Ellen Lehman Native American Photograph Collection

Mss.SMs.Coll.16

Date: Circa 1880-1900 1880-1889 | Size: 0.5 Linear feet, 19 Photographs

Abstract

A small collection rich in imagery, the Ellen Lehman Native American Photograph Collection consists of 19 albumen prints of late nineteenth-century Native American leaders on cabinet cards. The bulk of the images date from the 1880s and portray important members of the Dakota Indian tribes, many of whom fought against the 7th Cavalry of the U.S. Army at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. Among the leaders depicted are: Sitting Bull, Gall, Rain in the Face, Crow King, and White Bull. The collection also includes two images of Geronimo, the Bedonkohe Apache leader who resisted Mexican and American expansion in the Southwest in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The majority of the photographs in the collection were taken by David Francis Barry, with Orlando Scott Goff and George W. Scott also contributing.

Background note

David Francis Barry was born on March 6, 1854, near Rochester, New York, to Irish immigrant parents. When he was seven years of age, he and his family moved to Wisconsin. As early as 1870, Barry met O. S. Goff, performing menial tasks such as carrying water for the photographer. Little is known of the next eight years of Barry's life. In 1878, he followed Goff to the Dakota Territory; Goff hired Barry as an apprentice to assist him in his Bismarck gallery. The friendship and close-working relationship would grow, with Barry eventually becoming Goff's business partner. Between 1878 and 1883, utilizing a portable photographic studio, Barry traveled throughout the Plains to Fort Buford, Fort Yates, and Fort Assiniboine in Montana, taking photographs as he went. Maintaining a presence in and around Bismarck for the next seven years, in 1890 he returned to Wisconsin. Barry opened a studio and gallery in Superior, and his Dakota Territory photographs became a commercial success. Apart from a brief move to New York City around 1892, Barry remained in Superior until his death in 1934. Barry is best known for the images he took of Native American leaders--including Sitting Bull, Gall, Rain in the Face, Red Cloud, and Shooting Star--some of which are in this collection. He established a close working relationship and friendship with his subjects, and was close in particular to Lakota warrior Rain in the Face. Barry was dubbed "Little Shadow Catcher" by his Native American friends and served as the photographer of the 10-year anniversary event of the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

Orlando Scott Goff was born on September 10, 1843, the youngest son of a prosperous shoemaker in Connecticut. A Civil War veteran who served his country for four years, Goff fought in the 10th Connecticut Infantry regiment. He suffered gunshot wounds to his chest and right arm during his service. After the war, Goff studied photography in Lyons, New York and moved west. After a brief period as an itinerant photographer in Portage, Wisconsin, where he met David F. Barry, Goff moved to Yankton (1871) and Bismarck (1873), Dakota Territory, setting up photographic studios in each town. He would often travel outside of his studio, capturing images across the Plains. He worked as the post photographer for Fort Abraham Lincoln where George Custer and the Seventh Cavalry were stationed. He also photographed numerous Native American subjects. Goff retired from the photography business in 1900, and served one term in the Montana House of Representatives (1907-1908), before moving to Idaho where he passed away in 1916. Goff took a number of famous photographs during his career including the last known image of George Custer (1876), the first known image of Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce, and the first photograph of Sitting Bull after his surrender (1881).

George W. Scott was a photographer who operated out of the Dakotas and Wyoming, from 1883 to the early 1900s. Born on March 21, 1854 in Washington, D.C., Scott initially pursued an education in business, studying at Duff's Commericial College in Pittsburgh. While in the steel city, he also worked in a glass factory and as a painter. He then made his way west as a member of the U.S. signal corps, settling in Deadwood, South Dakota. He quit the service in 1883, and for the next four years worked strictly as a photographer. Rejoining the signal service in 1887, he moved around the Dakotas, all the while dabbling in photography. He worked out of Bismarck, Fort Yates, and Yankton. In 1894, he moved to Lander, Wyoming and set up the first photographic studio in that town.

