Recordings at Yakutat, Alaska

Mss.Rec.19

Date: 1952 | Size: 7 reel(s)

Abstract

Recorded by Frederica de Laguna in the field at Yakutat, Alaska in 1952. Contains various types of Tlingit songs, including mourning songs, drinking songs, love songs, personal songs, and 3 Athabaskan songs, most likely Southern Tutchone. Includes Raven and other stories with some translations.

Background note

A seminal figure in the anthropology of the Arctic and Northwest Coast, Frederica de Laguna produced an unparalleled body of research during a career that spanned 75 years. "Freddy" as she was known to friends and colleagues, was blessed with "a combination of spectacular intelligence, uncommon dedication, literary skill, and longevity" (Fitzhugh 4). She made significant contributions to the study of circumpolar art, Arctic and Alaskan archaeology, and Northwest Coast ethnology. De Laguna practiced a comprehensive, holistic approach to anthropology; her meticulous work utilized archaeology, folklore, ethnohistory, social anthropology, human biology, and linguistics. An effective educator and encouraging mentor, De Laguna taught at Bryn Mawr College from 1935-1975, where she built an anthropology department and started a PhD program. She also made many contributions to the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. De Laguna earned many plaudits during her career, one of the most notable of which was being elected, along with Margaret Mead, as the first women anthropologists to the National Academy of Sciences in 1975.

Frederica Annis Lopez de Leo de Laguna was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan on October 3, 1906 to Grace Mead Andrus and Theodore Lopez de Leo de Laguna, both of whom were philosophy professors at Bryn Mawr College. A bright student with an uncommon memory, Frederica graduated summa cum laude from Bryn Mawr in 1927, with a major in politics and economics. After earning a baccalaureate, she spent a year taking graduate courses at Columbia University, studying anthropology, linguistics, and folklore with Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Gladys Reichard.

In 1929, de Laguna experienced her first taste of extensive fieldwork, through a six-month expedition to Greenland with the Danish anthropologist Therkel Mathiassen. The expedition is significant for being the first scientific archeological excavation in Greenland. The Inugsuk site the two visited contained a fascinating blend of Eskimo and Norse material. Captivated by the rugged, pristine landscape; the indigenous folk that she encountered; and the intellectual stimulation of fieldwork, de Laguna remarked in a letter home to her parents, "I feel as if I had never really been alive before" (De Laguna Voyage, 101).

Upon returning from Greenland, de Laguna enrolled full-time at Columbia, reconnecting with Franz Boas. She pursued a doctorate in anthropology, earning the degree in 1933. For her doctoral dissertation, de Laguna compared Eskimo and Paleolithic art.

In the summer of 1930, she took her first trip to Alaska, studying Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet. Further expeditions to Cook Inlet followed in 1931 and 1932; to Prince William Sound with Kaj Birket-Smith in 1933; and to the Yukon Valley in 1935.

De Laguna accepted her first academic position in 1935, becoming a lecturer in sociology at her alma mater, Bryn Mawr, where she taught the first anthropology course. A teaching career at the college followed: she became assistant professor in 1938, associate professor in 1949, and full professor in 1955. De Laguna chaired the joint Anthropology/Sociology department from 1950-1967, and the newly independent Anthropology department from 1967-1975. De Laguna also held several visiting professorships during her long career, at the University of Pennsylvania (1947-1949; 1975-1976) and at the University of California, Berkeley (1959-1960; 1972-1973).

De Laguna's academic career was interrupted by the Second World War. In 1942, she volunteered for the navy, serving in WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service). For a year she was based at Smith College, where she taught women midshipmen naval history and cryptography. From 1943-1945, de Laguna worked in Washington, D.C., for naval intelligence, at the Alaskan and German desks.

