 
 Topics:  Literature, Arts, and Culture | Natural history | Science and technology | Travel 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Legal Records | Literature | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  Birds. | Ornithologists. | Ornithology. 
 Author:  Wistar, Caspar, 1761-1818Requires cookie*
 Title:  Caspar Wistar Papers     
 Dates:  1794-1817 
 Abstract:  This bound volume contains approximately forty-four content rich letters written to Caspar Wistar, a prominent Philadelphian and scientist. Wistar's wide-ranging scientific interests are captured in the broad content of these letters. Topics of discussion include APS business, distillation, fossils and skeletons, scientific expeditions, and various letters of introductions sent to Wistar. A significant number are written in French.

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 Call #:  Mss.B.W76 
 Extent:  1 volume(s) 
 Topics:  International Travel | Medicine | Natural history | Science and technology | Travel 
 Genre:  General Correspondence | Scientific Correspondence 
 Subjects:  American Philosophical Society | Botany | Medicine -- 19th century | Paleontology -- 19th century | Yellow fever