Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers

Mss.Ms.Coll.64a

Date: 1920-2000 | Size: 103.5 Linear feet

Abstract

The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers include correspondence to and from 20th century anthropologists, ethnologists, historians, linguists, and psychiatrists and provides a wealth of resources for the study of technological and social change, American Indians, culture and personality, revitalization movements, the anthropological study of religion, and the cultural and biological bases of behavior. In addition to Wallace's correspondence, research notes, and drafts, the collection includes Wallace family correspondence and photographs, as well as Wallace's writings from childhood through recent years.

Background note

Anthony F.C. Wallace (1923- ) embarked on an anthropological career at a young age as a research assistant to his father, ethnologist and historian Paul A.W. Wallace in the 1930s. After briefly studying at Lebanon Valley College, Anthony enlisted in the U.S. Army, which assigned him to the 14th Armored Division. On American soil for a good portion of his enlistment, the division served in the European Theater and participated in the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.

After his discharge, Wallace began a lifelong association with the University of Pennsylvania's anthropology department, of which he eventually became chair. His initial, somewhat untraditional, choice of undergraduate majors--history and physics--reflected his desire to combine humanistic studies with scientific and technological approaches to the study of man, but the evolutionary perspective of James Frazer's The Golden Bough later guided him toward the most interdisciplinary of the social sciences--anthropology. Influenced by his father's work and his own interest in Indians, Wallace pursued graduate studies of the Delaware and Tuscarora Indians under the guidance of A. Irving Hallowell, Frank G. Speck, and Loren C. Eiseley, all direct intellectual descendants of Franz Boas. Speck had studied with Boas at Columbia, where Boas taught both Speck and Hallowell in one seminar. Speck and Eiseley, whom Speck had taught at Oberlin and brought to Penn, persuaded Hallowell, their former colleague, to return to Penn after a period at Northwestern. As an heir to the Boasian ethnographic tradition through Speck and Hallowell, Wallace inherited Boas' careful attention to methodology and his interdisciplinary conception of anthropology as encompassing physical, psychological, linguistic, and cultural studies. From his father and Speck, he inherited an interest in the rapidly disappearing cultures of the Northeastern Indians and a personal commitment to his research subjects. Through Hallowell, one of the principal figures in ethnopsychology, he learned to carefully describe behavior and psychological traits while considering the cognitive and emotional structures of his subjects. All of these he synthesized to create a unique blend of ethnology and history influenced by the social, behavioral, and biological sciences, thereby becoming one of the pioneers in the development of ethnohistory as a distinct field.

At Penn, Wallace earned his BA, MA, and Ph.D. in rapid succession. From men not known to bestow praise lightly, he received glowing recommendations that described him as a brilliant, yet humble, scholar and one of the best anthropology students with whom they had ever worked. Weaving Hallowell's psychological perspective into the study of Indian-white relations, his MA thesis examined the Delaware Indians and their chief Teedyuscung from a psychological, as well as historical, perspective. The work contained the seeds of Wallace's later work on revitalization movements, contrasting the demoralized eastern Delawares who accepted the Christian teachings of Moravian colonists with the more powerful western Delawares who developed a revitalized culture that rejected European influences. Published only a year later, King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung drew the attention of national publications and garnered largely favorable reviews. Francis Jennings, a frequent critic of Wallace's work, has opined that Wallace allowed theory to influence his presentation of data and that he relied heavily on psychoanalytic theory and biased historical accounts, perhaps overly so. Yet such tendencies often characterize the work of young scholars, as Jennings explains, and in the case of Teedyuscung, they do not detract significantly from its value as a work of anthropology. He also points out that Wallace's views toward the Quakers, quite harsh in Teedyuscung, later softened; in Death and Rebirth of the Seneca (1970), he wrote approvingly of the positive teachings and role models presented by the Quaker missionaries.

For his dissertation, Wallace took his cue from Hallowell, who encouraged his students to use Rorschach tests as a means of studying personality and culture, and Fenton, who had reviewed Hallowell's work and suggested its applicability to the Iroquois, and began an ethnopsychological study of the Tuscarora Indians. Wallace hoped to determine the personality type that occurred most frequently among the Tuscaroras and thereby to study the interaction of personality and culture. Although the modal personality occurred in only 37 percent of the population and thus did not represent the personality of most Tuscaroras, the study provided insight into common personality characteristics found among the Tuscaroras.

Indian research continued to occupy most of Wallace's time in the 1950s. In addition to an ongoing study of Seneca history and culture that he incorporated into several monographs and books, he devoted much of his free time from 1952 through 1959 to research, consulting, and testifying as an expert witness for legal cases before the Indian Claims Commission. Initially hired by the Joint Efforts Group, led by Felix Cohen, an attorney who initiated reform legislation affecting Indians during the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, Wallace worked for several Indian nations from the eastern Iroquois to the western Sioux. The Justice Department team, headed by Erminie Wheeler Voegelin, included the Marxist anthropologist Harold Hickerson. Most of the cases dealt with the federal government's legal jurisdiction and/or rights to land (or lack thereof) in various Indian nations based on sovereignty granted to the nations in treaties of the 18th and 19th centuries.

In the midst of his research for the Indian claims, Wallace became indirectly involved in the notorious Joseph McCarthy hearings when McCarthy named Walter Lowenfels, the father of Wallace's assistant Michal Lowenfels Kane, as one of the leading Communists in Philadelphia. Lowenfels, avant garde poet of the 1920s and the editor of the Pennsylvania edition of the Daily Worker, was the oldest of the "Philadelphia Nine," leaders of the local Communist Party arrested and convicted under the Smith Act during a five-month federal trial. Despite her father's troubles and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania's refusal to admit her to their library, Kane continued to work with Wallace.

During this time, he also began nearly twenty years of research on the Seneca Indians that culminated in the publication of Death and Rebirth of the Seneca (1970), perhaps his best known and most influential work. Originally planned as a biography of the Seneca prophet Handsome Lake, the project expanded into a detailed study of Seneca society, focusing on the prophet's role in "revitalizing" Seneca culture following a tumultuous period of social and cultural change in the late 18th century. After a descent into a personal maelstrom of alcoholism and near-madness that mirrored the turbulence in Seneca society, Handsome Lake underwent a personal transformation in which he experienced a series of visions and revelations. From these, he syncretized traditional Seneca religious beliefs with ideas of individual, social, and agricultural reform inspired by Quaker missionaries into a new religion through which he sought to revitalize his culture much as he had revitalized his personal life.

Wallace noted similarities between the psychological and physiological changes that accompanied religious inspiration such as Handsome Lake's, psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, and the personality changes associated with stress, social and cultural change, and disasters. Bringing an anthropological perspective to the increasingly accepted psychiatric theory that schizophrenia resulted from a genetic and/or biological predisposition awakened by psychological trauma, Wallace speculated that schizophrenia had both biological and cultural components, a theory he explored in "The Biocultural Theory of Schizophrenia" and "Mental Illness, Biology, and Culture."

Drawing from biological and cognitive psychological theories, he hypothesized that perhaps similar symptoms could arise in any individual undergoing psychological and physiological stress, a theory that developed into the concept of mazeway resynthesis. He noted that when individuals encounter experiences that challenge the "mazeways" through which they perceive and understand their worlds, their minds often become overwhelmed by conflict, resulting in cognitive dissonance, a state of psychological and (often) physiological turmoil. Applying Hans Selye's concept of general adaptation syndrome to the human mind, Wallace argued that attempting to exist in such discomfort often precipitates physical or mental illness. To resolve such conflicts, individuals must modify their mazeways to accommodate new, formerly troubling, elements, a process he termed "mazeway resynthesis." In more extreme cases involving prophets and psychiatric patients, Wallace believed that the altered physiological milieu resulting from stress engendered not only the process of psychological mazeway resynthesis but also the accompanying visions or hallucinations.

During this time, Wallace also developed his theory of revitalization movements, which in many ways extrapolates the concept of mazeway resynthesis to the larger society. He described five typical stages, which roughly correspond to the process of mazeway resynthesis, but at the social and cultural level. He theorized that revitalization movements, which he defined as "deliberate, organized, conscious attempts by some or all of the members of a society to construct for themselves a more satisfying culture." were more likely to occur in societies undergoing rapid and/or devastating social change. Most involved prophets who had experienced personal declines similar to that of Handsome Lake, which culminated in psychological states resembling schizophrenia, often accompanied by visions. Following these experiences, the prophets underwent personal transformations, communicated their visions and new insights to others, and synthesized old and new beliefs into new religions or ways of living that revitalized their cultures.