Photographer Camillus "Buck" Sydney Fly (2 May 1849 – 12 October 1901) is most noted for the many photographs he took in and around Tombstone, Arizona, where he witnessed the "Gunfight at the O.K. Corral" (1881). In March, 1886, Fly traveled with General George Crook to the Canyon de Los Embudos for the negotiations with the Apache leader Geronimo. Fly gained fame for the photographs he took of the subsequent negotiations, and the images he took of Geronimo and his followers, taken on March 25 and 26th. These images are noteworthy as they are the only existing photographs taken of Native Americans while at war with the United States.

A Missourian by birth, William E. Irwin (1871-1935) learned photography in his early twenties in either the Indian Territory or Texas. Throughout his career, he operated galleries in Chickasha, Oklahoma; Silver City, New Mexico; Bisbee, Arizona; and Douglas, Arizona.

Businessmen Dr. George P. Dix, Joshua Bradford Bailey, and John L. Mead, attempting to capitalize on the popularity of images of the "Wild West," patronized various photographers to create photographic series of Native Americans.

Scope and content

A small collection rich in imagery, the Ellen Lehman Native American Photograph Collection consists of 19 albumen prints of late nineteenth-century Native American leaders on cabinet cards. The bulk of the images date from the 1880s and portray important members of the Dakota Indian tribes, many of whom fought against the 7th Cavalry of the U.S. Army at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876. Among the leaders depicted are: Sitting Bull, Gall, Rain in the Face, Crow King, and White Bull. The collection also includes two images of Geronimo, the Bedonkohe Apache leader who resisted Mexican and American expansion in the Southwest in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The majority of the photographs in the collection were taken by David Francis Barry, with Orlando Scott Goff and George W. Scott also contributing.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Provenance

Accession M2013-15. Donated by Ellen Lehman. The collection was purchased from Bonhams.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Ellen Lehman Native American Photograph Collection, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Processed by Michael Miller, June 2014

Related material

The APS has several rich photographic collections documenting Native Americans, including the A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6), and photographs in the papers of Frank Speck (Mss.Ms.Coll.126), William N. Fenton (Mss.Ms.Coll.20), and Alfred I. Hallowell (Mss.Ms.Coll.26).

Indexing Terms


Genre(s)

  • Albumen prints
  • Cabinet card photographs
  • Ethnographic photography

Personal Name(s)

  • American Horse, 1840-1908
  • Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934
  • Crow King
  • Gall, Dakota chief, 1840-1894
  • Geronimo, 1829-1909
  • Goff, O. S. (Orlando Scott), 1843-1916
  • Goose
  • Grass, John
  • Lehman, Ellen
  • One Bull, 1853-1947
  • Rain in the Face
  • Scott, George W., 1854-1910
  • Sitting Bull, 1831-1890
  • Spotted Tail, Brule Sioux Chie
  • White Bull, Joseph, 1849-1947

Subject(s)

  • Apache Indians
  • Chiricahua Indians
  • Crow Indians
  • Dakota Indians -- Photographs
  • Hunkpapa Band of Dakota or Sioux Indians
  • Indians of North America -- North Dakota
  • Indians of North America -- Photographs
  • Lakota Indians
  • Sioux Nation
  • Teton Indians


Detailed Inventory

Native American Photograph Collection
Circa 1880-190019 photograph(s)
1. Bailey, Dix, and Mead.
One Bull
18821 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card of waist-length seated portrait of One Bull (1853-1947), imprint of Bailey, Dix & Mead in lower mount and on verso, with printed bio of One Bull above list of other portraits in series on verso, image crisp. Number 7 in a series. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7484

17. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
American Horse
Circa 1880-18891 photograph(s)

Imperial albumen print cabinet card, head and shoulders portrait in profile of American Horse (1840-1908) in war bonnet and bone breastplate, "Barry" imprint stamped in photo and in lower mount, ink stamp caption in lower mount, fading, pinholes and chipping to corners of mount. On verso is manuscript note incorrectly identifying image: "Cheyenne Chief. Killed by Custer's cavalry before massacre. App. 1875." American Horse the Elder (1830-1876), uncle to American Horse the Younger, was killed by Custer. This image is of American Horse the Younger. Image: 8.25 x 6.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7485

2. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
Chief Gall
Circa 18811 photograph(s)

Albumen cabinet card of head and shoulders portrait of Chief Gall (c.1840-1894), with Bismarck, North Dakota imprint on verso and in lower mount, captioned in manuscript in lower mount ("Oncapapa Sioux"), slight fading, pinhole to top, two corners chipped. Provenance: C. F. Fisk, Fall River, Mass[achusetts] (ink inscription to verso). 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7486

3. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
Chief Gall
Circa 18851 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, standing portrait of Chief Gall (c.1840-1894), with West Superior, Wisconsin, imprint at lower mount and additional imprint featuring engraved portrait of Chief Gall on verso, printed and manuscript caption in lower mount, light soiling and fading, pinholes at top and bottom. Image labeled in manuscript, "In War Costume." Gall is standing, donning breech cloth and crucifix. 6.5 x 4.25 inches.

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7487

18. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
Chief Gall
Circa 18811 photograph(s)

Imperial albumen print cabinet card, head and shoulders portrait of the Hunkpapa Lakota chief Gall (c.1840-1894), with imprint to photo and lower mount, and "Tower Ave. Superior, Wisconsin" label to verso, some wear to mount, image crisp and sharp. 8 x 6 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7488

19. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
Chief Spotted Tail
Circa 1880-18811 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, three-quarters length standing portrait of the Brulé Lakota chief Spotted Tail (c.1823-1881) with "Barry" imprint stamped in photo and in lower mount, and "D. F. Barry ... Tower Ave. Superior, Wisconsin" label to verso, label manuscript captions in lower mount and on verso ("Chief Spotted Tail, Sioux Chief") faint scuff across breast, slight fading. Image: 7 x 5 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7489

4. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
Crow King
Circa 1880-18841 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, waist-length seated portrait of Crow King (d. 1884) wearing single-feather headdress, bone breastplate, and U.S. Army coat, with "D. F. Barry, / Photographer / Bismarck / D. T." imprint to verso, captioned in lower photo, pinholes at top and bottom, fading and mild soiling. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7490

5. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
Crow King
Circa 1880-18841 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, three-quarters length portrait of Hunkpapa Lakota chief Crow King (d. 1884) holding a pipe and wearing a bone breastplate and U.S. Army coat, with "Barry / photographer / Bismarck and / Standing Rock" imprint to verso, captioned within photo, additional ink caption to lower mount, "Second International Congress of Eugenics ... 1921" exhibitor's label laid down to verso partially covering up imprint, faint oxidation, pinholes at top and bottom. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7491

6. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
D. F. Barry and Chief Rain in the Face
Circa 18891 photograph(s)

Albumen print portrait of Rain in the Face (c.1835-1905) with photographer D. F. Barry (1854-1934), with smaller portrait of Barry (undated) laid down to lower left corner, image crisp. 9.5 x 5.5 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7492

7. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
Sitting Bull
18851 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, waist-length portrait of Sitting Bull (c.1831-1890) with "D. F. Barry, / Photographer, / Bismarck and Standing Rock" imprint to verso and Barry's copyright stamp and Bismarck imprint in lower mount, additionally captioned in lower mount, one faint spot of soiling and a touch of fading, some thumb-soiling to mount. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7493

8. Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934.
War Dance
Circa 18861 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, "War Dance," showing large group of Dakota Native American males sitting in a circle inside large open-sided tepee, with "Bismark and / Standing Rock, / D.T." title stamped in gilt at lower center, faded and soiled. 9.75 x 6.75 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7501

9. Fly, C. S. (Camillus Sidney), 1849-1901.
Scene in Geronimo's Camp
18861 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, titled "No. 181—Group of Hostiles," a group portrait of men, women, and children in Geronimo's camp, Mexico, with "Copyright / 1886 / By C.S. Fly, / Tombstone, Ariz" inkstamp at lower left, some fading and light soiling. With printed caption on verso: Scene in Geronimo's Camp, The Apache Outlaw and Murderer. Taken before the surrender to Gen. Crook, March 27, 1886, in the Sierra Madre mountains of Mexico. Escaped March 30, 1886. No. 181 - Group of Hostiles." 8.5 x 5.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7494

