Bronson Price Papers

Mss.Ms.Coll.16

Date: 1926-1978 | Size: 4 Linear feet

Abstract

The psychologist and behavioral geneticist Bronson Price made important contributions to the study of the genetics of mental traits in twins. Receiving his doctorate from Stanford in 1934, Price began down a research path that led him to study under Aleksandr R. Luria in Moscow from 1934-1935, and thereafter to the Department of Psychology at Ohio State. In 1941, Price changed course professionally, entering into war-time government service, never to return to academia, working first with the National Office of Vital Statistics and later as a statistician with the Children's Bureau and the Office of Education.

The Price Papers contains one linear foot of correspondence relating to Bronson Price's interests in genetics and eugenics, with an emphasis upon Price's post-doctoral experiences in the Soviet Union and his long-term interests in the genetic study of twins. In addition to fairly extensive correspondence with H. J. Muller and Lewis Terman, the collection includes interesting materials relating to the Foundation for Germinal Choice, eugenic sterilization, and an extensive bibliographic card file used by Price in his research on twins post-1940.

Background note

Although he spent the majority of his professional career as a statistician, Bronson Price was trained as a psychologist, and he made his most important scientific contributions as a geneticist. While working on his doctorate under Lewis Terman at Stanford, Price became interested in the statistical and genetical issues surrounding the study of twins, beginning what would become a long-term interest in delineating the "primary biases" in those studies. Upon completing his degree in 1934, he won a fellowship to pursue post-doctoral work with Aleksandr R. Luria at the Medico-Biological Institute in Moscow, indulging his interest in the social implications (and applications) of his scientific work. A Depression-era progressive, Price was attracted to the Soviet Union partly out of political curiosity -- his Stanford friend Robert C. Challman jokingly accused him of being a "beret boy" (December 17, 1934) -- but also out of what he perceived to be scientific opportunity in the "social experimentation" taking place there. His project was designed to assess R. A. Fisher's theory of the "social promotion of infertility," in which Fisher had argued that infertility and ability are mated in capitalist society, heightening the differential birthrate. Although Price's Soviet research resulted in few publications, his experience did produce one tangible result: while in Moscow, Price grew close to another American expatriate, the geneticist, Herman J. Muller, with whom he shared a common set of intellectual concerns and what would become a long personal friendship.

Upon his return to the States, Price accepted a position in the Department of Psychology at Ohio State, although it took special pleading by Terman to convince the administration that Price was not a Communist sympathizer. Despite this intervention, suspicions about Price's political motives welled up periodically during the next five years, never quite threatening his employment, but often forcing him to pit his sympathetic reading of Soviet life between the extremes of Bolshevik apologists and anti-Communist ideologues, always arguing that fascism was the greater threat. Although not a Communist himself, Price concluded in 1938 that "the USSR stands high when judged against a reasonable set of non-selective criteria" and that "Soviet socialism now is the soundest economically and the solidest psychologically of the world states" (to Lewis Terman, January 5, 1938).

The onset of the Second World War presented a professional watershed. Early in 1941, Price took leave from Ohio State to join the impending war effort, and was assigned first to the personnel office of the War Department and later in the Office of War Information, where he worked primarily as an interpreter of broadcasts from Eastern Europe. Rather than return to academia after the war, however, he remained in the government service as an analyst with the National Office of Vital Statistics, and as a statistician with the Children's Bureau and the Office of Education, in succession. Although his core research interests shifted away from genetics, his engagement with the field, and twin studies in particular, never waned. His efforts in research were directed largely toward the assessment of biases in twin studies, a topic on which he spoke at the 8th International Congress of Genetics in Stockholm, 1948, and which resulted in his best know paper, "Primary biases in twin studies."

Price was a founding member of the American Society of Human Genetics in 1948 and, at the urging of Hermann Muller, became a charter member of the Foundation for Germinal Choice in 1964. He died in 1978, survived by his wife, Helen.