The intertwining themes of mazeway resynthesis and revitalization movements recurred throughout much of Wallace's work during this time, most notably in the first three books in a series of works that perhaps unintentionally fell into trilogies by subject matter. The first trilogy included Religion: An Anthropological View, Culture and Personality, and Death and Rebirth of the Seneca, all of which focused on the psychological, physiological, and cultural aspects of religion, the interaction of personality and culture, and the revitalization of individual personalities as well as cultures. In Religion, he eschewed a strictly critical view of religion in favor of an analytical approach that drew from historical, anthropological, psychological, and physiological sources. He particularly emphasized the ways in which religion and rituals serve as routes through which people achieve a sense of purpose and meaning that most people find difficult to achieve through their daily lives and as means of resolving conflicts that could threaten the existence of their cultures. With the rise of a more scientific and secular society, he foresaw a concomitant waning of institutionalized religious belief and its replacement with a non-deistic philosophy of concern for humanity. Religion moves beyond ethnological, historical, theological, and psychological theories and provides a thorough examination of the psychological and physiological aspects of ritual and religious belief.

Wallace's scientific analyses of religious beliefs and experiences, which disavowed supernatural influences and drew parallels between religious inspiration and schizophrenia, may not have endeared him to the more religiously inclined, but they did challenge previously held assumptions with regard to both religion and schizophrenia. Through his examination of the psychological, physiological, and cultural aspects of religious experiences and schizophrenia, Wallace raised vital questions regarding the role of religion in society and scientifically explained the ways in which individuals and societies react to change.

Breaking with the earlier cultural anthropological tradition of pure ethnographic description without historical context, Wallace advocated studies of cultural evolution that emulated the approach of evolutionary biology. In Culture and Personality, a scientific and at times quantitative analysis, he examined cultural evolution, the psychology of culture change, and the ways in which cultures provide cognitive frames of reference through which their members perceive and interpret events. . Using the relatively new method of componential analysis, Wallace and other anthropologists such as Floyd Lounsbury and Ward Goodenough used linguistic analysis, particularly in relation to kinship terminology, to study and describe cultures from the perspectives of those cultures rather than the perspectives of Western anthropologists.

Wallace's interests in anthropology, cognitive psychology, and biology found a home at the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute (E.P.P.I.) as the federal government and private foundations increased funding for interdisciplinary research in the 1950s and 1960s. As a consultant and later Director of Clinical Research at E.P.P.I., Wallace researched physiological, genetic, social, and cultural aspects of psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, arctic hysteria (piblokto), and disorders relating to nutritional deficiencies such as hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia. Applying anthropological concepts of linguistics and culture to psychiatric research, his work included studies on the terminology of emotions and the relation of hospital staff consensus to patient disturbance. During this time, Wallace also helped to develop a code of ethics for research with human subjects, following the lead of the National Institute of Mental Health, which in turn had followed guidelines established as a result of the Nuremberg War Crimes trials.

Through his affiliation with various committees during the 1960s and 1970s, Wallace continued his interdisciplinary work through studies of the psychological effects of disasters and the association between television viewing and social behavior. His influential study Housing and Social Structure, published by the Philadelphia Housing Authority, explored the negative psychological impact of living in high-rise public housing years before widespread popular criticism of such structures. Wallace also presciently argued against the popular psychological conception of homosexuality as a mental illness during the 1960s when he served as a consultant on the National Institute of Mental Health's Task Force on Homosexuality.

Throughout his years of psychiatric and sociological research, Wallace remained rooted in anthropological modes of analysis while maintaining a strong interdisciplinary perspective. As president of the American Anthropological Association in the early 1970s, he sought to bring related organizations under its umbrella and to resolve ethical conflicts such as the controversy sparked by federal efforts to recruit anthropologists for counterinsurgency missions in politically volatile nations such as Thailand.

Following the 1970 publication of Death and Rebirth, Wallace moved away from American Indian studies for several years and turned to the study of technological and social change in white America during the 19th century from an anthropological perspective. This served as the theme of his second trilogy of works, which included Rockdale, The Social Context of Innovation, and St. Clair. Inspired by his rural Delaware County, Pennsylvania surroundings, Wallace began to explore the area's history in local historical societies and courthouses, where he found a wealth of information on early 19th century textile mills and Delaware County families. From public records, county histories, and collections of personal papers, he created an evocative portrait of the Rockdale area, which he combined with an analysis of the development of industrialization into the detailed ethnohistorical study Rockdale: The Growth of an American Village in the Early Industrial Revolution (1978). Rockdale examined the paternalistic relationship between the evangelical Christian proponents of early industrial capitalism and their employees, their conflicts with freethinking radicals or "infidels," and the ultimate triumph of Christian capitalism in Delaware County, a microcosm of the larger American society. Although one might be tempted to assume that the industrialists cynically dosed their workers with religious opium as a means of subduing incipient labor troubles, Wallace demonstrates through his careful analysis of their words and actions that the textile mill owners and operators did, for the most part, live exemplary lives that reflected their belief in hard work and personal salvation.

Shortly after completing Rockdale, Wallace pursued a work that he considered its companion study, one that would study the effects of a less successful model of industrialization in American society. St. Clair: A Nineteenth Century Coal Town's Experience with a Disaster-Prone Industry (1985) explored how coal operators' disregard of geologists' warnings regarding Pennsylvania coal region geology and their failure to apply new technological innovations led to inefficient mining techniques, poor mine ventilation, and frequent accidents and explosions. Despite a thriving economy fueled by the 19th century demand for coal, the Pennsylvania coal region eventually deteriorated into economic and social disaster, replete with mining accidents, ethnic conflicts, and violence against coal operators and mine supervisors. Financially troubled small coal operators often blamed accidents not on their own failures but on Irish laborers bent on retribution against the mining companies. This developed into the true yet semi-legendary story of the Molly Maguires, whose crimes, trials, and executions became the episodes for which the coal region is perhaps best known. In St. Clair, Wallace not only analyzed the region's most prominent coal operators and the economists and industrialists who influenced them, but also painted a vivid portrait of life in the coal towns and mine patches. Although St. Clair lacks some of the warmth and familiarity that characterizes Rockdale, perhaps because of his relative distance from its subject, as Francis Jennings has noted, Wallace's work remains one of the few detailed and well-researched accounts of Pennsylvania coal region history.

Between these two massive studies, Wallace sandwiched a shorter study, The Social Context of Innovation (1982), which incorporated his research on the textile industry with his then in-progress study of the coal region. In Social Context, he described the interrelationship of technology and culture during the Industrial Revolution and the ways in which technological innovation arose from as well as resulted in social change, contrasting the Darby family's successful model of industrialization in Coalbrookdale, England with the unsuccessful examples found in Pennsylvania's coal region.

The third trilogy of works consisted of Prelude to Disaster: The Black Hawk War of 1832 (1990) The Long Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians (1993) and Thomas Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans (1999), all of which focus on Indian-white relations, and particularly government policy toward the Indians. With these works, Wallace resumed his study of American Indians but with an emphasis on their relations with the United States government and with a more pessimistic flavor than his earlier Indian research. Prelude to Disaster and The Long Bitter Trail developed out of Wallace's research for Indian claims cases and examined, respectively, the tragedies of the Black Hawk War and Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policies. Originally published as the introduction to Ellen Whitney's compilation Introduction to the Black Hawk War, 1831-1832, this brief (51-page) work traces the course of Indian-white relations in Illinois that culminated in the Black Hawk War. The Long Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians details the misguided and often racist policies that led the federal government to drive the southeastern Indians from their land to reservations in Oklahoma. Thomas Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans, his most recent work, explores Jefferson's often-conflicted relationship with the American Indian. Wallace believes that Jefferson viewed the Indians as a noble yet doomed race, whose history and language he sought to preserve while pursuing policies that ultimately would destroy their way of life.

Since his 1987 retirement, Wallace has remained an active and influential scholar, as evidenced by the three works described above and by his recent talks on the benefits and limitations of local history, which incorporate materials he used for his studies of Rockdale and St. Clair.