10. Goff, O. S. (Orlando Scott), 1843-1916.
Crow
Circa 1880-18891 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, seated portrait of Chief Crow, with "O.S. Goff / Bismarck, / D.T." imprint on verso, captioned in pencil in lower mount, slight yellowing, a few flecks of soiling and minor corner creasing. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7502

11. Goff, O. S. (Orlando Scott), 1843-1916.
Goose
Circa 1880-18891 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, waist-length seated portrait of Teton Lakota chief Goose (c.1836-1916), likely by O. S. Goff, with "D. C. Herrin ... East Portland, OR" imprint in lower margin, ink-stamped caption in lower mount, slight toning to mount, image sharp. Though bearing Herrin's imprint, the present photo is typically attributed to O. S. Goff. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7495

12. Irwin, William E., 1871-1935.
Geronimo
Circa 19001 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card portrait of Geronimo (1829-1909) in bonnet and with pistol in belt with "Irwin, Chickasha, Ind. Ter." imprint to lower mount, faint manuscript pencil caption on verso traced over in ink and reading, "Geronimo / Chief of the notorious band / of Arizona Apache Indians / Now a prisoner of war / at Ft. Sill," touch of rubbing but image sharp, some toning to mount. 7.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7496

13. Kern Brothers.
White Bull
Circa 1880-18891 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card of head and shoulders portrait of White Bull (1849-1947) by Kern Bros, with "314 Second St., N. Y." imprint in lower mount, slight fading. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7497

14. Scott, George W., 1854-1910.
Chief Gall
Circa 1880-18841 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, waist-length portrait of Hunkpapa Lakota chief Gall (c.1840-1894) in war bonnet by George W. Scott, with Fort Yates, Dakota imprint in lower mount, manuscript caption in lower mount and on verso: "Chief Gaul, Oncapapa Sioux Chief." 6.5 x 4.25 inches.

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7498

15. Scott, George W., 1854-1910.
Chief Rain in the Face
Circa 1880-18891 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, head and shoulders portrait of Hunkpapa Lakota chief Rain in the Face (c.1835-1905) by George W. Scott, with Fort Yates, Dakota imprint in lower mount, manuscript caption in lower mount, "The Second International Congress of Eugenics, Exhibit of Scientific Studies at the American Museum of Natural History, September 22 to October 22, 1921." Exhibitor's label laid down to verso, slight fading, faint oxidation, a few pinholes at top. 6.5 x 4.25 inches

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7499

16. Scott, George W., 1854-1910.
John Grass
Circa 1880-18891 photograph(s)

Albumen print cabinet card, head and shoulders portrait of Sihasapa Lakota chief John Grass (1837?-1918) by George W. Scott, with "Yankton, S.D." imprint to lower mount, manuscript caption, "John Grass," to lower mount, pinholes at top and bottom. 6.5 x 4.25 inches. Includes lengthy manuscript notes on verso:  "1881-1890. Helped U.S. agents to advance the Indian to what he is today. Chief all all [sic.] the Sioux. His adopted son - Major Welch - was at the front in France. Grass advised young men to fight in World War. Early name was Jumping Bear, and known as the 'Daniel Webster' of the Sioux. At age 21 he became infatuated with a captive white woman, Miss Fannie Kelly, who was 19. Her captivity was known to Gen. Sully but he was unable to rescue her. She promised to become his wife after he delivered a letter to Fort Sully on Missouri River in S.D. She escaped. Died at Standing Rock Agency, May 14, 1918."

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/graphics%3A7500

17. Abraham George
2016 December 3 

Other Descriptive Information: Book: Celestial Traveler: "This is a very strange story from a native's point of view because of its fantastical (shamanatic) nature." "Photo of Abraham George (who had the experience)" Photo found in book. Anchorage

18. A.E. Stephan
2016 December 3 

Other Descriptive Information: Book: Cheda (grandmother), Anchorage. Photo found in pamphelet: 970.1 PAM no. 459