Frank G. Speck Papers


Date: 1903-1950 | Size: 28.5 Linear feet


Anthropologist and ethnographer Frank Gouldsmith Speck was one of Franz Boas' early graduate students and from 1907 till his death in 1950 spent his career in a variety of positions at the University of Pennsylvania, including its Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Unlike most of his contemporaries, Speck chose to study the cultures of Indigenous peoples of eastern North America, especially the Haudenosaunee, Cherokee, and peoples speaking Algonquian languages, such as Anishinaabe, Wabanaki, Innu, Lenape, and other Algonquian peoples within the eastern United States. Speck spent a larger amounnt of time in the field than was typical of most ethnographers, collecting documentary information and physical objects. The Frank G. Speck Papers consist of 15.5 linear feet of Speck's professional correspondence, field notes, lecture notes, and manuscripts of published and unpublished works. The material focuses on the Eastern Woodlands Indians, particularly the Catawba, Cherokee, Creek, Delaware, Houma, Haudenosaunee ("Iroquois"), Labrador Inuit ("Eskimo"), Innu ("Montagnais-Naskapi"), Nanticoke, Penobscot, Powhatan, Algonquian, and Yuchi. The collection is divided into two subcollections: Subcollection 1 is comprised of Speck's research material and correspondence, and Subcollection 2 consists of his manuscripts and related correspondence. The two subcollections were acquired separately by the Society, and were originally cataloged as the Frank G. Speck Papers (572.97 Sp3) and the Frank G. Speck Manuscripts on Native Americans (970.3 Sp3p) respectively.

Background note

Anthropologist and ethnographer Frank Gouldsmith Speck was unique among Franz Boas' early graduate students at Columbia University. Unlike other ethnographers of his time who focused their studies on the Western tribes, Speck chose to study the cultures of Native peoples of eastern North American, primarily cultures speaking Algonquian or Iroquoian languages. Becoming the self-appointed salvage ethnographer for those tribes, Speck was regularly with the Indians he studied collecting information on all aspects of their culture that he knew to ask about.

Speck was born in Brooklyn, New York on November 8, 1881. Later in his childhood his family moved to Hackensack, New Jersey. When Speck entered Columbia University at the turn of the century, he had not settled on a career - though he was leaning towards the ministry. That changed when he enrolled in a language course with the eminent linguist John Dyneley Prince. During the class Prince became fascinated by Speck's ability to provide first hand information on Native languages long thought to have no more speakers - particularly Pequot-Mohegan and Delaware-Mohican. Before graduating, Speck and Prince co-authored three articles. Prince also introduced Speck to anthropologist Franz Boas, who had begun his tenure at the helm of Columbia's anthropology department less then a decade earlier. Through Boas and Prince's encouragement Speck decided to pursue a career in anthropological linguistics, and after receiving his A.B. in 1904 started his graduate work under Boas. Speck was one of Boas' first graduate students and was one of a generation of anthropologists (along with Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, Elsie Clews Parsons, Alfred Kroeber, and Paul Radin) to learn and promote the Boasian approach to anthropology. Under Boas, Speck began his fieldwork among the Yuchi Indians of Oklahoma in 1904, receiving his M.A. from Columbia a year later. Speck initially planned to continue with graduate studies at Columbia with Boas until he was awarded a George Leib Harrison Research Fellowship from the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania in 1907. Leaving Columbia for the University Museum, Speck received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1908 and remained in Philadelphia for the rest of his career.

When Speck first arrived at Penn he was appointed as an instructor and assistant in general ethnology, working and teaching out of the Museum. Since the University did not have an independent department of anthropology at that time, courses were taught either out of the University Museum or the Department of Religion. During these early years Speck continued with his field work, which eventually put him at odds with the Museum's director, George Byron Gordon. Gordon wanted Speck to focus less on fieldwork and more on public and social functions important to fundraising at the museum. The feud between Gordon and Speck led to a number of incidents, including the confiscation of Speck's Penobscot manuscript (which was eventually published in 1940 as Penobscot Man). Finally in 1911 Speck was fired from the University Museum, only to be hired by the University as an assistant professor to replace Daniel Garrison Brinton, who had died in 1899. Two years later Speck became acting chair of the new Department of Anthropology, and chair in 1925.