Scope and content

The voluminous Anthony Wallace Papers contain a wealth of material for scholars of anthropology, history, and psychiatry. At first glance, the collection appears quite eclectic, yet common themes of technological, social, and cultural change unite the seemingly disparate subjects, providing a broad range of source materials for the study of technological and social change, American Indians, personality and culture, revitalization movements, the cultural and biological bases of behavior, and Pennsylvania history, particularly that of Delaware and Schuylkill Counties.

Along with Wallace's correspondence to and from such anthropologists as Frank G. Speck, A. Irving Hallowell, William N. Fenton, Floyd Lounsbury, and others, the collection includes extensive correspondence with knowledgeable local historians, reflecting Wallace's awareness of the benefits as well as the liabilities of their homegrown knowledge. There is extensive correspondence from Merle Deardorff of Warren, Pennsylvania and Robert Scherr of Schuylkill County; Deardorff's correspondence in particular provides a wealth of information on Iroquois history and traditions as well as the occasional sharp and uncompromising criticism of Wallace's work.

Wallace's research notes, drafts of his works, and photocopies of primary source material from various repositories and reprints of secondary sources comprise the majority of the collection. His assemblage of 19th century census and tax records, church records, and local histories for the Pennsylvania towns of Rockdale and St. Clair provides researchers with a centralized resource of materials from various repositories. Card files of information collected on various families of Delaware and Schuylkill Counties represent a valuable resource for scholars of Pennsylvania history as well as genealogists. The reprints, on topics ranging from social and technological change, personality and culture, and psychiatric research to Indian history and Pennsylvania coal region history appear in the subseries related to these subjects.

News clippings and magazine articles related to Wallace's work appear throughout the collection. The most significant include articles on federal efforts to recruit anthropologists for counterinsurgency and other politically-motivated missions, particularly in Thailand, and the Kinzua Dam controversy, when the state of New York built a dam that flooded much of the historic Cornplanter Grant on the Allegany Reservation. The collection also contains extensive materials on the Indian land claims cases of the 1950s, in which Wallace served as an expert witness.

Notes and research materials for Wallace's works since 1990 are not currently included in the collection, but Series IV, Works by Wallace, does include the original manuscript draft of his 1999 work on Thomas Jefferson and the Indians under the working title Logan's Mourner.

In addition to documenting the Wallaces' professional careers, the collection documents the personal side of their family through correspondence, photograph albums, and histories dating from the 1920s that also describe 19th century people and events. The family albums include three histories compiled by Paul A.W. Wallace; two histories compiled by Paul Wallace's father, clergyman Francis Huston Wallace; 19th century images of Wallace ancestors, homes, and the Wallace family library; photographs of Anthony Wallace and his brother David from childhood through adulthood; and Anthony Wallace's World War II scrapbook of photographs from his military service, which includes original photographs of Germany in 1945. The collection also includes Anthony Wallace's scrapbooks and notebooks as well as his writings from childhood through adolescence.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Restrictions

Restrictions on Use:

The following items are closed to researchers for 75 years from the date of creation:

  • Rorschach tests conducted on Tuscarora Indians (Series II A, boxes 6 and 7, 1947-1951)
  • Notes from psychiatric studies and tapes and transcripts of counseling sessions at the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute (Series VII, boxes 7, 8, and 9, 1958-1961)
  • Student recommendations from the University of Pennsylvania (Series VIII, boxes 9 and 10, 1955-1988).

Provenance

Gift of Anthony F.C. Wallace, 1988, 1999-2000 and Presented by David H. Wallace, 1967.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Catalogued by Valerie Anne Lutz, 2003.

Related material

APS possesses the papers of a few of Anthony Wallace's colleagues in the department of anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. See also the papers of Ward Goodenough (Mss.Ms.Coll.120), Dell Hymes (Mss.Ms.Coll.55), and Ruben Reina (Mss.Ms.Coll.67).

African American History Note

The Wallace Papers contain at least one set of materials which may be of interest to students of African American History:

Lott, Steve. [Student at West Chester State College.] "Slavery." 1972.

Photocopied introduction to Lott's paper "Industrialization and the Black Population in S.E. Penna., 1780-1840." Includes 36 bibliographic index cards pertaining to sources in African American history in Pennsylvania, focusing on slavery and abolitionism. Also includes a photocopy of Joseph E. Walker's "A Comparison of Negro and White Labor in a Charcoal Iron Community" from the journal Labor History, volume 10, number 3 (1969).

Indexing Terms


Corporate Name(s)

  • Akwesasne Counselor Organization
  • Mohawk nation at Akwesasne
  • Six Nations Indian Museum

Family Name(s)

  • Du Pont de Nemours family
  • Du Pont family
  • Smith Family

Genre(s)

  • Carte de visite photographs
  • Gelatin silver prints
  • Gouaches -- Color
  • Maps.
  • Negatives
  • Newspaper clippings.
  • Photographs
  • Photomechanical prints
  • Postal cards.
  • Rorschach tests
  • Scrapbooks.
  • Sketches.
  • Slides.
  • Tintypes
  • Woodcuts -- Color

Personal Name(s)

  • Akweks, Aren, 1910-2008
  • Baird, Henry Carey, 1825-1912
  • Blacksnake, Governor, ca. 1753
  • Broomall, John Martin, 1816-18
  • Burhoe, Ralph Wendell 1911-
  • Carey family
  • Carey, Mathew, 1760-1839
  • Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011
  • Chittibhol, Bancha (Thai stude
  • Clay, Henry, 1777-1852
  • Congdon, Charles E. (Charles Edwin)
  • Cornplanter, 1732-1836
  • Cornplanter, Jesse J.
  • De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004
  • Deardorff, Merle H., d.1971
  • Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977
  • Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005
  • Fogelson, Raymond
  • Foster, Michael K.
  • Gowen, Franklin B. (Franklin B
  • Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974
  • Handsome Lake, 1735-1815
  • Hsu, Francis K.
  • Jackson, Halliday,1771-1835.
  • Jennings, Francis P.
  • Kehoe, John, 1837-1878
  • Lammot family
  • Lounsbury, Floyd Glenn, 1914-1998
  • Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978
  • Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955
  • Richter, Daniel (two letters,
  • Sellers family
  • Siney, John, 1835-1881
  • Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
  • Spindler, George D.
  • Spiro, Melford Elliott
  • Sturtevant, William C.
  • Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015
  • Wallace, Paul A. W.
  • Witthoft, John

Subject(s)

  • Abolition, emancipation, freedom
  • American Anthropological Association
  • American Philosophical Society
  • Anishinaabe
  • Anthracite coal industry -- United States -- Pennsylvania
  • Anthropology -- Methodology
  • Anthropology -- Research
  • Anthropology -- Study and teaching.
  • Arctic hysteria
  • British Americans -- Pennsylvania -- Schuylkill County
  • Cemeteries -- Pennsylvania -- Delaware County
  • Chester County (Pa.) -- History
  • Coal -- Geology -- Pennsylvania
  • Coal mine accidents -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Coal trade -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Cognition and culture
  • Counterinsurgency -- Thailand
  • Cross-cultural studies
  • Cults
  • Culture
  • Delaware County (Pa.) -- History
  • Delaware Indians -- New York (State) -- History
  • Delaware Indians -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Disasters
  • Disasters -- Psychological aspects
  • Disasters -- Social aspects
  • Domestic relations -- Pennsylvania -- 19th century
  • Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • Education -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
  • Ethnicity -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Ethnohistory
  • Ethnopsychology
  • Geology -- Pennsylvania
  • Germans -- Pennsylvania
  • Goodenough, Ward Hunt
  • Haudenosaunee
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Indians of North America -- Claims
  • Indians of North America -- Government relations
  • Indians of North America -- Missions
  • Indians of North America -- New York (State) -- History
  • Industrialization -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Industries -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Inuit -- Greenland
  • Irish -- Pennsylvania
  • Iron industry and trade -- History
  • Iroquois Indians -- Civilization and social life
  • Iroquois Indians -- Folklore
  • Iroquois Indians -- Government relations
  • Iroquois Indians -- History
  • Iroquois Indians -- Religion
  • Iroquois Indians -- Rites and ceremonies
  • Iroquois Indians -- Social conditions
  • Iroquois Indians -- Social life and customs
  • Kinzua Dam
  • Labor and laboring classes -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Labor movements -- History
  • Labor, industrialization
  • Lowell (Mass.) -- History
  • Millenialism
  • Mills and millwork
  • Molly Maguires
  • National Science Foundation
  • Nativistic movements
  • Nutrition -- Psychological aspects
  • Onondaga Indians
  • Paranoia
  • Pennsylvania -- History
  • Personality and culture
  • Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company
  • Piblokto
  • Power (Social sciences)
  • Prophets
  • Psychiatric hospital care
  • Psychiatry
  • Psychobiology
  • Psychology
  • Psychology and religion
  • Psychotherapy patients
  • Quakers -- Pennsylvania
  • Railroads -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Religion
  • Religion and science
  • Revitalization movements
  • Rockdale (Pa.) -- History
  • Rorschach test
  • Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenia -- Genetic aspects
  • Schizophrenia -- Physiological aspects
  • Schizophrenics
  • Schuylkill County (Pa.) -- History
  • Seneca Indians
  • Seneca Indians -- History
  • Seneca Indians -- Religion
  • Seneca Indians -- Social life and customs
  • Slaves, slavery, slave trade
  • Social change
  • Social movements
  • Social sciences -- Methodology
  • Society of Friends
  • St. Clair (Pa.) -- History
  • Strikes and lockouts -- Coal mining -- United States -- Pennsylvania
  • Technological innovation
  • Technology -- Social aspects
  • Textile industry
  • Textile machinery
  • Textile manufacturers -- Pennsylvania -- Delaware County
  • Textile workers -- Pennsylvania -- Delaware County
  • Transportation -- Pennsylvania -- History
  • Tuscarora Indians
  • Tuscarora Indians -- Social life and customs
  • Working class -- United States -- History -- 19th century
  • World War, 1939-1945