Scope and content

The Price Papers represent only a fraction of the professional correspondence of the psychologist, statistician, and behavioral geneticist Bronson Price. Although sparse, the collection provides interesting materials documenting Price's interests in genetics and eugenics, his twin studies, and his experiences as a post-doctoral student in the Soviet Union in 1934-1935. The collection is organized into four series: correspondence (1 linear foot), papers on twins (1 linear foot), a bibliographic card file on twin studies (2 linear feet), and slides of the 8th International Congress of Genetics, 1948 (37 items).

The earliest letters in the collection relate to Price's two years in the Soviet Union, shortly after the Stalinist famine in the Ukraine. Sympathetic with the Soviet experiment, Price appears to have attempted to balance his sympathies with a critical mind, eschewing both extremes. His correspondence with Lewis Terman is particularly interesting for documenting his ambivalent thoughts on his work in Moscow and the adjustments necessary upon resuming his academic career in the United States. Letters from his colleagues Ralph White and Robert C. Challman, among others, provide important additional information, as do his detailed comments on a condensed version of Eugene Lyons's book, Assignment in Utopia.

Eugenics in its various guises appears as one of the themes of particular interest to Price from the mid-1930s into the mid-1960s. The most extended correspondence in the collection is that with H. J. Muller, which, as might be expected, provides valuable context for understanding Price's experience in the Soviet Union, but also his attitudes toward the various strains of the eugenics movement and Muller's research in radiation biology during the 1950s. Muller appears to have enticed Price into becoming a charter member of the Foundation for Germinal Choice, and the two folders under that name contain a small number of letters sent during the planning stages of the Foundation and a manuscript by Muller, "Human genetic betterment," in which he laid out the Foundation's philosophy. Price's perspective on eugenical sterilization is documented in the folders for the Human Betterment Foundation and "Sterlization laws."

Finally, Price's correspondence with Gunnar Dahlberg and Charles W. Cotterman offers tantalizing hints of Price's experience during the 7th International Congress of Genetics, Edinburgh, in 1939, when his ship, the S.S. Athenia became one of the first victims of the war in the North Atlantic.

Series I. Correspondence, 1926-1978(2 boxes; 1 linear foot)
Series II. Twin articles, 1942-1976(2 boxes; 1 linear foot)
Series III. Twin bibliography, ca.1940s-1970s(8 boxes; 2 linear feet)
Series IV. Photographs, 1948(37 slides; 0.1 linear feet)

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Provenance

The Price Papers were donated by Helen Price, 1978.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Bronson Price Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Catalogued by rsc, 2002.

Bibliography

Price, Bronson, "Homogamy and the intercorrelation of capacity traits," Annals of Eugenics 7 (1936), 22-27.

Price, Bronson, "Primary biases in twin studies; a review of prenatal and natal difference-producing factors in monozgotic pairs," American Journal of Human Genetics 2 (1950), 292-352.

Price, Bronson and Sidney L. Halperin, "Sterilization laws -- bane or banner of eugenics and public welfare?" American Journal of Mental Deficiency 45 (1940), 134-144.

Allen, Gordon, "Bronson Price: 1905-1978" Acta Gen. Med. Gemellol. 27 (1978), 95-96.

Genetics Note

AuthorFormatDate
Bauer, Raymond A.Correspondence (3 items)1949
Carter, HaroldCorrespondence (6 items)1934-1940
Challman, Robert C.Correspondence (5 items)1934-1942
Conrad, HerbertCorrespondence (5 items)1935-1939
Cotterman, Charles W.Correspondence (14 items)1945-1951
Dahlberg, GunnarCorrespondence (3 items)1939-1940
Dempster, Everett RossCorrespondence (5 items)1956
Fisher, Ronald AylmerCorrespondence (9 items)1935-1936
Keeler, Clyde A.Correspondence (3 items)1938
Lorimer, FrankCorrespondence (6 items)1935-1938
Miles, WalterCorrespondence (10 items)1934-1939
Muller, Hermann JosephCorrespondence (4 folders)1934-1967
Osborn, Frederick HenryCorrespondence (7 items)1940-1952
Price, Bronson -- Twin bibliographyManuscripts (2 linear feet)Circa 1940s-1970s
Reed, Sheldon ClarkCorrespondence (8 items)1949-1954
Roscoe, TheodoreCorrespondence (4 items)1929-1965
Scheinfeld, AmramCorrespondence (22 items)1942-1975
Stern, CurtCorrespondence (4 items)1950
Terman, Lewis MadisonCorrespondence (2 folders)1933-1953
Walker, Norma FordCorrespondence (14 items)1950-1954
White, RalphCorrespondence (5 pages)1939