It was not long after arriving in Philadelphia that Speck began his study of the Algonquian peoples. Speck went on to study Native people of Delaware, the tribes of tidewater Virginia, the Cherokee in the Southeast, and the Haudenosaunee ("Iroquois"), especially their ceremonialism. Speck's work among these communities reflects his efforts to record languages and cultures under strain from the dominant culture of the United States and Canada. In many regards Speck was ahead of his time with his efforts to document the ways of life for relatively acculturated tribes, an idea which many anthropologists disdained. The eastern tribes had been overrun by European settlers during the 17th and 18th centuries and were severely disrupted by war, famine, and disease. Those who had survived were pushed westward and were absorbed by other tribes. As a result the majority of information regarding these tribes was historical, rather than ethnographic as such. However, Speck viewed ethnology as a fluid field that was unlimited, and not a fixed study of past cultures. Further, he was never overly concerned with high-level generalizations or interpretations of his subject but focused more on recording well-attested facts. During his research Speck looked for variations that would turn up as he collected empirical data, and then would modify his original concept. To that end, Speck was not satisfied with providing a generalized picture of a tribe. He studied a tribe's language, technology, decorative art, myths and tales, religious belief, ceremonialism, social organization, music, and hunting territories. Speck also chose to focus on a tribe's link to nature, with ethnobiology, material culture, and uses of the environment playing major themes in his work.

Another integral part of Speck's fieldwork was collecting material culture. His love for collecting artifacts in the field was motivated by the special problems in which he became interested from time to time. Occasionally, Speck's interest in arts and crafts drew him within the borders of archeology. He would also have replicas made by Indians of objects he construed, sometimes incorrectly, as being no longer in daily use. Speck kept a number of objects in his office at the University, but most of the artifacts were sold to public museums, arriving heavily annotated as to their context within their culture group. The provenance of these objects was sometimes more complicated than Speck disclosed or knew, and Speck utilized the sale of some of these objects to finance his fieldwork. Among the institutions to receive artifacts from Speck were the Museum of the American Indian (now the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian), American Museum of Natural History, the Peabody-Essex Museum, Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Denver Art Museum, National Museum of Canada, Royal Ontario Museum, Pitt Rivers Museum - University of Oxford, and the Danish National Museum.

What made Speck successful in his research was the method he used in the field. Speck was a "bedside ethnologist," staying with the people all day, eating with them, learning their language, and sleeping in the village. This sense of ease and intimate form of fieldwork allowed Speck to gain the trust of many Native people, facilitating his collection of data. In fact, Speck was much more at ease among Native communities, who were as much a part of his private life as his professional life than among Philadelphia society. He was rarely away from the field for more than a month, going off to conduct field work when the opportunity presented itself, often without notice.

During the later years of his career, Speck began to study Haudenosaunee ceremonialism. He felt that despite the vast material written on the Haudenosaunee, very little was known about the diversity and characteristics of the cultures of the groups that made up the Six Nations. Also in his later years Speck was battling a failing heart and kidney disease, though this did not stop him from going into the field. It was during his trip to Red House, N.Y. in January 1950 to witness the Seneca perform their mid-winter rites that he became seriously ill. After returning to Philadelphia, Speck died at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania on February 6 at the age of 68.

Scope and content

The Frank G. Speck Papers consist of 15.5 linear feet of professional correspondence, field notes, lecture notes, and manuscripts of published and unpublished works. The material focuses primarily on Algonquian and Iroquoian Indigenous cultures, with some others. Especially prominent groups in the materials the Anishinaabe, Catawba, Cherokee, Creek, Delaware, Houma, "Iroquois" (Haudenosaunee), Labrador "Eskimo" (Inuit), "Montagnais-Naskapi" (Ilnu/Innu), Nanticoke, Penobscot, Powhatan, and Yuchi. The collection is divided into two subcollections: Subcollection 1 is comprised of Speck's research material and correspondence, and Subcollection 2 consists of his manuscripts and related correspondence. The two subcollections were acquired separately by the Society, and were originally cataloged as the Frank G. Speck Papers (572.97 Sp3) and the Frank G. Speck Manuscripts on Native Americans (970.3 Sp3p) respectively.