Collection overview

 11 lin. feetbox 1-23

Series I consists of Anthony F.C. Wallace's correspondence, primarily professional, interspersed with personal letters. Reflecting Wallace's meticulous attention to detail, the correspondence includes almost all outgoing as well as incoming letters. The 2048 correspondents include anthropologists and historians, both professional and amateur; American Indians, government officials, military officers, students, publishers, and readers of his work. Subjects include technological, social, and cultural change; Seneca and Iroquois history and culture; revitalization movements; personality and culture; linguistics; Delaware County history; and Pennsylvania coal region history, the University of Pennsylvania, and psychiatric research, particularly in relation to schizophrenia.

Wallace corresponded most extensively with his father Paul, anthropologist William N. Fenton, local historian Merle H. Deardorff of Warren County, Pennsylvania, and Ralph W. Burhoe, founder of Zygon and the Institute for the Study of Religion in an Age of Science. Other significant correspondents include his early mentors Frank G. Speck and A. Irving Hallowell and colleagues Francis K. Hsu, Raymond D. Fogelson, and Francis Jennings.

The correspondence between Anthony and Paul Wallace, with topics ranging from anthropological and historical research to family matters, provides a rare glimpse into the personal and professional relationship between two generations of an academic family. Spanning the first twenty years of Anthony Wallace's career, the correspondence shows the gradual evolution of Paul and Anthony's relationship from one of father/mentor and son to one of professional colleagues. The family correspondence also includes letters between Anthony and his brother David during World War II and letters from his father Paul A.W. Wallace to other family members, one of which describes the infant Anthony a few days after his birth.

The correspondence with Fenton and Deardorff contains detailed discussions of Iroquois history and culture and reflects not only their admiration and respect for one another but also the varied opinions of Iroquoian scholars. Particularly noteworthy examples include Fenton and Wallace's disagreement with regard to the Indian wampum controversy and Deardorff's occasionally sharp and uncompromising criticism of Wallace's work, particularly with regard to his statements regarding Cornplanter's life and family. The Deardorff correspondence, some of which also appears in Series II, also includes intriguing analyses of the lineage and clan memberships of Cornplanter, Handsome Lake, Blacksnake, and others based on their names and references to them and other family members.

The extensive correspondence with Ralph Burhoe is not as unlikely as it might initially appear, given Wallace's interests in religion and science. In lengthy and detailed letters, Burhoe discussed Wallace's theories of mazeway resynthesis as applied to religious inspiration and described his own attempts to reconcile religious belief with scientific knowledge, which led to the founding of Zygon and the Institute for the Study of Religion in an Age of Science.

The disappointingly spare correspondence with Hallowell reveals little, consisting largely of administrative material relating to the University of Pennsylvania. The letters between Speck and Wallace, although less extensive than one might hope due to their unfortunately short association that ended with Speck's death in 1950, still provide insight into one of Wallace's most influential professional relationships and complement the extensive Speck materials at the APS. Despite a few reservations regarding Wallace's psychological analysis of Teedyuscung, the only book-length Wallace work Speck lived to see, Speck's support for Wallace's work shines through in his encouraging and complimentary words regarding an early draft.

Hsu's correspondence includes discussions of kinship terminology and linguistic analysis interwoven with personal letters that reveal a warm friendship, with several references to family visits. As might be expected, correspondence with colleagues Fogelson and Jennings include reviews of each other's drafts, some of which appear in the correspondence and elsewhere in the collection. The Jennings correspondence reflects their frequent differences of interpretation

Other interesting and noteworthy correspondents include Tuscarora Indian Mina Brayley Smith, whom Wallace met during his research in the late 1940s, Bancha Chittibhol, a student who maintained contact with Wallace after her return to Thailand and sent a great deal of material relating to Thai culture, and Margaret Kint, who described her personal experiences with schizophrenia and became an advocate for research into the biological aspects of schizophrenia.

Additional correspondence regarding particular research topics or institutions and committees with which Wallace was affiliated may be found in Series II, VI, VII, VIII, and IX, including additional correspondence with Merle Deardorff, Robert Scherr, and others that Wallace kept with the materials to which it pertained.

 23 lin. feetbox 24-73

The largest series in the collection, Series II contains Anthony F.C. Wallace's research notes, drafts, photocopies of primary source material from various repositories, and correspondence that he filed with his research notes. The six subseries reflect Wallace's arrangement of his materials, which are also reflected in the organization of bibliographies in his respective works.

1947-19754.5 linear feet

Notes and drafts from Wallace's research among the Seneca and Tuscarora Indians. Materials include field notes, notes and photocopies from primary and secondary sources, and several issues of the Allegany Reservation newsletter Oh-Ho-Ye-Noh (1970-1972). Although restrictions exist on the Tuscarora Rorschach tests because of the sensitive personal information revealed, the series includes unrestricted censored versions and summary reports as well as the published work Modal Personality of the Tuscarora Indians as Revealed in the Rorschach Test.

Correspondence that Wallace filed with his notes also appears in Series II A, which includes correspondence with local historian Merle H. Deardorff of the Warren County (Pa.) Historical Society. The Deardorff correspondence contains detailed descriptions of Iroquois (particularly Seneca) history and culture, with thorough discussions and analyses of the lives of Cornplanter, Handsome Lake, and Blacksnake, and other Indians of New York State and Pennsylvania.

Related Indian materials appear in Subseries B, Revitalization and Culture; Series III, Bibliographic Notecards, which includes card files of primary and secondary source notes; Series XI, Photographs, which contains Indian reservation photographs taken by Wallace and his father, and in the Paul A.W. Wallace portion of the collection.

1950-19704.5 linear feet

Notes and drafts from Wallace's research on revitalization movements, personality and culture, cognition and culture, and religion. Materials include handwritten notes, photocopies of primary and secondary sources, and componential analyses of linguistic terminology. Some material overlaps with that in Subseries A, Indian Research.

1970-19953 linear feet

Notes and drafts relating to Wallace's study of technological innovation and its interaction with social and cultural change. Materials include handwritten notes, photocopies of primary and secondary sources, and several papers from conferences and talks on technology and social change.

1971-19958 linear feet

Materials from Anthony F.C. Wallace's research on the Rockdale area of Delaware County, Pennsylvania, particularly with regard to its mills and industries, but also including extensive information on well known families such as the Smiths and du Ponts. The Rockdale subseries includes notes, extensive photocopies of primary and secondary sources, papers from conferences and talks on Rockdale, Delaware County, and industrialization, student seminar papers related to industrialization and Delaware County history, and the original handwritten manuscript of Rockdale.

A unique item also appears with the Rockdale materials: an original 19th century account book from the Sharpless-Worrall company, which apparently supplied mills with raw materials and equipment. Several familiar Delaware County names such as Lammot, Pennell, Willcox, and others appear in the book.