Indexing Terms


Corporate Name(s)

  • Foundation for Germinal Choice.
  • Human Betterment Foundation

Genre(s)

  • Photographs
  • Slides.

Geographic Name(s)

  • Soviet Union -- Politics and government -- 1917-1936

Personal Name(s)

  • Bauer, Raymond
  • Carter, Harold Augustine, 1916
  • Challman, Robert C. (Robert Chester)
  • Conrad, Herbert Spencer, 1904-
  • Cotterman, Charles William, 1914-1989
  • Dahlberg, Gunnar, 1893-1956
  • Darlington, C. D. (Cyril Dean), 1903-1981
  • Dempster, Everett R. (Everett Ross)
  • Dobzhansky, Theodosius Grigorievich, 1900-1975
  • Fisher, Ronald Aylmer, Sir, 1890-1962
  • Glass, Bentley, 1906-2005
  • Goldschmidt, Richard, 1878-1958
  • Haldane, J. B. S. (John Burdon Sanderson), 1892-1964
  • Keeler, Clyde E. (Clyde Edgar), 1900-1994
  • Lorimer, Frank, 1894-
  • Miles, Walter R. (Walter Richard)
  • Muller, H. J. (Hermann Joseph), 1890-1967
  • Nachtsheim, Hans, 1890-1979
  • Osborn, Frederick, 1889-1981
  • Price, Bronson,1905-1978.
  • Reed, Sheldon C. (Sheldon Clark), 1910-2003
  • Roscoe, Theodore
  • Scheinfeld, Amram
  • Shull, George Harrison, 1874-1954
  • Stebbins, G. Ledyard (George Ledyard), 1906-2000
  • Stern, Curt, 1902-1981
  • Terman, Louis Madison, 1877-19
  • Walker, Norma Ford
  • White, Ralph

Subject(s)

  • Behavior genetics.
  • Communists -- United States
  • Depressions -- 1929
  • Drosophila -- Genetics
  • Eugenics
  • Genetics
  • Genetics -- Soviet Union
  • Human genetics
  • Intelligence tests
  • Psychology
  • Radiation -- Physiological effect
  • Sterilization (Birth control)
  • Twins -- Genetics

Collection overview

1926-1978 

Professional correspondence written to, and occasionally by, Bronson Price, concentrated on the period between the time of his return from the Soviet Union in 1935 and the late 1950s. The most extensive files contain correspondence with Lewis Terman and Hermann J. Muller, which focus largely on Price's experience in the Soviet Union and his eugenical interests, respectively.

Price's psychological research and his work with the government are much less well documented, though a file for the Children's Bureau provides a small taste.

1942-1976 

Published, pre-published, and unpublished manuscripts on psychological and genetic research on twins, with some correspondence with the authors and a few typescripts or unpublished manuscripts by Price.

ca.1940s-1970s2 Linear Feet

3x5" index cards with references to articles and monographs relating to psychological and genetic research on twins. Some cards contain Price's marginal notes summarizing the content of the referenced work.

1948 

35mm slides taken by Laurence Snyder at the 8th International Congress of Genetics held in Stockholm. Included are informal images of Richard B. Goldschmidt, Theodosius Dobzhansky, G. Ledyard Stebbins, Sheldon C. Reed, Bentley Glass, J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher, Herman J. Muller, C. D. Darlington, George Shull, Hans Nachtsheim, and others. There are approximately 15 touristic photos of Stockholm and vicinity, including two pictures of Linnaeus's house in Uppsala.