Subcollection I is divided into several series. Series I came to the Library shortly after Speck's death in 1950 from Mrs. Frank G. Speck (with later additions from William N. Fenton and John Witthoft). Ninety-five percent of the material relates to North American tribes east of the Mississippi. The material was arranged by Anthony F. C. Wallace, and described in "The Frank G. Speck Collection" in The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (Vol. 95, pp. 286-89). According to Wallace, the Speck collection is an important ethnographic source material to those working on Eastern Woodlands Indian cultures since it constitutes a valuable body of unpublished data. In addition, the collection documents a significant chapter in the history of American science. As an early student of Franz Boas, Speck's work represents the first generation of American ethnographers to pursue the kind of research Boas encouraged and taught (a patient, detailed description of a primitive culture based on long and intimate residence with the community). Of particular interest are Speck's Columbia lecture notes from classes he took with Boas. Speck's field notes further indicate his method of study, in which casualness was itself unconsciously a technique for creating "rapport." Speck scribbled information on envelopes, scraps of paper, road maps, and old letters - in addition to ledger books and tablets.

When it came to organize the material, Wallace found the classification and ordering of the material to be "somewhat difficult." The collection could not be organized chronologically since Speck collected material over long periods of time prior to publication and did not date the material. It was also not feasible to organize the collection based on whether the notes were published or unpublished as it was not uncommon for Speck to have both types of information on opposite sides of the same piece of paper. Wallace concluded that a researcher consulting the Speck papers would be interested in a particular area or tribe, and would be familiar with the printed material on the subject. It was therefore decided to organize the material according to culture area, tribe, and community. The majority of this material has been described in John Freeman and Murphy Smith's Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian (1966) and Daythal Kendall's Supplement to Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian (1982). With the prominence of these two publications, it was decided to keep the initial organization and folder identification numbers of the collection when it was recataloged. Item descriptions from the Freeman/Smith and Kendall guides are designated with F&S and the entry number from the guide.

Series II of Subcollection I was initially labeled as biographical material, and organized separately in six boxes. This material arrived at the APS after Wallace had completed his organization in the 1950s. The series is predominantly correspondence to and from Speck regarding research topics, as well as other professional matters. When the collection was recataloged it was decided to reorganize it alphabetically by correspondent. Some of the items have been described in the Freeman/Smith and Kendall guides, the remainder were described when the collection was reprocessed.

Subcollection II was a gift of Mrs. Frank G. Speck, and initially housed at the Delaware County Institute of Science. The collection was eventually transferred to the Society in several accessions between 1971 and 1993, and processed in 1996 by Miriam B. Spectre and Timothy T. Wilson on a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The collection is arranged in four series: correspondence, works by Speck, field notes, and photographs. Series II: Works by Speck, constitute the bulk of the material. At 4.5 linear feet, the series contains manuscript and typescript drafts, galley proofs, and page proofs of published and unpublished articles, reviews and books by Speck. The folders are arranged by title, with reviews being entered under the title of the book or article which is the subject. Series I: Correspondence contains four letters relating to publications by Speck, research material, Indian specimens, and Linton Satterthwait's summer research with John Alden Mason. Series III: Field Notes is one folder of undated material labeled "Delaware Social Dance Bustle", and Series IV contains four folders of photographs that appear to have been published by Speck.

Native American Images note : A total of nearly 1,700 black and white silver gelatin photographs, sketches, albumen and photomechanical prints, negatives, and pictographs covering Speck's fieldwork from 1904-1948 of Northeastern and Southeastern Native American tribes of Canada and the United States. Collected by Speck, except where noted, highlighted tribes include: Yuchi of Oklahoma, Algonquin of Labrador, Naskapis, Penobscot, Delawares, Iroquois, Houma, Catawbas, Cherokees, Creek, and Pamunkey. Images reflect the ceremonies and social customs of each, particularly, birch-bark containers, double curve design motifs, ceremonial masks and face paintings, utensils, clothing and hunting gear. Primarily textual material, the collection displays Speck's unique use of image as a documentary tool. Arranged by tribe and region, each folder is cited in the APS Freeman Guide to manuscripts relating to the American Indian with references noted in the detailed inventory. Also, noted in Murphy Smith's Historical American Sketches. Composition books, scrapbooks, pamphlets Miscellaneous clippings, 19 color photomechanical prints, 176 black and white photomechanical prints, 8 black and white illustrations, 21 newspaper clipping photographs, of Eastern Woodland, Plains, Great Basin, and Southeast tribes dating from 1922-1941. Collected by Speck for reference, the images are of portraits in tribal dress, dwellings, encampments, villages, pottery, masks, and weapons from various printed sources, such as, The Richmond Times and Metropolitan magazine. Not referenced in the APS Freeman Guide to American Indians. (Subcollection II)