Series III, Notecards, contains information on bibliographic sources for Rockdale and census data on Rockdale area families. Series XI, Photographs contains over 300 photographs and over 3000 slides of textile mills and machinery and the Rockdale area, a dream collection for historians of industrialization and Delaware County.

  
  
  
  
  
1978-19999 linear feet

Materials from Anthony F.C. Wallace's research on the St. Clair, Schuylkill County area of the Pennsylvania coal region, including notes, drafts, photocopies of primary and secondary sources of material relating to Pennsylvania coal region history and detailed analyses of census data for the town of St. Clair, and papers from conferences and talks on St. Clair, Schuylkill County, industrialization, and the role of the hero, particularly as represented by the industrialist, in 19th century America.

A valuable central resource for the study of Pennsylvania coal region history, with copies of rare items from repositories and libraries throughout Pennsylvania, the St. Clair subseries contains a wealth of material on coal mining, coal miners and labor organizations, Schuylkill County and Pennsylvania coal region history and the Molly Maguire crimes and trials. In addition to photocopies of most major 19th and 20th century sources on coal region history, arranged by author, the series contains primary source materials culled from several area repositories. These include deeds, correspondence, and other materials from Pennsylvania families as the Wetherills, Careys, and others influential in coal region history as well as notes and correspondence relating to the Pinkerton National Detective Agency's investigation of the Molly Maguires.

The St. Clair subseries also includes three linear feet of photocopies of Miners' Journal newspaper articles from 1830 to 1878, which Wallace and his wife Betty extracted and arranged by subject, thereby creating an index of sorts for a publication that has no known index.

Series III, Notecards, contains additional information on bibliographic sources for St. Clair, census data on St. Clair families, notes on prominent Schuylkill County individuals, and an alphabetical card file of miners injured and killed, which provides a less time-consuming alternative to researching the chronologically-arranged state mine accident reports for St. Clair. Series XI, Photographs, includes over 100 photo reproductions of 19th century prints and photographs depicting coal mining and the Pennsylvania coal region from the Historical Society of Schuylkill County.

  
  
  
  
1946-198515 linear feetbox 74-114

Index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources for Anthony F.C. Wallace's research on American Indians, Arctic Hysteria (Piblokto), Rockdale, St. Clair, and Indian claims.

ca.1937-19998 linear feetbox 115-132

Manuscripts, reprints, and reviews by Anthony F.C. Wallace. Works range from his earliest childhood writings to published writings.

  
  
  
ca.1950-19881 linear footbox 133-134

Manuscripts, reprints, and reviews by colleagues of Anthony F.C. Wallace. Most works by others appear throughout other series; this series consists of those that Anthony F.C. Wallace maintained separately.

1951-199510 linear feetbox 135-153

Materials relating to Anthony F.C. Wallace's private consulting work and his affiliation with various professional organizations, government agencies, and committees from 1951 through 1995, including minutes, reports, correspondence, and other administrative records for the following:

  • American Academy of Arts and Sciences
  • American Anthropological Association (President, 1971-1972)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science: Chairman, Section H
  • American Philosophical Society: Committee on Library
  • Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Mental Health Research Foundation: Research Advisory Committee
  • Foundation's Fund for Research in Psychiatry: Board of Directors
  • National Institute of Mental Health: Behavioral Science Study Section
  • National Institute of Mental Health: Fellowship Review Panel, Behavioral Sciences
  • National Research Council: Committee on Disaster Studies
  • National Research Council: Division of Behavioral Sciences
  • National Science Foundation: Social Science Research Advisory Committee, (chairman 1970-1971)
  • New Jersey Neuro-Psychiatric Institute: Technical Advisory Committee
  • Philadelphia Housing Authority (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior
  • U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment : Space Program Advisory Panel
  • U.S. Office of Education: Environment Panel, Cooperative Research Program
  • U.S. Office of Education: Research Advisory Council
  • U.S.-U.S.S.R. Commission on the Social Sciences and the Humanities (sponsored by American Council of Learned Societies): U.S. Subcommission on Anthropology
  • Veterans Administration Hospital (Perry Point, Md.)
  • Woodrow Wilson Center, Smithsonian Institution: Advisory Council, Program in American History and Culture

Although the committee files contain a great deal of routine administrative correspondence, most include reports of interest to those researching American society and culture in the mid to late 20th century. The American Anthropological Association records contain extensive information on the controversy sparked by government efforts to recruit anthropologists for counterinsurgency efforts in politically volatile nations such as Thailand and include several copies of "underground" or independent political publications. The U.S.-U.S.S.R. records include papers by Russian anthropologists and several items published in the Russian language.

  
  
  
  
  
1955-19804.5 linear feetbox 154-162

Materials relating to Anthony F.C. Wallace's affiliation with the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute (E.P.P.I.) from 1955-1980. The series includes notes and reprints relating to psychiatric research as well as administrative materials and correspondence relating to E.P.P.I.'s Clinical Research Department.

The psychiatric research includes material on the physiological, genetic, social, and cultural aspects of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Material relating to Eskimos and the study of arctic hysteria (piblokto), which shares some similarities with Seasonal Affective Disorder, also comprises a significant portion of the series and includes information on the psychological effects of nutritional deficiencies such as hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia. The series also includes an early paper on premenstrual tension. Although about one-third of the series consists of restricted materials such as tapes and transcripts of personality and family studies conducted at E.P.P.I., the unrestricted portion provides detailed information on the clinical research department of a psychiatric hospital in the mid 20th century as well the relationship between physiological and psychological disorders.

1946-19905 linear feetbox 163-171

Materials relating to Anthony F.C. Wallace's half century of affiliation with the University of Pennsylvania, excluding committee work, which appears in Series VI. Materials include notes and syllabi for courses taken (1946-1950) and taught (1948-1988) by Wallace at the University of Pennsylvania, 1946-1985 and student dissertations for which Wallace served as advisor. Anthropological instructors include Frank G. Speck, A. Irving Hallowell, Theodore Stern, Wilton Krogman, Froehlich Rainey, Loren Eiseley, Frederica de Laguna, and Linton Satterthwaite. Particularly significant are notes for courses taught by Frank G. Speck, as Speck's papers include little material relating to his University of Pennsylvania tenure.

  
  
 15 linear feetbox 172-199

Materials relating to Anthony F.C. Wallace's extensive research as an expert witness during the Indian Claims Commission hearings, in which various Indian nations attempted to reclaim land taken from them by the federal government. The subseries includes Wallace's notes, photocopies of and extensive typewritten transcriptions of primary and secondary sources relating to American Indians, treaties, and land settlements; trial transcripts, and associated correspondence with attorneys, Indians, and the Indian Claims Commission.

1930-19881 linear footbox 200-201

Materials related to Anthony F.C. Wallace's personal life, including autobiographical notes; diaries from his military service during World War II, histories of his paternal and maternal families; two "early manuscripts" from 1930, high school and church information from Annville, Pennsylvania, and other miscellaneous items. The series also includes professional items that Wallace filed with his personal information, such as certificates and awards; recommendations from professors, employment offers, and letters of appointment for positions at the University of Pennsylvania.

 3 linear feetSee oversized boxes in LH-B-25 and OS folders stacked on the green cabinet adjacent to the locked black cabinet on the basement level of Library Hall.

Maps associated with Anthony F.C. Wallace's research on the Seneca and Tuscarora Indians, Indian nations throughout the United States during research for hearings of the Indian Claims Commission, the Rockdale area of Delaware County, Pennsylvania, the St. Clair area of the Pennsylvania coal region, and from his anthropological coursework at the University of Pennsylvania from 1947-1951.

Not individually catalogued

 9 linear feet

Photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario and Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians, industrialization, the Rockdale area of Delaware County, Pennsylvania and the St. Clair area of the Pennsylvania coal region, and Wallace family photograph albums. Original photographs of Indians taken by Paul and Anthony Wallace comprise a relatively small but valuable portion of the series. The bulk of the photographs represent Wallace's Rockdale research, with over 300 photographs and over 3,000 slides of textile mills and machinery and the Rockdale area. A relatively smaller but significant portion of the series consists of photo reproductions of 19th century prints and photographs depicting coal mining and the Pennsylvania coal region from the Historical Society of Schuylkill County.

The seven personal and family photograph albums include three family albums with histories written by Paul A.W. Wallace, two written by his father Francis Huston Wallace, and a scrapbook and World War II album compiled by Anthony F.C. Wallace. The photographs include images of Wallace ancestors, homes, and the Wallace family library; photographs of the Paul A.W. Wallace family, including photographs of Anthony Wallace and his brother David from childhood through adulthood; and photographs of the Anthony F.C. Wallace family from the 1940s through the 1960s.