In 1949 Frederica returned to Alaska for the sixth time, and over the next twenty years, took an additional seven trips to the field there. She pursued an ambitious archaeological, historical, and ethnographic study of the Tlingit culture. From this work, she published a three-volume monograph, Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit (1972), which remains the definitive work on the tribe. It was well received both by anthropologists and the Tlingit themselves. During this time, de Laguna worked closely with her former student, Catharine McClellan. In addition to studying the Tlingit, she also studied the Atna Athabaskans of the Copper River and Upper Tanana with Marie-Francoise Guedon.

De Laguna's work became a resource for the communities she studied. Particularly in later years, she recorded samples of indigenous speakers talking in their native language as a means of helping to preserve native culture. APS holds several of these recordings.

De Laguna took great pride in forming positive relationships with the native peoples she encountered. She saw anthropology as a "liberating and exacting discipline [that] confer[s] citizenship in the universal brotherhood of humankind" (De Laguna, "Becoming," 25). With the longevity of her career, she was able to return to the communities she studied and tap in to these relationships, witnessing the change of a culture over time. De Laguna returned to Greenland in 1979, undertaking some ethnography of the people around Upernivik. She was touched to visit with an elder who in 1930 was a small child living on the island when de Laguna was excavating.

While working with the Tlingit, the tribe adopted de Laguna as a member of their Gineix Kwaan and Luknaxadi Raven Moiety clans. De Laguna received the tribal name of Kuxaankutaan and composed a song based upon the golden-crowned sparrow to her friends. She recorded the song in 1954 as part of her field work (See: Mss.Rec.30). Returning to Alaska in 1986, de Laguna sang the song during a memorial potlatch for a clan member. In 1997, the Tlingit honored de Laguna herself with a potlatch.

Reflecting upon her profession, de Laguna noted:

Anthropology is different from any other scholarly discipline or profession: it is a way of life...[I]t involves contacts with aliens, living with aliens, adapting to them, making friends, convincing them, and getting to know something of them as individual persons--and thereby transforming one's self and fulfilling one's hitherto unforeseen potentialities...[T]he anthropologist is taken out of this ordinary life and out of himself. In the constraints and challenges of the new life in the field, he finds a new freedom and a new personality. (De Laguna, "Presidential Address," 474).

De Laguna wrote this in 1968 as the outgoing president of the American Anthropological Association. Gaining a further perspective towards the end of her life, she added the following thoughts to the above passage in an essay written for a conference of Northwest Coast ethnologists in 2000: "If only in their imagination, [anthropologists] have been forced to accept the aliens' values and concepts, and when the field anthropologists return, they must translate these into terms that their colleagues can understand. Thus they have gained dual citizenship" (De Laguna, "Becoming," 51).

In returning from fieldwork, an anthropologist "never returns as the same person to one's own native country" (De Laguna, Voyage, 12).

De Laguna left a lasting legacy both to the professional community of anthropologists and to the native peoples she interacted with. Frederica de Laguna passed away on October 6, 2004 at her home in Haverford, Pennsylvania, three days after her 98th birthday.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Physical description

7 sound tape reels (4 hr., 9 min.) : analog, 7 1/2 ips, half track, mono ; 7 in. Notes, 30 p. The collection was re-boxed and re-labeled due to the poor quality of the original boxes. The sound quality of the collection is excellent, with a minimum of distortion and background noise.

7 sound tape reels (4 hr., 9 min.) : analog, 7 1/2 ips, half track, mono ; 7 in. Notes, 30 p. The collection was re-boxed and re-labeled due to the poor quality of the original boxes. The sound quality of the collection is excellent, with a minimum of distortion and background noise.

Provenance

Donor, Frederica de Laguna, 1959.

Processing information

Collection digitized and cataloged by Brian Carpenter during the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded audio digitization project, 2008-2014.

Related material

See also Frederica de Laguna, Tlingit and Yakutat Songs (Rec. 30).

Indexing Terms


Genre(s)

  • Sound recordings
  • Speeches, addresses, etc.

