Walter C. Shields Photograph album

Mss.SMs.Coll.4

Date: 1911-1928 1911-1913 | Size: 1 Volumes, 18.6 x 28.8 cm. album, 208 photographs

Abstract

Walter C. Shields was the Superintendent of Schools of the Northwest district of the Alaska division for the Bureau of Education of the United States Department of the Interior from 1910-1918. The photograph album reflects the dual role the Bureau of Education played in creating schools for Iñupiat children and domestic reindeer herding for their parents as part of a government project to impose Euro-American models of education and subsistence on Iñupiat communities. The 199 original black and white photographs, dated 1911-1913, reflect individual and group portraits of Iñupiat, interior and exterior views of their homes and schools, reindeer sleds and round-ups. Taken by Shields and his colleague H. Barnette, some specific locations include Barrow, Wainwright, Noatak, Selawik, Buckland, Candle, Deering, Wales, and Shishmaref. Nine other photographs, dated 1916, 1928, are of dwellings and dog sleds in the White Mountains.

Background note

Walter C. Shields was the Superintendent of Schools of the Northwest district of the Alaska division for the Bureau of Education of the United States Department of the Interior from 1910-1918. The photograph album reflects the dual role the Bureau of Education played in providing schools for Iñupiat children and domestic reindeer herding for their parents as part of a government project to impose Euro-American models of education and subsistence on Iñupiat communities. In 1884, the U.S. government had determined that Alaska Native were largely self-sufficient so the government role would be restricted to educational needs as it determined them. In 1890, Sheldon Jackson, a Presbyterian missionary and head of the United States Bureau of Education in Alaska recruited missionaries who would serve as teachers for Wales, Point Hope, and Barrow (Utqiagvik). Several church missions had an official connection with the bureau by which their missionaries were employed as teachers of the federal school system. Two years later, Jackson launched a program for developing reindeer herds to sustain the Iñupiat. Reindeer were entrusted to these mission schools with teacher's general supervision of herds and herders. With the gold rushes of Klondike and Nome, the Congress doubled the sums allotted for the bureau schools in the early 1900s. The population explosion of these two cities caused a new demand for products produced by the reindeer. In the midst of these changes, Walter C. Shields began his tenure as Northwest division superintendent. In a twofold capacity, he oversaw the increase in schools and reindeer herding in the Seward Peninsula. In his efforts, he tried to protect Natives from corruption by non-Natives while encouraging their wealth and prestige by means of reindeer herding. During his tenure he created new settlements or revived older ones with new placements of schools. He introduced reindeer fairs where herd owners could exchange information and listen to lectures on animal husbandry. He died during the 1918 flu epidemic.

Scope and content

The photographs in the album reflect Shield's visit from 1911-1913 to the many new and re-established areas of school locations in arctic Northwest Alaska. The 199 original black-and-white silver gelatin ethnological photographs of Iñupiat include: group shots outside and inside of schools, individual portraits in winter dress, family living conditions in igloos, dog sleds, and reindeer round-ups. Taken by Shields and his colleague H. Barnette, primarily along the Chukchi sea coast, some specific locations include Barrow, Wainwright, Kivalina, Kotzebue, Buckland, Deering, Shishmaref, Wales, Teller, and Golowin, with some inland sites at Kobuk, and Noatak. The prints, affixed to black paper leaves of a leather-bound album, contain white ink captions with dates. Nine other photographs, dated 1916, 1928, are of dwellings and dog sleds in the White Mountains.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Provenance

Purchased February, 2008

Preferred citation

Cite as: Walter C. Shields Photograph Collection, American Philosophical Society

Processing information

Catalogued June, 2008.

Bibliography

Flanders, Nicholas E. "Missionaries and professional infidels: religion and government in western Alaska." Arctic anthropology, v.28, no.2, 1991. 572.05 Ar25. Murdoch, John. "Ethnological results of the Point Barrow expedition." Ninth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology…1887-88. (Washington: Government Printing office, 1892) 572.061 Sm6 v.9. Sheldon, Jackson. "Annual report on introduction of domestic reindeer into Alaska." (Washington: Government Printing office) 328.73 Un3b 6th (1896); 636 J13 (1894, 1899). Urvina, Anthony and Sally. More Than God Demands: Politics and Influence of Christian Missions in Northwest Alaska, 1897-1918. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 2016.