The family albums provide a rare glimpse into the personal life of two American scholars as well as a documentation of an American family in the 19th and 20th centuries. The World War II album not only documents the military service of an American soldier, but also graphically depicts the Germany of 1945; subjects include landscapes, bombed buildings, German soldiers, concentration camp ovens and a grisly image of a charred foot.

One rare and unusual photograph also appears in the series: a photograph of Albert Einstein with Anthony Wallace's aunt, taken aboard a ship during a trip abroad to renew his passport.

Wallace Family papers, Native American Images note : Nearly 4,000 black and white silver gelatin photographs; black and white negatives; pencil and ink sketches; photomechanical prints; news clipping photographs; watercolor paintings; postcards; color slides; and maps of Iroquois tribes of the Six Nations Confederacy, particularly Tuscarora and Mohawk, from 1932-1977. Images represent the research of Paul A. W. Wallace and Anthony F. C. Wallace, father and son anthropologist. Paul's photograph collection presents traditional ethnographic images of social life and customs: dwellings, ceremonies, utensils, clothing, and individual portraits of Iroquois, with half of the material attributed to Akwesasne Mohawk Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens). Anthony's ethno-psychological emphasis is displayed in images of arctic hysteria suffered by Inuits and traditions of Tuscaroran culture. Of particular interest, pictographs by Lawrence H. Leder of Robert Livingston Indian records, watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's son John, original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscaroran Nellie Gansworth, and tintype and carte de visite portraits. Photographs taken by the Wallaces, except where noted. Images can be found in Paul Wallace's Correspondence, Series I; Anthony Wallace's Indian research, Series IIa; Graphic Series and Oversize collection. Oversize maps include Native American linguistic and tribal settlement distributions in northeastern United States and southeastern Canada from 1525-1850. Some references in Freeman's Guide to manuscripts relating to the American Indian and the manuscript sketch files.



Detailed Inventory

Series I. Correspondence
 11 lin. feetbox 1-23

Series I consists of Anthony F.C. Wallace's correspondence, primarily professional, interspersed with personal letters. Reflecting Wallace's meticulous attention to detail, the correspondence includes almost all outgoing as well as incoming letters. The 2048 correspondents include anthropologists and historians, both professional and amateur; American Indians, government officials, military officers, students, publishers, and readers of his work. Subjects include technological, social, and cultural change; Seneca and Iroquois history and culture; revitalization movements; personality and culture; linguistics; Delaware County history; and Pennsylvania coal region history, the University of Pennsylvania, and psychiatric research, particularly in relation to schizophrenia.

Wallace corresponded most extensively with his father Paul, anthropologist William N. Fenton, local historian Merle H. Deardorff of Warren County, Pennsylvania, and Ralph W. Burhoe, founder of Zygon and the Institute for the Study of Religion in an Age of Science. Other significant correspondents include his early mentors Frank G. Speck and A. Irving Hallowell and colleagues Francis K. Hsu, Raymond D. Fogelson, and Francis Jennings.

The correspondence between Anthony and Paul Wallace, with topics ranging from anthropological and historical research to family matters, provides a rare glimpse into the personal and professional relationship between two generations of an academic family. Spanning the first twenty years of Anthony Wallace's career, the correspondence shows the gradual evolution of Paul and Anthony's relationship from one of father/mentor and son to one of professional colleagues. The family correspondence also includes letters between Anthony and his brother David during World War II and letters from his father Paul A.W. Wallace to other family members, one of which describes the infant Anthony a few days after his birth.

The correspondence with Fenton and Deardorff contains detailed discussions of Iroquois history and culture and reflects not only their admiration and respect for one another but also the varied opinions of Iroquoian scholars. Particularly noteworthy examples include Fenton and Wallace's disagreement with regard to the Indian wampum controversy and Deardorff's occasionally sharp and uncompromising criticism of Wallace's work, particularly with regard to his statements regarding Cornplanter's life and family. The Deardorff correspondence, some of which also appears in Series II, also includes intriguing analyses of the lineage and clan memberships of Cornplanter, Handsome Lake, Blacksnake, and others based on their names and references to them and other family members.

The extensive correspondence with Ralph Burhoe is not as unlikely as it might initially appear, given Wallace's interests in religion and science. In lengthy and detailed letters, Burhoe discussed Wallace's theories of mazeway resynthesis as applied to religious inspiration and described his own attempts to reconcile religious belief with scientific knowledge, which led to the founding of Zygon and the Institute for the Study of Religion in an Age of Science.

The disappointingly spare correspondence with Hallowell reveals little, consisting largely of administrative material relating to the University of Pennsylvania. The letters between Speck and Wallace, although less extensive than one might hope due to their unfortunately short association that ended with Speck's death in 1950, still provide insight into one of Wallace's most influential professional relationships and complement the extensive Speck materials at the APS. Despite a few reservations regarding Wallace's psychological analysis of Teedyuscung, the only book-length Wallace work Speck lived to see, Speck's support for Wallace's work shines through in his encouraging and complimentary words regarding an early draft.

Hsu's correspondence includes discussions of kinship terminology and linguistic analysis interwoven with personal letters that reveal a warm friendship, with several references to family visits. As might be expected, correspondence with colleagues Fogelson and Jennings include reviews of each other's drafts, some of which appear in the correspondence and elsewhere in the collection. The Jennings correspondence reflects their frequent differences of interpretation

Other interesting and noteworthy correspondents include Tuscarora Indian Mina Brayley Smith, whom Wallace met during his research in the late 1940s, Bancha Chittibhol, a student who maintained contact with Wallace after her return to Thailand and sent a great deal of material relating to Thai culture, and Margaret Kint, who described her personal experiences with schizophrenia and became an advocate for research into the biological aspects of schizophrenia.

Additional correspondence regarding particular research topics or institutions and committees with which Wallace was affiliated may be found in Series II, VI, VII, VIII, and IX, including additional correspondence with Merle Deardorff, Robert Scherr, and others that Wallace kept with the materials to which it pertained.