Geographic Name(s)

  • Lituya Bay (Alaska)

Subject(s)

  • Children's songs
  • Indians of North America -- Alaska
  • Mourning customs -- United States -- Alaska
  • Raven (Legendary character) -- Legends
  • Sea otter -- Folklore
  • Thunderbird (Legendary character) -- Legends
  • Tlingit Indians -- Folklore
  • Tlingit Indians -- Music
  • Tlingit mythology


Detailed Inventory

Audio recordings
  
Reel 1
 1 sound_tape_reel
01-01. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Reed, Jack.
Mourning song
1952-06-201 .mp3; 00:05:23

"1. Introductory remarks in broken English by Jack Reed of the song he is going to sing. 1:40 minutes. Whistle at 1:46. 2. Mourning song, compossed by Dry Bay Chief George, and sung by Jack Reed. There is a pause from 1:55 to 2:37, before Jack Reed begins singing. The song, followed by a few remakrs in Tlingit, lasts from 2:37 to 4:35 minutes. Whislte at 4:35. Break and pause to 5:05 minutes. 3. Identification of the above by F. de Laguna, 5:05 to 5:25."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:05:23


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Mourning customs -- United States -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6841

01-02. Reed, Jack. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Tlingit song
1952-06-211 .mp3; 00:00:27

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:00:27


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6848

01-03. White, Charley. Reed, Jack. Johnson, Minnie. White, Jenny. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
How the Russians gave whiskey to Raven
1952-06-211 .mp3; 00:07:02

"Charley White tells the story in Tlingit of how the Russians gave whiskey to Raven. ([Around 2:20 mark] his foot can be heard tapping.) Story lasts [approx. 4 minutes]. Without a break, Charley White, Jack Reed (who beats banjo with ruler wrapped in cloth as a drum), Jennie White and Minnie Johnson sing the song referring to the story, which was composed by Dry Bay Chief George. Song from [approx 4:00 to 6:30]. Final remarks by Charley White."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:07:02


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Whiskey; Raven (Legendary character) -- Legends; Tlingit Indians -- Folklore; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6854

01-04. Johnson, Minnie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Explanation in English of preceding story on how the Russians gave whiskey to Raven
1952-06-211 .mp3; 00:07:08

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:07:08


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Russians -- Alaska; Whiskey; Raven (Legendary character) -- Legends; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Folklore

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6860

01-05. White, Jenny. White, Charley. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Reed, Jack. Johnson, Minnie.
How Raven deceived the Sea Otters in order to get medicine (plants) from them
1952-06-211 .mp3; 00:06:14

"Story lasts to 1:32, followed by song connected with the story, starting at 1:55. "Jack Reed (with banjo as drum), Charley White (who soon takes over as song leader), Jennie White and Minnie Johnson sing.... The song ends with the spoken words hutc eya ('that's all').... Final remarks by Charley White.... Identification of the two preceding songs by F. de Laguna." De Laguna's closing comments also summarize prior recording, APSdigrec_0594.

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:06:14


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit Indians -- Medicine; Raven (Legendary character) -- Legends; Sea otter -- Folklore; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6858

01-06. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie. Reed, Jack.
Story about the culture hero, qakeqw'tE, who taught the Athabaskans at Dry Bay to catch oelachens
1952-07-041 .mp3; 00:17:59

"Story about the culture hero, qakeqw'tE, who taught the Athabaskans at Dry Bay how to catch oelachens.... Jack Reed sings the song composed by the hero of the story, when the grateful Athabaskans gave him a wife. It end with the spoken words hutc awa ('that's all'). Jack Reed resumes the story.... Explanation of the above story in English by Minnie Johnson."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:17:59


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Athapascan Indians; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Fishing; Tlingit Indians -- Folklore

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6873

01-07. McClellan, Catharine. Johnson, Minnie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Williams, Sarah. Reed, Jack.
Speeches in Tlingit
1952-07-041 .mp3; 00:01:34

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:01:34


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language; Speeches, addresses, etc.