Indexing Terms


Genre(s)

  • Gelatin silver prints

Geographic Name(s)

  • North Slope Borough (Alaska)
  • Northwest Arctic Borough (Alaska)
  • Seward Peninsula (Alaska)

Subject(s)

  • Arctic peoples -- Pictorial works
  • Eskimos -- Alaska -- Education
  • Eskimos -- Alaska -- Missions
  • Inupiat -- Alaska -- Barrow
  • Inupiat -- Alaska -- Kotzebue
  • Inupiat -- Alaska -- Seward Peninsula
  • Inupiat -- Alaska -- Social life and customs
  • Inupiat -- Alaska -- Teller
  • Inupiat -- Alaska -- Wales
  • Reindeer -- Arctic Regions
  • Yupik Eskimos


Detailed Inventory

Entire album
  
Individual image inventory
  
School house, Selawik
9 January 1912 
Iñupiat dwellings, Selawik
9 January 1912 
Mission hospital, Kotzebue
25 January 1912 
Trail between Selawik and the Kobuk, adlers along a creek
January 1913 
Trail between Selawik and the Kobuk, the lonesome pine
January 1913 
School house, Shungnak
January 1913 
New Teacher's residence, Shungnak
January 1913 
Iñupiat, group with dog, Barrow
March 1913 
Iñupiat group, dwelling, Barrow
March 1913 
Iñupiat at tea, Barrow
March 1913 
Tukpuk, portrait, Barrow
March 1913 
Trail from Council to Candle, fixing a sled
17 December 1911 
Trail from Council to Candle, Simon having lunch
17 December 1911 
Leaving Council herd, group
16 December 1911 
Shungnak herders, group
4 January 1912 
Iñupiat school children, Buckland
December 1913 
Iñupiat school children, group, Buckland
December 1913 
Christmas tree and presents, Selawik
December 1913 
Iñupiat igloo, Selawik
December 1913 
Iñupiat students, building, Kivalina
March 1913 
Iñupiat oldest, youngest students, Kivalina
March 1913 
Officers school republic, Kivalina
March 1913 
Earl Woodrow Wilson Negewanna, portrait, Kivalina
March 1913 
Klemetsen and wife, with deer, Kivalina
March 1913 
Reindeer, named Link, Kivalina
March 1913 
Saw Tooth Mountains, Mosquito Pass, man, reindeer, sled
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains, Mosquito Pass, man sitting on sled
April 1912 
Head of reindeer, no. 1
1912-1913 
Head and shoulders of reindeer, no. 1
1912-1913 
Mrs. Hefler, reindeer, harness, sled
1912-1913 
Head and shoulders of reindeer, no.2
1912-1913 
Reindeer
1912-1913 
Deering to Igloo: Iñupiat reindeer herders
1913 
Deering to Igloo: Iñupiaq man with sled
1913 
Deering to Igloo: reindeer fighting with feet
1913 
Deering to Igloo: reindeer fighting with horns
1913 
Driving sled through deep snow
1913 
Leaving Kivalina, group
1912-1913 
Leaving Barrow herd, group
1912-1913 
Leaving Council herd, group
1912-1913 
Alaskan camp site, Walter C. Shields
1913 
Camp in mountains
1913 
Chester Sevick, Jimmie Orealuk
1913 
Saw Tooth Mountains: reindeer, sled
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains: reindeer, sled
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains, landscape
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains, landscape
April 1912 
Selawik to Kobuk: reindeer driven by Walter C. Shields
1912-1913 
Selawik to Kobuk: reindeer, new harness
1912-1913 
Deering to Igloo: reindeer sled, Walter C. Shields
1913 
Deering to Igloo: reindeer sled, Walter C. Shields
1913 
Saw Tooth Mountains, landscape
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains, sled
April 1912 
Reindeer camp near Mosquito Pass
1912-1913 
Dwelling at Shishmaref
1912-1913 
Reindeer used from Kivalina to Ice Cape
1912-1913 
Reindeer used from Kivalina to Ice Cape, with sled
1912-1913 
Reindeer race at Teller
1912-1913 