Detailed Inventory

Series I. Correspondence
1926-1978 

Professional correspondence written to, and occasionally by, Bronson Price, concentrated on the period between the time of his return from the Soviet Union in 1935 and the late 1950s. The most extensive files contain correspondence with Lewis Terman and Hermann J. Muller, which focus largely on Price's experience in the Soviet Union and his eugenical interests, respectively.

Price's psychological research and his work with the government are much less well documented, though a file for the Children's Bureau provides a small taste.

Abercrombie, Stanley A.
1978 box 1
Allen, James L.
1970 box 1
American Journal of Human Genetics (Cotterman, C. W.)
1949-1951 box 1
American Scientist
1960 box 1
American Society of Human Genetics Material
1952-1958 box 1
Anderson, C. Arnold
1952 box 1
Anderson, H.
1933 box 1
Anderson, Harold W.
1953 box 1
Bailar, Mrs. Barbara
1971 box 1
Bauer, Raymond A.
19493 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Russian politics and science -- Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich; Russian politics and science

Beigeulman, Bernardo
1964 box 1
Benirschke, Kurt
1955 box 1
Birren, James L.
1954 box 1
Bonnier, G.
1948 box 1
Brozek, Josef
1959 box 1
Burdette, Walter J.
1960 box 1
Burlingame, Leonos L.
1933 box 1
Carlson, Elof Axel
1960-71 box 1
Carter, Harold
1934-19406 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Human genetics -- Twins; Stanford University; Biographical and personal data

Challman, Robert C.
1934-19425 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Human genetics -- Twins; Biographical and personal data; Political issues; Russian politics and science; Travel -- U.S.S.R.

Charles, Enid
n.d. box 1
Children's Bureau Correspondence (U.S. Dept. of H.E.W.)
1954-65 box 1
Clark, Jack
1937-42 box 1
Cohen, Mandel E.
n.d. box 1
Conrad, Herbert
1935-19395 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Behavioral genetics, IQ; Russian politics and science; Statistics, biostatistics, biometrics; Human genetics

Cook, Robert C
1953 box 1
Corney, G.
1965 box 1
Cotterman, Charles W.
1945-195114 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Eugenics; American Society of Human Genetics; Publication; Muller, Hermann Joseph; Lectures, public speaking; Human genetics -- Twins; American Association for the Advancement of Science; Biographical and personal data; World War II -- Impact on science; International Congress of Genetics -- Seventh Congress

Dahlberg, Gunnar
1939-19403 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Philosophy of science -- Language of science; Human genetics; Invitations; World War II -- Impact on science; International Congress of Genetics -- Seventh Congress

Danforth, C. H.
1926-51 box 1
Dashiell, J. F.
1942-49 box 1
Davis, E1mer
1944 box 1
Dempster, Everett
19565 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Human genetics -- Twins; Human genetics; Behavioral genetics, IQ

Dice, Lee R.
1952 box 1
Dunlap, Jack W.
1935 box 1
Dunn, Halbert L.
1954 box 1
Eldridge, Marie D.
1978 box 1
English, Horace
n.d. box 1
Fairchild, Henry Pratt
1936 box 1
Fellowships
1934-1935 box 1
Fisher, R. A. (Ronald Aylmer)
1935-19369 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Russian politics and science; Human genetics -- Twins; Human genetics; Biographical and personal data; Eugenics; Publication

Foundation for Germinal Choice Materials (Muller, H.J,)
1963-19642 foldersbox 1
Freedman, Daniel G.
n.d. box 1
Girden, Edward
1955 box 1
Herlihy, Lester A.
1960 box 1
Hogben, Lancelot
1940 box 1
Hughes, John F.
1958 box 1
Human Betterment Foundation
1935-41 box 1
Jones, Harold E.
1932 box 1
Journal of Gerontology
1949 box 1
Kaplan, Oscar J.
1949 box 1
Keeler, Clyde A.
19383 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Vavilov, Nikolai Ivanovich; Levit, Solomon G.; Russian politics and science; Travel -- U.S.S.R.