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6866

01-08. Johnson, Minnie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Reed, Jack.
Drinking Song
1952-07-041 .mp3; 00:03:19

"Minnie Johnson says a few words.... Minnie Johnson sings drinking song, using the banjo as drum, but forgetting to hold down the strings... Whistle.... Jack Reed is urged to sing too, but refuses.... Minnie Johnson translates the song...."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:03:19


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska; Drinking songs -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6842

Reel 2
 1 sound_tape_reel
02-01. Johnson, Minnie. Johnson, Annie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Italio, Frank.
Practice singing of Thunderbird Origin Song
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:06:55

"Prompted by F de Laguna, Minnie Johnson explains the machine to Frank Italio. Whistle at 1:04 minutes. Frank Italio starts to explain in Tlingit about gò.snA', the little boy who was lost and rescued by the Thunderbirds, when he is interrupted at 1:20 to 1:25 minutes by the entrance of Mrs. Annie Johnson. Begins singing mourning song for gosnA' at 2:30 minutes, and is interrupted by Minnie at 3:40 to 3:45 minutes. Ends singing at 4:22 minutes. Frank and Minnie and Annie talk. There is a reference to the Tlingit language; laughter at 5:00 minutes; reference to yatqwan XEnaX (old people's language); an argument from 6 to 6:30 minutes. At 6:50 Minnie Johnson tells F de Laguna 'Shut it off.' Machine is stopped." Frank Italio also identified as "CAnkukedi (or dakAstina) 'Thunderbird Clan.')"

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:06:55


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Athapascan languages; Arguments; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Tlingit language; Eyak language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6839

02-02. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie. Italio, Frank.
Explanation of Thunderbird Origin Story; Mourning song for go.snA'
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:05:03

"Frank explains Thunderbird Origin Story in Tlingit. At [approx. 2:45] Minnie Johnson urges Frank Italio to sing. Mourning soung for go.snA' with rapid beat of cane." Correction made by collector on later recording that original identification of the language of the song--referred to as "yatqwan XEnaX (old people's language)"--was likely misidentified as Eyak and is instead likely to be "in some dialect of Athabaskan." Frank Italio also identified as "CAnkukedi (or dakAstina) 'Thunderbird Clan.')"

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:05:03


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Thunderbird (Legendary character) -- Legends; Tlingit language; Mourning customs -- United States -- Alaska; Tlingit mythology

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6850

02-03. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Explanation of Mourning song for go.snA'
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:06:07

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:06:07


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Mourning customs -- United States -- Alaska; Alsek River; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Thunderbird (Legendary character) -- Legends; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6844

02-04. Italio, Frank. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Song for the Thunderbird Screen
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:02:58

"Minnie Johnson explains [that this song] was composed in Tlingit by go.snA', and sung by Frank Italio, q'At'axítci." Frank Italio also identified as "CAnkukedi (or dakAstina) 'Thunderbird Clan.')"

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:02:58


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit mythology; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Thunderbird (Legendary character) -- Legends; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6863

02-05. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Explanation of Song for Thunderbird Screen
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:03:34

"Minnie Johnson explains [that the preceding song] was composed in Tlingit by go.snA', and sung by Frank Italio, q'At'axítci."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:03:34


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Thunderbird (Legendary character) -- Legends; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit mythology; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6862

02-06. Johnson, Minnie. Italio, Frank. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Love song to Teqweydi's and Kagwantan's Children
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:01:29

"This song was composed by Frank Italio. It is sung both by him and by Minnie Johnson. While singing and practicing, Frank became very jovial and held Minnie's hand in both of this. According to the unrecorded explanation, the song was originally composed in honor of Frank Italio's father, Kagwantan-yAdi, i.e. son of the Kagwantan, but the first verse was changed to make it a love song for Teqwedi's children, of whom Minnie herself is one." Frank Italio also identified as "CAnkukedi (or dakAstina) 'Thunderbird Clan.')"