Reindeer race at Teller, action photograph
1912-1913 
Reindeer race at Teller, Mr. Lopp
1912-1913 
Shishmaref to Wales: fast reindeer
1912-1913 
Shishmaref to Wales: strong reindeer
1912-1913 
Deering herders, group
1 February 1912 
Noatak herders, group
7 January 1912 
School house, Noatak
17 January 1912 
School children, parents, outside school house, Noatak
17 January 1912 
Reindeer, Kobuk herd
1912-1913 
Northern entrance to Mosquito Pass
1912-1913 
Walter C. Shields, portrait, native attire
1912-1913 
Walter C. Shields, portrait, native attire
1912-1913 
Walter C. Shields, full-length portrait, native attire
1912-1913 
Roofs of Iñupiat dwellings, Shishmaref
25 April 1912 
Mr. and Mrs. Hefler, residence, Shishmaref
25 April 1912 
Seal blubber, Shishmaref
25 April 1912 
School, residence, Shishmaref
25 April 1912 
Iñupiat children, group, St. Lawrence Island
12 July 1912 
Inspecting the meat herd, Nome
January 1912 
Inspecting the meat herd, Nome
January 1912 
Dwelling of modern type, Selawik
December 1913 
Overseers, Quaker Church
Decdmber 1913 
Iñupiat family, dwelling, interior
1912-1913 
Kugruk River between Selawik and Kobuk
1912-1913 
Residence, school, Shungnak
January 1913 
Judge Moran's fox ranch
January 1913 
C.D. Jones, Jimmie, Shungnak
1913 
Camp between Noatak and Kivalina
1913 
Camp on Humboldt Creek, near Deering
1913 
Reindeer and dogs travel together
1913 
Camp, cooking
1912-1913 
Camp, sleeping
1912-1913 
Camp, Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Camp, Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Ship "Transit" at Teller
9 July 1912 
Dr. Neumann, Mr. Starr, King Island
8 July 1912 
Mungnok's camp, Kotzebue Sound
January 1913 
Sleds, Kotzebue Sound
January 1913 
Tuliksek and wife, Cape Krusenstern
January 1913 
Tuliksek's dwelling, Cape Krusenstern
January 1913 
Walter C. Shields, reindeer named Gasolene, Sinuk
April 1913 
Walter C. Shields, reindeer named Uncle Sam, Sinuk
April 1913 
Camp, Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Camp, alcohol stove, Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Camp, tent, Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Reindeer round-up, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, run-way, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, last herd, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, Golovin
10 December, 1911 
Reindeer round-up, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Mr. and Mrs. Cox, Miss MacLeod, Kotzebue
25 January 1912 
School children, group, Kotzebue
25 January 1912 
Minungun's reindeer camp, Kotzebue
13 January 1912 
Minungun, with other Iñupiat, in tent, Kotzebue
13 January 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Saw Tooth Mountains
April 1912 
Reindeer camp, Golovin mission
9 December 1911 
Reindeer men at round-up, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Driving the herd in from the tundra, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Herd in the woods, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Dr. Barbour at river bank, Noatak
January 1918 
Church house, Noatuk
January 1918 
Sleds on ice, seal hunt, Noatak
January 1918 
Sleds on ice, seal hunt, Noatak
January 1918 
Cape Thompson, natural arch
1918 
Cape Thompson, strata
1918 
Iñupiat couple, Icy Cape
1918 
Sampson, trapper, Noatak
1918 
Mr. and Mrs. Cram, Alice Ahlook, Barrow
March 1913 
Inupiats with Mr. and Mrs. Cram, Barrow
March 1913 
Iñupiat school group, Barrow
March 1913 