Kelly, E. Lowell
1937 box 1
Kinkead, Mrs. Angela
1944 box 1
Korner, Annaliese F.
1966 box 1
Kuhlen, Raymond G.
1949 box 1
Langfeld, Herbert S.
1936-37 box 1
Lorimer, Frank
1935-19386 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Publication; Scientific organizations, meetings, programs -- Population, demography; Population, demography -- U.S.S.R.; Russian politics and science; Osborn, Frederick Henry; Eugenics; Osborn, Henry Fairfield; Behavioral genetics, IQ

Metzner, Charles A
1958-59 box 1
Miles, Walter
1934-193910 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Scientific organizations, meetings, programs; Fisher, Ronald Aylmer; Recommendations; Fellowships, assistantships; Publication; Russian politics and science; Human genetics; Laboratory techniques, equipment; Human genetics -- Twins; Population, demography -- U.S.S.R.; Muller, Hermann Joseph; Biographical and personal data; Teaching; Statistics, biostatistics, biometrics

Miller, Neal E.
1938-53 box 1
Muller, Hermann J.
1934-19613 foldersbox 1

Subject(s): Congratulations, greetings, thanks -- Muller, Hermann Joseph. 70th birthday; Recommendations; Li, Ching Chun; Scientific refugees; Population genetics; International Congress of Human Genetics; Beadle, George Wells; World Health Organization, United Nations; Simpson, George Gaylord; Evolution; Levit, Solomon G.; Russian politics and science; Radiation genetics; Eugenics -- Foundation for Germinal Choice; Human genetics; Biographical and personal data; Genetics Society of America; Lectures, public speaking; Dobzhansky, Theodosius; Russian politics and science -- Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich; Conferences and symposia; Indiana University; National Institutes of Health; Neel, James V.; Stadler, Lewis John; Political issues -- Loyalty oaths; Fellowships, assistantships

Muller, H. J.: Newspaper Clippings
1936-1967 box 1

Subject(s): Publication -- Newspaper clippings

National Ataxia Foundation
n.d. box 1
New York Academy of Sciences
1952-64 box 1
Newcomb, Theodore
1937-38 box 1
Oberdorfer, Don
1938 box 1
Oliver, Peter
1951-53 box 1
Osborn, Frederick Henry
1940-19527 item(s)box 1

Subject(s): Travel -- Invitations, arrangements; Requests for reprints; Publication; Behavioral genetics, IQ; Eugenics; American Eugenics Society

Palmer, R. R.
1945-50 
Parikh, C. K.
1958 box 2
Patterson, Austin M.
1938-562 foldersbox 2
Penrose, Lionel S.
1939 box 2
Pinneau, Samuel R.
1958 box 2
Platt, John R.
1943 box 2
Pollack, Jack Harrison
1962 box 2
Popenoe, Paul
1937-46 box 2
Pressey, Sidney L.
1948-57 box 2
Price, Betty
n.d. box 2
Proxmire, William
1976 box 2
Rapoport, Anatol
1963 box 2
Reed, Sheldon Clark
1949-19548 item(s)box 2

Subject(s): American Society of Human Genetics; Neel, James V.; Political issues; Osborn, Frederick Henry; Fisher, Ronald Aylmer; Eugenics; Human genetics; Requests for reprints; Behavioral genetics, IQ; American Institute of Biological Sciences

Reinhardt John E.
1975 box 2
Reischer, Otto R.
1954-63 box 2
Reprint Acknowledgements
1951-64 box 2
Reprint Requests (A-D)
1951-65 box 2
Reprint Requests (E-L)
1952-65 box 2
Reprint Requests (M-S)
1951-63 box 2
Reprint Requests (T-Z)
1951-65 box 2
Reprint Requests - Unsorted
1950-652 foldersbox 2
Rife, Dave
1947-64 box 2
Roscoe, Theodore
1929-19654 item(s)box 2

Subject(s): Publication; Poetry and literature; Biographical and personal data; Travel -- Invitations, arrangements