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:01:29


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Children's songs; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6856

02-07. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Explanation by F. de Laguna of the preceding songs and stories
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:03:18

"Correction is made that the language of the Thunderbird Origin Song...is probably in Athabaskan, not Eyak."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:03:18


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6875

02-08. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie. Italio, Frank.
Continuation of Love Song
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:03:06

Frank Italio also identified as CAnkukedi (or dakAstina) 'Thunderbird Clan.'

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:03:06


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Children's songs; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6849

02-09. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Explanation in English of the Love Song
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:02:55

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:02:55


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska; Children's songs; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6864

02-10. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie. Italio, Frank.
Three Snatches of Mourning Song for Lituya Drowning
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:04:40

"This song was composed by a t'luq'naxAdi woman, wuck'ik'a, for her brothers who were drowned at Lituya Bay. It was sung by Frank Italio, but Minnie Johnson was too overcome by grief to translate. It was impossible to get Frank Italio to give a signal for turning on and off the machine so that the full song was not recoreded." Frank Italio also identified as "CAnkukedi (or dakAstina) 'Thunderbird Clan.')"

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:04:40


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Mourning customs -- United States -- Alaska; Drowning; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6871

02-11. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Identification of recording
1952-07-301 .mp3; 00:00:47

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:00:47


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6859

Reel 3
 1 sound_tape_reel
03-01. Johnson, Annie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Farewell song to t'luq'naxAdi's daughters
1952-08-131 .mp3; 00:02:25

Song composed by Annie Johnson's mother's brother, tánAXaci.

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:02:25


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6853

03-02. Johnson, Minnie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Explanation in English of Farewell song to t'luq'naxAdi's daughters
1952-08-131 .mp3; 00:02:12

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:02:12


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6870

03-03. Johnson, Minnie. Johnson, Annie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Song, composed by Raven and sung to Killerwhales
1952-08-131 .mp3; 00:01:00

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:01:00


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Raven (Legendary character); Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6851

03-04. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie. Johnson, Annie.
Story & Song about Averted Fight Between Tsimshian and Yakutat Natives
1952-08-131 .mp3; 00:09:14

Story told first in Tlingit by Annie Johnson, with interjections by Minnie Johnson, followed by song. Song composed by miniie Johnson's mother's brother, Ckinan.

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:09:14


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Hunting -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- History; Tsimshian Indians -- History; Indians of North America -- Alaska -- Hunting; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6869

03-05. Johnson, Minnie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Explanation in English of Story & Song about Averted Fight Between Tsimshian and Yakutat Natives
1952-08-131 .mp3; 00:10:31

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:10:31


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska -- Hunting; Hunting -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- History; Tsimshian Indians -- History

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6852

Reel 4
 1 sound_tape_reel
04-01. Johnson, Minnie. Italio, Frank. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Three Athabaskan Songs belonging to the cAnkukedi
1952-08-291 .mp3; 00:03:41

"These are three of four songs in gonana (Athabaskan) given by the Aiyan Chief to the cAnkukedi because their people were drowned in the Aiyan River when going to visit him. There were originally four songs, but Frank Italio, who sang them, has forgotten the fourth."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:03:41


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Athapascan Indians; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6843

04-02. Johnson, Minnie. Italio, Frank. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Song in Tlingit about the Drowning in the Aiyan River
1952-08-291 .mp3; 00:06:06

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:06:06


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Drowning; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6847

04-03. Italio, Frank. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Raven Cycle
1952-08-291 .mp3; 00:23:38

Story resumed on APSdigrec_0627. See Related Recording.