Frank G. Speck Photograph Collection 572.97 Sp3, Film no. 1426 ca. 10,000 images, 1855-1950 Photographs Nearly 7,000 black and white silver gelatin photographs, postal cards, negatives, illustrations, sketches, engravings, paintings, cyanotypes, and albumen prints of the social life and customs of over 100 Native American tribes, primarily Eastern Woodland, dated from 1904-1950. Collected and photographed by Speck, with accompanying documentation in his papers (Ms. Coll. 126), the collection is noteworthy for its size, scope and quality. Gathered in the Franz Boas tradition, the images reflect group and individual portraits, clothing, ornaments, dwellings, weapons, utensils, ceremonies, hunting, fishing and trapping equipment unique to such tribes as: the Yuchi, Penobscot, Montagnais-Naskapi, Oklahoma Delaware, Cherokee, Ontario Iroquois and many Algonquin-speaking people. Other contributors include Frederick Johnson's River Desert Algonquin, Vladimir J. Fewkes' Catawba vessels, and V.M. Petrullo and John Mason's Bororo Indians of Mato Grasso, Brazil. Of particular note, portraits as carte de viste, cabinet card, and tintype; oil paintings by Speck of a Pawnee camp, Plains Indian shield, and Cayuga longhouses. Arranged by tribe, each folder is noted with a reference number to its description in the Supplement to a Guide to Manuscripts relating to the American Indian in the Library of the APS (1982). 13 boxes of Native American images of North and South America, 2 boxes of African, Asian, Australian and Oceania images. Table of contents available. (Subcollection I)

Lantern Slides 462 light-sensitive glass lantern slides (274 black and white; 188 hand-colored) of twenty Native American tribes dating from 1914-1938. Positive transparencies, 3 ¼" x 4", of the social life and customs of tribes studied by Speck including: Catawba, Cherokee, Houma, Iroquois, Montagnais-Naskapi, and Yuchi. Some are educational, mass-produced dress portraits from the Seri, Beothuk, Eskimo, Seminole and Tuscarora tribes. Of interest, fourteen color slides of an unidentified opera noted here as "Indian melodrama." Seventy-seven images depict landscapes, Africans, and Asians. Some, but not all, are referenced in the Supplement to a Guide to Manuscripts relating to the American Indian in the Library of the APS (1982). 9 boxes. (Subcollection I)

Oversize The images are 39 photographs and 53 sketches dated from 1868-1941. Primarily portraits of such Native Americans as Sacajawea and Pocahontas with some stylized scenes by George Catlin, Seth Eastman, W. Gordon Fox, and L.T. Alexander. Collected or sketched by Speck, with emphasis on Eastern Woodland tribes. Of note, pastel and charcoal sketch of Iroquois false face, watercolor painting of a raised burial platform, a Harper's Weekly print from 1868. Each image is referenced in Supplement to a Guide to Manuscripts relating to the American Indian in the Library of the APS (1982). Basement and Sub-Basement. (Subcollection I)

Maps 65 printed maps and tracings annotated by Speck with ethnographic data on hunting territories and tribal boundaries of the Penobscot, Montagnais-Naskapi, and Catawba tribes dating from 1910-1930. (Subcollection I)

Film Naskapi scenes, ca. 1930, black and white, 16 mm, shot by Speck, shows the method of twisting rabbit skins for blankets; sleds with dogs; snowshoes; ice fishing; drums; and other aspects of social life and customs. 3 reels, no.520


Subcollection I. Frank Speck Papers1897-195010 linear feet
Subcollection II. Manuscripts on Native Americans1913-19465.5 linear feet

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information


Presented by Mrs. Frank Speck, 1950-1982, with additions by William N. Fenton, 1951, and John Witthoft, 1952.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Frank G. Speck Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Recatalogued by J.J. Ahern, 2004.