Abel, Marianne
19762 items
Abelson, Philip
19701 item
Aberle, David Friend, 1918-
1954-19728 items
Aborn, Murray
1962-197614 items
Abrams, Ray Hamilton, 1896-
1956-19624 items
Abrams, Sam
19693 items
Acker, Wendy
19635 items
Ackerman, Kenneth
1959-19692 items
Ackerman, Robert, 1935-
1962-198010 items
Adams, John M.
19896 items
Adams, Mrs. K. Bruce
19621 item
Adams, Richard N.
1962-19812 items
Adams, Robert McC.
1973-19809 items
Adams, Walter Randolph
19781 item
Addison-Wesley Press
19622 items
Adelman, Fred
1956-195810 items
Adis, Abby
19731 item
Adumuah, E.N.
19722 items
Aginsky, Burt
19522 items
Air Force Personnel and Training Research Center (U.S.)
19567 items
Akweks, Aren
1952, 19552 items
Al-Faruqi, Isma'il R., 1921-
19731 item
Albany, Mrs. George A.
19842 items
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
19584 items
Albert Einstein Medical Center
19674 items
Albright College
19891 item
Albritton, Errett C. (Errett Cyril), 1890-
19632 items
Alderfer, E. Gordon
19548 items
Aldine Publishing
19731 item
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.
1968-198179 items
Allegheny College (Meadville, Pa.)
1954-19766 items
Alley, Thomas R.
19631 item
Alpert, Harry, 1912-
19591 item
Altschuler, Milton
19661 item
American Anthropological Association
1962-199129 items
American Anthropologist
1957,1972-198918 items
American Antiquarian Society
1954, 19824 items
American Association for the Advancement of Science
1952-197323 items
American Association of Retired Professors
19893 items
American College of Hospital Administrators
19533 items
American Council on Education
19641 item
American Ethnological Society
19563 items
American Heritage Publishing Company
19841 item
American Historical Review
1974-19837 items
American Indian Culture and Research Journal
19792 items
American National Biography
19938 items
American Orthopsychiatric Association, Inc.
1962-19676 items
American Philosophical Society
1951-1991142 items
American Psychological Association
19551 item
American Society for Technion
19641 item
American Sociological Review
1952-19635 items
Ames, Michael M., 1933-
1958-19636 items
Amis, William D.
19562 items
Amplifier Corporation of America
195814 items
Amsden, Diana Avery
1970-19712 items
Anderson, George C.
19541 item
Anderson, Jon
19653 items
Anderson, Terese M.
1990-199211 items
Anderson, William H.
19681 item
Andre, James M.
19674 items
Andrews, Egbert W.
1968-19806 items
Angel, J. Lawrence (John Lawrence)
19571 item
Animal Secrets
19672 items
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
1957-19627 items
Annual Reviews Inc.
19693 items
Anthony, E. James
19701 item
Anthropologica
19762 items
Antioch College
19627 items
Antis, Claude S.
19702 items
Appadurai, Arjun
1978-19834 items
Appel, Kenneth E.
1954 
Applezweig, Mortimer H.
19571 item
Aquila, Richard
19744 items
Archambaud, Molly N.
19693 items
Archea, John
19703 items
Architectural Forum
19572 items
Arctic Health Research Center
19592 items
Arctic Institute of North America
1962-19633 items
Arensberg, Conrad Maynadier
19621 item
Armstrong, David F.
19711 item
Armstrong, Robert
19612 items
Armstrong, William H.
19752 items
Aronfreed, Justin Manuel, 1930-
ca.196020 items
Aronoff, Joel
19623 items
Aronson, Dan R.
19622 items
Atkins, John
1959-19644 items
Atkinson, John W.
19552 items
Atlantic Monthly
19543 items
Atwood, Kenneth L.
19622 items
Auchincloss family
19791 item
Axtell, James
1975-19807 items
Babcock, Charlotte G.
1953-19543 items
Bahnson, Claus
1970-19766 items
Bailey, Clark J.
1969-19739 items
Bain, Mary T.
19642 items
Baker, Dwight P.
19721 item
Balderston, C. Canby, 1897-
19521 item
Baldwin, Alfred Lee, 1914-
19553 items
Baldwin, John D., 1941-
19691 item
Balikci, Asen, 1929-
19694 items
Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam
19872 items
Banks, E. Pendleton
19621 item
Barbehenn, Cathy Steen
19822 items
Barkun, Michael
1971-19766 items
Barnard, Robert D.
19561 item
Barnett, James H.
 1 item
Barnholth, Wm. I.
1955-19573 items
Barnouw, Victor
19622 items
Baron, Mitchel D.
19721 item
Barr, William H.
19732 items
Bartlett, F. Lewis
19632 items
Bartz, John
19671 item
Baruah, Amrit
19671 item
Basic Book Service
19583 items
Bass, William M., 1928-
19622 items
Bauer, Catherine
1951-19528 items
Bauman, Richard
19671 item
Bauman, Robert F.
19551 item
Bausch, Christa
19662 items
Bayor, Ronald H.
19802 items
Beaglehole, Ernest, 1906-
  
Beals, Ralph Leon, 1901-
1964-19654 items
Beamesderfer, Sam H.
19742 items
Beck, Horace
19761 item
Becker, Marshall Joseph
1961-198927 items
Becker, Steven J.
19706 items
Beker, Jerry P.
19596 items
Bell, Robert F.
19694 items
Bell, Whitfield J. [Whitfield Jenks]
1967-198330 items
Belshaw, Cyrus S.
19581 item
Benderly, Beryl Lieff
1969-19746 items
Benet, F.
19591 item
Benjamin, Richard Charles
19511 item
Bennett, Wendell Clark, 1905-1953
19522 items
Benson, Margaret
  
Bentley, Amy
19891 item
Benton, Raymond Jr.
1978-19803 items
Berde, Stuart
19822 items
Berg, Ivar E.
19851 item
Berg, Kenneth
19622 items
Berger, David
19582 items
Bergin, James F.
n.d.1 item
Berkhofer, Robert F.
1957-19792 items
Berkowitz, Samuel H.
19593 items
Bernard, H. Russell [Harvey Russell], 1940-
19761 item
Berne, Henry
19691 item
Berson, Elaine S.
19752 items
Berwitz, Clement J., 1905-
19692 items
Biechler, James E.
19831 item
Bieder, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1938-
19752 items
Billig, Otto
19731 item
Bilu, Yoram
19773 items
Bird, Caroline
19572 items
Birr, Kendall
19751 item
Blackford, Frank R.
1972-197416 items
Blackie, Ian
19743 items
Blankenship, Roy, 1943-
19831 item
Blau, Harold
1963-19664 items
Blumberg, Baruch S., 1925-
19692 items
Blumenfeld, Ruth
  

See McKay, Ruth Blumenfeld

Bobbs-Merrill Company
196413 items
Bobrow, Davis B.
19641 item
Bobrow, Sue B.
19617 items
Bock, Philip K.
19622 items
Boder, David P.
19552 items
Boehm, Christopher
  
Boggs, Stephen T.
1962-196713 items
Bohannan, Laura
19711 item
Bohannan, Paul
1962-197412 items
Boissevain, Jeremy
19623 items
Boisvert, Alain
19771 item
Bollingen Foundation
19541 item
Bolton, Ralph
19721 item
Book Find Club
19541 item
Book-of-the-Month Club
19542 items
Books for Libraries, Inc.
19706 items
Borie, Greta
19832 items
Born, David O.
19684 items
Boston University
19893 items
Boszormenyi Nagy, Ivan, 1920-
1960-196713 items
Bourguignon, Erika, 1924-
1955-19624 items
Bowles, Gordon Townsend
19648 items
Bowman, Frank
19802 items
Brandeis University
1964-19899 items
Braschi, Vincent
19823 items
Brayley, Mina
1952-19586 items
Brennan, John C.
19905 items
Brewer, George F.
19621 item
Bridenbaugh, Carl
1975-19794 items
Briggs, Peter S.
19872 items
Brodsky, Samuel
19521 item
Bromberg, Jo Ann
1977-199063 items
Brooks, Margaret
19691 item
Brooks, Patricia Laiching
19753 items
Brown University
1972-19845 items
Brown, Cecil H., 1944-
1974-19757 items
Brown, Jerry
19733 items
Brown, Joanne
19782 items
Browne, Donald E.
19721 item
Bruner, Edward
1967, 19736 items
Brunvand, Jan Harold
19722 items
Bryant, Nancy
19581 item
Bryn Mawr College
1982, 19875 items
Brzezinski, Zbigniew K. 1928-
19744 items
Buchanan, Barbara S.
19843 items
Buchler, Ira R.
1966, 19804 items
Bucknell Review
1969-19702 items
Buddy, Robert S.
19662 items
Buettner-Janusch, John 1924-
19733 items
Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society
19531 item
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
19571 item
Bunker, Barbara E.
19792 items
Burch, Ernest S. 1938-
19781 item
Burdell, Edwin Sharp 1898-
19531 item
Burger, Henry G. 1923-
1963-198510 items
Burhoe, Ralph Wendell 1911-
1961-19832 folders
Folder 1
1961-197069 items
Folder 2
1970-198370 items
Burks, Arthur W. (Arthur Walter), 1915-
19773 items
Burling, Robbins
1964-19746 items
Burton-Bradley, B.G.
1974-19778 items
Bush, Robert
19581 item
Bux-Mont Unitarian Fellowship
19644 items
Buxbaum, Melvin H.
19832 items
Cabell, Richard
19692 items
Cabral, Edward
1981,19872 items
Cadbury, Warder H.
19594 items
Cadiz, Victoria
19722 items
Caldwell, Lynton K. (Lynton Keith), 1913-
19653 items
California State Personnel Board
19572 items
Callaway, Chaudoin III
19743 items
Cambra, Nancy
19723 items
Cambridge University Press
  
Campbell, Robert D.
1965-19706 items
Campisi, Jack
  
Camurca, Zelia S?viana
19791 item
Cannel, Ward
1973-197618 items
Carlson, Liz
19841 item
Carlson, Robert G.
19822 items
Carnegie Institute of Technology--Graduate School of Industrial Administration
19582 items
Carnegie Institution of Washington
19541 item
Carneiro, Robert L. (Robert Leonard), 1927-
19631 item
Carpender, Sydney B.
19684 items
Carpenter, Edmund Snow 1922-
1952-195828 items
Carr, William K.
1956-19592 folders
Carreras, Lou
19771 item
Carroll, Anne B.
19672 items
Carta, Mark R.
19742 items
Carter, Edward Carlos 1928-
1981-198725 items
Casagrande, Joseph Bartholomew, 1915-
1953-19736 items
Catlett, Stephen
19832 items
Caudill, William A.
1956-19625 items
Caughey, John L., 1941-
1973-198010 items
Cauthen, Nathan
19721 item
Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences
19561 item
Center for the Study of Man Smithsonian Institution
19741 item
Centre de Recherche et D'analyse en Sciences Humaines
19832 items
Challenger Center
19871 item
Chamber of Commerce of Greater Philadelphia
19671 item
Chamberlain, Dwight Lewis
19673 items
Champagne, Duane
19822 items
Chance, Norman
19631 item
Chapman, Dwight W.
19542 items
Chard, Chester S.
  