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:23:38


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Folklore; Tlingit mythology; Raven (Legendary character) -- Legends

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6865

Reel 5
 1 sound_tape_reel
05-01. Johnson, Minnie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Pet Song for Harold Gray
1952-09-091 .mp3; 00:04:04

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:04:04


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Children's songs; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6845

05-02. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Pet Songs for Esther, Rosemary & Audrey
1952-09-091 .mp3; 00:16:01

"[Begins with] - 'Well, I'm getting so, into a good song composer...' Then continues in Tlingit, interspersed with English: -- 'We got disgusted' -- 'I an my husband, Charley Johnson' -- 'and they said' -- 'So we got together and talked' -- 'Charley Johnson' -- 'Indian Affairs' -- 'Becky qa Beverley' (i.e. Esther's daughters) -- 'Esther du tla' (i.e. Esther's mother, Catherine Bartell) -- 'Beverly' -- 'Young' (the school teacher) -- 'Rosemary' -- 'Audrey.' Song for Esther, "Somebodda.." [at 5:48]. -- 'She stamp down' - continues explanation in Engilsh.... 'du kik Rosemary' (her yonger sister, Rosemary) -- 'when you, when she get cleaned up' -- 'I can't remember - he's working for - (tries to remember) -- 'These three little girls'. Song for Rosemary [at 13:28]. Song for Audrey [at 15:05]."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:16:01


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Children's songs; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6867

05-03. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Hymn sung in English, Tlingit, and Tlingit Babytalk
1952-09-091 .mp3; 00:08:43

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:08:43


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Children's songs; Hymns; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6840

05-04. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Identification of recording by F de Laguna
1952-09-091 .mp3; 00:01:22

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:01:22


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6868

Reel 6
 1 sound_tape_reel
06-01. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Johnson, Minnie.
Naskik's song
1952-09-091 .mp3; 00:11:16

"Naskik was her mother's mother's younger brother. He was chief of Reef House on Johnson Slough, and was married to a Teqwedi woman. He was the father of Situk Jim who died in 1916. He is supposed to have composed and sung this song after a quarrel with his brother-in-law, and then gone outside where he met his death. There is a hint of suicide, since in the song he wishes to join the Northern Lights, the abode of those who had died through suicide or murder."

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:11:16


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6857

Reel 7
 1 sound_tape_reel
07-01. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Italio, Frank. Johnson, Minnie.
The Song of the Beaver of the Kalix Kagwantan
1952-09-131 .mp3; 00:02:50

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:02:50


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Beavers -- Folklore; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit language

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6846

07-02. Italio, Frank. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Story and songs of cklayaqw'
1952-09-131 .mp3; 00:08:36

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:08:36


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit Indians -- Folklore; Tlingit language; Quests (Expeditions); Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6855

07-03. Johnson, Minnie. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
Explanation of the two preceding recordings; Beaver Song and the songs attributed to cklayaqw
1952-09-131 .mp3; 00:17:46

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:17:46


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit Indians -- Folklore; Quests (Expeditions); Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6861

07-04. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Bremner, Helen.
Explanation by Helen Bremner in Tlingit and English about the Beaver Song
1952-09-131 .mp3; 00:01:40

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:01:40


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Alaska -- Music; Beavers -- Folklore

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6872

07-05. De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004. Italio, Frank.
Continuation of Raven Stories: Raven's Theft of Daylight
1952-09-131 .mp3; 00:27:15

Completion of the story of of Raven in the box, interrupted by end of previous tape. Also includes the story of Raven in the Whale, followed without a break by Raven's Theft of Daylight, introduced by name for Dry Bay, gunaxo (i.e. among Athabaskans). The two songs given during the telling are 'Daylight' and 'I'll break it on you.' Resumption of story broken off on APSdigrec_0617.

Location of originals: This file is a compressed, digitized version of the original. The APS Library maintains the original format (Sound tape reel) as well as an uncompressed digitized version of this recording.

General physical description: 00:27:15


Geographic Name(s): Yakutat (Alaska)

Subject(s): Tlingit language; Indians of North America -- Alaska; Tlingit Indians -- Folklore; Tlingit mythology; Raven (Legendary character) -- Legends

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/audio:6874