Other finding aids

Freeman, John F.A Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1966) Call no. 506.73 Am4me v.65

Kendall, Daythal A supplement to A Guide to Manuscripts Relating to the American Indian in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1982) Call no. 506.73 Am4me v.65s

Related material

The American Philosophical Society Library contains several other collections from Frank Speck or that relate to him in some way. The collection of photographs and drawings (ca. 1800s-mid 1900s; ca. 5000 items) from the Speck papers have been removed and inventoried separately. The images are mainly from Speck's own collection, and focus on the United States and Canada, but there are also photographs concerning peoples of Mexico, South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Oceania. Additional Speck material includes the Speck Cherokee Collection (572.97 Sp3L) which consists of diaries, accounts, and medicinal texts in Cherokee collected by Will West Long and Morgan Calhoun, accompanied by notes by Speck and John Witthoft. In the material are several diaries kept by Long (mostly 1904-1917), records of the Gadugi (a Cherokee mutual aid group), accounts, records of births and deaths at Big Cove, and material collected on Cherokee botany by James Mooney in 1887. Several of the items contain information on Cherokee medicine, including formulae and curing charms. The Speck Catawba Texts (497.3 Sp3) concern myths, history, birds, reptiles, signs and omens, remedies, marriage, poverty, industry, food, charms, taboos, etc. The texts have both free and interlinear English translations. The Speck-Choate Photograph Collection (B Sp3c) contains photographs taken by J. N. Choate, a local commercial photographer in Carlisle, Pa. and collected by Speck. Typical images include "before and after" shots of students in native dress and school uniforms, the school band, and shots of the students at work in the saddle shop and making shoes. Choate also took a number of images of visiting chiefs in traditional dress, including the Lakota chief Spotted Tail, and the Cheyennes Man on Cloud and Mad Wolf. One photograph depicts Richard Henry Pratt seated with Quaker supporters. Among the tribes represented are the Lakota, Laguna, Cheyenne, Creek, Lipan, and Pueblo.

Other collections in the Library which relate to Frank Speck include the Franz Boas Papers (B B61), as well as Boas' other students Elsie Clews Parsons (Ms. Coll. 29), Paul Radin (497.3 R114), and Ashley Montagu (Ms. Coll. 109). Speck's colleagues are represented by the William Fenton Papers (Ms. Coll. 20), and the John Alden Mason Papers (B M384). The Library also holds the papers of some of Speck's students in the George S. Snyderman Papers (Ms. Coll. 51), Anthony F.C. Wallace Papers in the Wallace Family Papers (Ms. Coll. 64), and the Alfred I. Hallowell Papers (Ms. Coll. 26). Listings for additional Native American collections can be found in the online guide American Indian Manuscripts in the American Philosophical Society.

Outside of the Society Library, Speck material can be found at the University of Pennsylvania Museum Archives in the Frank G. Speck Papers. This 1.5 linear foot collection consists of correspondence and field reports dating between 1908-1950 for anthropological work with Indians of northeastern and southeastern United States, including the original manuscript for Penobscot Man


Blankenship Roy, ed. The Life and Times of Frank G. Speck, 1881-1950 . Philadelphia : Dept. of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, 1991. Call. No. B Sp35b

Indexing Terms

Corporate Name(s)

  • Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
  • American Anthropological Association
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • American Folklore Society
  • American Museum of Natural History
  • Circumboreal
  • Columbia University.
  • Committee for International Research in Arctic Ethnology
  • Double Curve Motif
  • Eskimo
  • Geographical Society of Philadelphia
  • National Geographic Society
  • Oklahoma Delaware Indians
  • Swarthmore College
  • University of Pennsylvania.


  • Albumen prints
  • Cabinet cards
  • Carte de visite photographs
  • Cyanotypes
  • Diagrams.
  • Gelatin silver prints
  • Illustrations.
  • Lantern slides.
  • Lithographs.
  • Maps
  • Negatives
  • Newspaper clippings.
  • Paintings.
  • Photomechanical prints
  • Picture-writing
  • Postcards
  • Sketches.
  • Tintypes

Personal Name(s)