Rosenthal, David
1956 box 2
Ruch, Floyd L.
19662 foldersbox 2
Sapir, H. Michael
n.d. box 2
Scheinfeld, Amram
1942-197522 item(s)box 2

Subject(s): Publication; Levit, Solomon G.; Russian politics and science -- Twins; Human genetics -- Twins; Behavioral genetics, IQ -- Twins; Biographical and personal data; World War II -- Impact on science; Evolution -- Humor; Congratulations, greetings, thanks

Schick, Frank L.
1968 box 2
Schweitzer, Morton D.
1941 box 2
Seagoe, May V.
1968 box 2
Sears, Robert R.
1955 box 2
Shock, N. W.
1949 box 2
Sigma Xi
1953 box 2
Singleton, W. R.
1950-51 box 2
Skvirsky
1933 box 2
Snyder, Laurence H.
1939-58 box 2
Sterilization Laws - Comments
1940 box 2
Stern, Curt
19504 item(s)box 2

Subject(s): Publication -- Principles of Human Genetics; Requests for reprints; Behavioral genetics, IQ; Eugenics; Russian politics and science

Stillman, E. Clark
1942 box 2
Strandskov, Herluf H.
1948-532 foldersbox 2
Syperski, Florence B.
1958 box 2
Terman, Lewis Madison
1933-19532 foldersbox 2

Subject(s): Human genetics -- Twins; Stanford University; Lectures, public speaking; Requests for aid in finding positions; Fisher, Ronald Aylmer; Political issues; Political issues -- Loyalty oaths; Educational matters; Biographical and personal data; Population, demography; Publication; Teaching; Recommendations; Travel -- U.S.S.R.; Russian politics and science; Levit, Solomon G.; Muller, Hermann Joseph; Laboratory techniques, equipment -- U.S.S.R.; Human genetics

Tryon, Robert C.
1936 box 2
Tuckman, Jacob
1959 box 2
Walker, Norma Ford
1950-195414 item(s)box 2

Subject(s): Embryology, developmental genetics -- Twins; Human genetics; Conferences and symposia; Human genetics -- Twins; Invitations; Biographical and personal data

Walker, Robert Y.
1955 box 2
Ward, A. I.
1939-43 box 2
White, Ralph
19395 p.box 2

Subject(s): Travel -- U.S.S.R.; Political issues; Teaching; Biographical and personal data; World War II -- Impact on science; Russian politics and science

Willoughby, Raymond R
1936-41 box 2
Witmer, Helen
1957 box 2
Wright, Thomas H.
1942 box 2
Yankauer, Alfred
1960 box 2
Series II. Twin articles
1942-1976 

Published, pre-published, and unpublished manuscripts on psychological and genetic research on twins, with some correspondence with the authors and a few typescripts or unpublished manuscripts by Price.

Arrangement: Arranged alphabetically by first author.

Biliography, post 1950
  box 3
Census Records
  box 3
Conjoined twins
  box 3
Dental symposium
  box 3
Popular articles
  box 3
Translations from foreign
  box 3
Price, Bronson, "Twins studies re-examined in the light of Schatz' work"
 TMsSbox 3
Adkins, E. K.
  box 3
Allen, G.
  box 3
Boklage, C. E.
  box 3
Bonnier, G.
  box 3
Breland, N. S.
  box 3
Burks, Barbara
  box 3
Carter, H. D.
  box 3
Crew, F. A. E.
  box 3
Dahlberg, Gunnar
  box 4
Das, S. R.
  box 4
Davis, E. A.
  box 4
Ferguson, L. W.
  box 4
Gedda
  box 4
Guttmacher, A. F.
  box 4
Harigan, F. D.
  box 4
Jones, S. H.
  box 4
Kallman, J.
  box 4
Karn, M. N.
  box 4
Kringlen, E.
  box 4
Levit, S. G.
  box 4
Lasker, G. W.
  box 4
Lawrence, R. F.
  box 4
Lennox, W. G.
  box 4
MacArthur, J. W.
  box 4
McNema, Q.
  box 4
Matrakos, J. D.
  box 4
Miki
  box 4
Munsinger, H.
  box 4
Nance, W. E.
  box 4
Newman, H. H.
  box 4
Nichols, R. C.
  box 4
Series III. Twin bibliography
ca.1940s-1970s2 Linear Feet

3x5" index cards with references to articles and monographs relating to psychological and genetic research on twins. Some cards contain Price's marginal notes summarizing the content of the referenced work.