Dog sled team, Barrow
March 1913 
Iñupiat dwellings, King Island
8 July 1912 
Iñupiat dwellings, roofs, King Island
8 July 1912 
Iñupiat dwelling, Bering Sea, King Island
8 July 1912 
Old man of the island, King Island
8 July 1912 
Mr. Harnden and family, Noatak
17 January 1912 
Iñupiat group, Noatak
17 January 1912 
School house, Kivalina
21 January 1912 
School house, Kivalina
21 January 1912 
Mr. Bates, cache with bear skin, Wainwright
March 1913 
Iñupiat school children, Wainwright
March 1913 
Mr. and Mrs. Bates with Iñupiat group, Wainwright
March 1913 
Iñupiat school group, two teachers, Deering
30 January 1912 
Iñupiat village group, Deering
30 January 1912 
Missionary Mrs. Gooden with Iñupiaq child, Deering
30 January 1912 
Mrs. Hare, Iñupiaq interpreter, Deering
30 January 1912 
Mrs. Hare, Miss Hunnicutt, Deering
30 January 1912 
Jack and Ashagak in dwelling, Deering
30 Jan. 1912 
Reindeer round-up, reading ear mark, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, milling, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Reindeer round-up, corral, Golovin
10 December 1911 
Walter C. Shields, Council
12-16 December 1911 
Fish River, Council
12-16 December 1911 
Willuk's cabin, reindeer camp, Council
12-16 December 1911 
Tautuk, chief herder, group, Council
15 December 1911 
Mr. Snow with Iñupiat group
15 December 1911 
Dr. Watkins, Dr. Neumann, Mrs. Caldwell, Wales
10 July 1912 
Caches, Wales
10 July 1912 
Dr. Neumann, reindeer camp, St. Lawrence Island
12 July 1912 
Dr. Neumann with Iñupiat group
12 July 1912 
Bluffs with reindeer sled between Wales and Teller
3 May 1912 
Lost River between Wales and Teller
3 May 1912 
Walter C. Shields, Jimmie, camp below Kivalina
1912-1913 
Iñupiat camp dwelling, below Kivalina
1912-1913 
Mr. and Miss Bates, Inupiat school children, Kivalina
21 January 1912 
Iñupiat school children, school house, Kivalina
21 January 1912 
Iñupiat dwelling at Kivalina
21 January 1912 
Camp Humbold creek en route Deering to Igloo
1912-1913 
Modern Iñupiat dwellings, Wales
1 May 1912 
Older Iñupiat dwellings, Wales
1 May 1912 
Five Iñupiat girls, outside, Kivalina
March 1913 
Iñupiaq piat girl sitting on oil tank, Kivalina
March 1913 
Walter C. Shields, Iñupiat group, Kivalina
March 1913 
Walter C. Shields, Iñupiat group, camp, Kivalina
March 1913 
Iñupiat group at reindeer herd, Kivalina
March 1913 
Walter C. Shields, Iñupiat couple, Kivalina
March 1913 
Mrs. Maguire, two Iñupiat women, Kivalina
March 1913 
Iñupiaq mother, child carried on back, Kivalina
March 1913 
Maguire's son, Iñupiat children, Kivalina
March 1913 
Mr. Maguire and Iñupiaq man, Kivalina
March 1913 
Tarlak, head council man, Kivalina
March 1913 
Assukhanna, Iñupiaq man, Kivalina
March 1913 
Iñupiat dwelling, Buckland
1913 
Iñupiat dwelling, Shungnak
1913 
Iñupiat dwelling, Kotzebue
25 January 1912 
Snow cache, Kotzebue
25 January 1912 
Iñupiat school children, Kotzebue
25 January 1912 
Iñupiat village group, Kotzebue
25 January 1912 
Iñupiat dwelling, Mr. Evans' dwelling, above Pitmagea
1913 
Iñupiat dwelling, boat frame, Pitmagea
1913 
Iñupiat dwelling, Icy Cape herd
1912-1913 
Iñupiat dwelling, skylight of walrus skin
1912-1913 
Iñupiat school children, uniforms, Wainwright
1912-1913 
Coal ship, winter quarters
1912-1913 
Barrow mission
March 1913 
Reindeer Company haul poles for corral, near Shungnak
n.d. 
Iñupiat dwellings, Shungnak
n.d. 
White Mountain
September 1916 
Barrow
August 1916 
Dr. Ronold, sled, dogs, Kanakauak
1928