Charles Scribners Sons
19725 items
Chazanof, William
19542 items
Cheatum, E. Leonard
19643 items
Chicago National Historical Museum
19651 item
Chinas, Beverly
19882 items
Chinese University of Hong Kong
197310 items
Chittibhol, Bancha
1965-1967 
Folder 1
196553 items
Folder 2
196539 items
Folder 3
196541 items
Folder 4
196572 items
Seven Portuguese publications and several postcards
1966-1967 

(see oversize box)

Chmurny, William W.
19623 items
Choe, Sang-goo
19822 items
Chu, Clayton
19831 item
Churchill, Henry S.
1953 
Cimino, Louis F.
19801 item
Citizens' Housing and Planning Council of New York
19591 item
Clark University
19521 item
Clark, A. McFayden
1975, 19812 items
Clark, Margaret
1957-19586 items
Clark, Robert D.
1962-196313 items
Clausen, John A.
1951-19567 items
Clemence, Gretchen
19624 items
Clendenen, H. Franklin
19625 items
Cleveland Foundation
19711 item
Clifton, J.F.
19761 item
Cochran, Thomas Childs, 1902-
195710 items
Codere, Helen
1964-19653 items
Coelho, George V.
  
Coffman, Robert J.
19834 items
Cohen, Eugene
1962-19654 items
Cohen, Lucy
1954-19573 items
Cohen, Martin M.
n.d.1 item
Cohen, Sidney, 1910-
19572 items
Coile, Jennifer
19742 items
Coker, Gulbun
19621 item
Cole, Fred
19662 items
Cole, George Jr.
19712 items
Cole, John
1962-19653 items
Cole, Michael
19751 item
Coleman, Michael
19753 items
Collazo, Liz
19861 item
College of William and Mary
19642 items
Collier, Malcolm
1964-197110 items
Collins, Caroline
19592 items
Columbia University
1959-1973, 19807 items
Columbia University Press
1976-19795 items
Community Planning Association of Canada
19582 items
Comparative Studies in Society and History An International Quarterly
1959-19898 items
Condominas, Georges
19721 item
Confrey, Eugene A.
1964 
Congdon, Charles E.
1951-196811 items
Conklin, Harold C.
1956-19597 items
Conlon, Paula
19821 item
Connelly, Gordon M.
19562 items
Contemporary Films, Inc.
19595 items
Conyers, Claude
19822 items
Cook, John P.
19632 items
Cook, Peter S.
19703 items
Coon, Carleton Stevens, 1904-
19631 item
Coonrad, Robert W.
19671 item
Cooper, Chester L.
19732 items
Cooper, Ralph
19663 items
Cope, Oliver, 1902-
1966-19687 items
Copernicus Society of America
19731 item
Corning, Peter A.
19712 items
Cornplanter, Jesse
19521 item
Corwin, Ronald G.
19663 items
Couch, Stephen Robert
19851 item
Coulter, Robert T.
19757 items
Cox, Margaret J.
19711 item
Cox, Stephen
19721 item
Cozin, Mark
1972 
Craig, Alice J.
19625 items
Crapanzano, Vincent
19702 items
Crawford, Diane
19822 items
Cremin, Lawrence Arthur, 1925-
19721 item
Cromie, William J.
19731 item
D'Andrade, Roy G.
1972-19743 items
D'Angelo, Jim
19804 items
D'Aquili, Eugene G., 1910-
1974, 19792 items
D. Van Nostrand Company
19641 item
Daiutolo, Robert
19872 items
Dales, George
19702 items
Dalzell, Robert F.
n.d.4 items
Danforth Foundation, Saint Louis, Mo.
1954 
Daniels, Robert Vincent
19712 items
Dark, Philip John Crosskey
19653 items
Darnell, Regna, 1943-
1983-197520 items
Dauer, William T.
19812 items
Davenport, William
1961, 19643 items
David, Nicholas, 1937-
  
Davidson, Richard J.
19755 items
Davies, Leon T.
19701 item
Davies, William E.
19672 items
Davis, Derek
19831 item
Davis, Helen I.
19711 item
Davis, John E.
1954-19557 items
Davis, Margaret
19721 item
Davis, Mindy
19812 items
Davis, Nancy Yaw
1975-198612 items
Davis, V. Terrell
19582 items
Day, Gordon M.
19772 items
De Vos, George A.
19622 items
Dean, R.F.A. [Reginald Francis Alfred]
19622 items
Dean-John, Hazel
19783 items
Deardorff, Merle H.
1961-197059 items
Devereux, George, 1908-
1958-19596 items
Dexter, Lewis Anthony
1959, 19742 items
Diamond, John Diamond Baron, 1907
197024 items
Dickey, John M.
19721 item
Diggory, Sylvia [Farnham-Diggory, Sylvia]
19652 items
Dike, Kenneth Onwuka
19635 items
Diners Club
19682 items
Dinsmore, Doug
19741 item
DiRenzo, Gordon J.
19744 items
Ditman, Keith S.
19592 items
Dixon, James P.
19547 items
Dixon, Josephine
19622 items
Dixon, Rebecca
19723 items
Dobkin de Rios, Marlene
 2 folders
Folder 1
1967-1968 

Other Descriptive Information: Folder originally labeled "De Rios, Marlene Dobkin"

Folder 2
1970-198125 items
Dodge, Ernest Stanley
1952-19533 items
Donerly, C.G.
19512 items
Donnenworth, Gregory
19621 item
Donnorummo, Robert Pepe, 1944-
19742 items
Doubleday and Company, Inc.
1958,19702 items
Douglass, E.
19792 items
Dowling, Sheila
1962-19636 items
Downey, Gary L.
19843 items
Doyle, Richard L.
19572 items
Dreger, James Mason
19551 item
Du Bois, Cora
1953-19634 items
Du Toit, Brian M., 1935-
19672 items
Dubhorn, Wilbert C.
19813 items
Dudley, Mrs. George
  
Duerr, Hans Peter
  
Duke University
1963-19642 items
Dunn, Gary
19721 item
E.P. Dutton Firm
1955, 19683 items
Earle, Louis P.
19727 items
Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute
19561 item
Eaton, Joseph W.
19571 item
Ebihara, May
19822 items
Eddy, Henry Howard
19515 items
Edinger, Tilly, 1897-
19588 items
Edmonds, Marilyn
19774 items
Edson, Robert
19561 item
Educational Expeditions International
19741 item
Educational Testing Service
19694 items
Eggan, Fred, 1906-
1969, 19802 items
Ehrich, Robert W.
19702 items
Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977
1948-197725 items
Eisenstadt, S.N. [Shmuel Noah], 1923
1956-19627 items
Eister, Allan W.
19714 items
Elder, Jacob D.
19624 items
Eleutherian Mills Hagley Foundation
1955-197621 items
Elias, Pearl
19724 items
Eliot, Thomas D.
19551 item
Elizabethtown College
19732 items
Elmore, Lee
19672 items
Embree, Lester E.
19802 items
Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.
1970-19749 items
English, James R.
19854 items
English, Nicholas Conover
19541 item
English, Spurgeon
19551 item
Erickson, Lee
19901 item
Esman, Aaron H.
19672 items
Espinola, Julio Cesar
19652 items
Essaf, Louis
1970-19712 items
Estroff, Sue E.
19863 items
Et al [Los Angeles], serial
19723 items
Ethnohistory
19563 items
Ethnology
19911 item
Ethos
1972, 19795 items
Euler, Robert C.
1972, 19793 items
Excerpta Medica
1952-1953, 19597 items
Eyer, Joseph
19733 items
F.G. Ludwig, Inc.
19551 item
Fabrega, Horacio
1969, 19735 items
Fadden, Ray