Arrangement: The bibliography is arranged in three alphabetical sequences, with some indication that the bibliographies might have been compiled at different times. The first two sequences overlap broadly, the third appears to consist of a bibliography assembled for a particular (but unnamed) monograph, and the final sequence appears to be an index for a monograph.


Subject(s): Bibliographical matters -- Twins; Behavioral genetics, IQ -- Twins; Human genetics -- Twins; Unpublished manuscripts, notes, etc.

"Old and New Twin References," A-P
 Card filebox 5
"Old and New Twin References," O-Z
 Card filebox 6
Annotated twin bibliography, A-Di
 Card filebox 7
Annotated twin bibliography, Do-Mak
 Card filebox 8
Annotated twin bibliography, Mal-V
 Card filebox 9
Annotated twin bibliography, W-Z, Misc., NIH
 Card filebox 10
"Twin references used in 50s monograph"
 Card filebox 11
Index to unidentified book
 Card filebox 12
Series IV. Photographs
1948 

35mm slides taken by Laurence Snyder at the 8th International Congress of Genetics held in Stockholm. Included are informal images of Richard B. Goldschmidt, Theodosius Dobzhansky, G. Ledyard Stebbins, Sheldon C. Reed, Bentley Glass, J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher, Herman J. Muller, C. D. Darlington, George Shull, Hans Nachtsheim, and others. There are approximately 15 touristic photos of Stockholm and vicinity, including two pictures of Linnaeus's house in Uppsala.

1. Goldschmidt, Dobzhansky, Stebbins, Bryson, Smith, Reed
  

Aboard ship

2. Dobzhansky, Stebbins, Dr. and Mrs. Glass
  

Aboard ship

3. Theodosius Dobzhansky
  

Aboard ship

4. J.B.S. Haldane, Turpin
  
5. R. A. Fisher
  

Portrait, standing in front of sign for Eighth International Congress of Genetics

6. Muller
  

Portrait, standing in front of sign for Eighth International Congress of Genetics

7. J. B. S. Haldane, Guldborg
  
8. Waardenburg, Francheschetti
  
9. Darlington, Kemp
  
10. Dr. and Mrs. Shull, Guldborg
  
11. Race and Wilner
  
12. Glass, Wolff
  
13. Sjogren, Nachtsheim, Böök
  
14. Group on Gripsholm
  

Geneticists aboard ship; see also #21

15. Fisher, Ford, Finney, Riddell
  

Seated at table, eating lunch

16. Hanhart, Stockholm
  
17. Goldschmidt, Reed, Stebbins
  

Aboard ship

18. Reed, Mrs. Price, Mrs. Claussen, Shull, Guldborg, Keeler
  

Aboard ship

19. Dr. and Mrs. Glass, Mrs. Bishop, Guldborg, Boyden
  
20. Boyden, Hull, Glass, Reed
  
21. Group on Gripsholm
  

Geneticists aboard ship; see also #14

22. View in Stockholm: Old City
  
23. City Hall, Stockholm, from Old City
  
24. Kristin Bonnevie
  
25. King's Summer Palace, Stockholm
  
26. En route to Drottingholm
  

View of small sailboat

27. Boat to Drottingholm
  

View of ferry deck

20. Dahlberg's Inst., Uppsala
  

Exterior view

29. Linnaeus's home, Uppsala
  

Exterior view, over garden

30. Sod roof at Linnaeus's home
  
31. Medborgarhuset
  
32. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
  
33. Stockholm, from Sveavägen looking down Kungsgatan
  
34. Stockholm, from Grand Hotel toward Royal Castle
  
35. Stockholm
  

General view of wharf

36. Looking aft on Gripsholm
  
37. Looking forward on Gripsholm