  • Adney, Tappan (1868-1950)
  • Aitken, Robert
  • Alexander, James Evan
  • Ames, Herman Vandenburg , 1865-1935
  • Amsden, Charles Avery, 1899-1941
  • Baily, A. G.
  • Ball, Carl C.
  • Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969
  • Bates, George Joseph, 1891-1949
  • Battles, Frank
  • Beatty, Willard W. (Willard Walcott), 1891-1961
  • Bennett, Foster
  • Beston, Henry, 1888-1968
  • Bever, Marion G.
  • Billiot, Anthony
  • Billiot, Maurice
  • Bingham, M.
  • Birket-Smith, Kaj, 1893-1977
  • Blackwood, Beatrice, 1889-1975
  • Blakeley, A. W.
  • Bloom, Leonard, 1927-
  • Boas, Franz, 1858-1942
  • Bogoras, Waldemar, 1865-1936
  • Bond, Charles E.
  • Brimley, C. S. (Clement Samuel), 1863-1946
  • Britten, Marian Hale
  • Brooks, Jr., R. C.
  • Broom, Leonard, 1911-2009
  • Buck, John
  • Buffalo Museum of Science
  • Bureau of American Ethnology (
  • Burgesse, J. Allan
  • Butler, Eva L.
  • Cabot, W. B.
  • Carpenter, Edmund, 1922-2011
  • Chase, Fannie S.
  • Chester, Allan G. (Allan Griffith)
  • Child, C. G.
  • Coatsworth, Elizabeth, 1893-1986
  • Cobb, Rodney Dale, 1907-2000
  • Cole, Fay-Cooper, 1881-1961
  • Comas, Juan, 1900-
  • Congdon, Charles E. (Charles Edwin)
  • Cooper, John M. (John Montgomery), 1881-1949
  • Cornplanter, Jesse J.
  • Crawford, J. W.
  • Dahl, Richard S.
  • Darlington, H. S.
  • Day, Gordon M.
  • De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004
  • Deardorff, Merle H., d.1971
  • Delabarre, Edmund Burke
  • Department of Justice, Canada
  • Department of the Interior, Of
  • Diamond Jenness
  • Dimmick, Edgar R.
  • Dixon, Joseph K.
  • Dodge, Ernest Stanley
  • Dodge, Raymond, 1871-1942
  • Dorrance, Frances
  • Douglas, Frederic Huntington,
  • Downes, P. G. (Prentice Gilbert)
  • Drake, Charley G.
  • Dunnack, Henry E.
  • Dutcher, Willena B.
  • Eckstorm, Fannie Hardy, 1865-1946
  • Edgerton , Franklin, 1885-1963
  • Edwards, Edgar Van W.
  • Edwards, William Waller
  • Eiseley, Loren P.
  • Eisenberger, E.
  • Eskew, James W.
  • Farabee , William Curtis, 1865-1925
  • Farrand, Livingston, 1867-1939
  • Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005
  • Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930
  • Fewkes, Vladimir J.
  • Field, Clark
  • Finkelstein, Elsie
  • Ford, C. Desmond (Charles Desmond)
  • Forde, C. Daryll (Cyril Daryll
  • Fry, Nat P.
  • Gamio, Manuel, 1883-1960
  • Gandy, Ethel
  • Garner, Alfred B.
  • Gauthier, E. S.
  • General, Alexander J. (Deskaheh)
  • Giger, Leona E.
  • Gilliam, Charles Edgar
  • Gilmore , Melvin R. (Melvin Randolph), 1868-1940
  • Gisriel, Stewart W.
  • Godcharles , Frederic Antes
  • Goddard, Pliny Earle, 1869-1928
  • Goldenweiser, Alexander, 1880-1940
  • Goldfrank, Esther
  • Gordon, G. B. (George Byron), 1870-1927
  • Greywacz, Kathryn B.
  • Griffin, James B.
  • Gusinde , Martin, 1886-1969
  • Haddon, Alfred C. (Alfred Cort
  • Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974
  • Hallowell, Dorothy Kern, 1892-1973
  • Hammond, R.
  • Hardenbrook, Louise
  • Harkins, Lee F.
  • Hassrick, Royal B.
  • Hawkes, Ernest William
  • Hayne, Hayward
  • Hellmer, Joseph
  • Herris, R. H.
  • Heye Museum, The
  • Heye, George G. (George Gustav), 1874-1957
  • Hicks, Charles
  • Hill, Jasper "Big White Owl"
  • Hiller, Wesley R.
  • Holden, James E.
  • Holmer, Nils M.
  • Honigmann, John J.
  • Howells, W. W. (William White), 1908-2005
  • Howley, James Patrick, 1847-19
  • Huaiquilaf, J. Martin Collio
  • Hudson's Bay Company
  • Imsick, Roy C.
  • Ioma, John
  • Isserman, Ferdinand M. (Ferdinand Myron)
  • John, Samuel
  • Johnson, Frederick
  • Jones , Louis C. (Louis Clark), 1908-1990
  • Jones, Volney H. (Volney Hurt)
  • Kaye, S. A.
  • Kendall, W. C.
  • Kissell, Mary Lois
  • Kremens, Jack
  • Kroeba, A.
  • Krouse, Theodore B.
  • La Rue, Mabel G.
  • Lagore, Eli
  • Laidlaw, G. E.
  • Lampe, M. Willard (Matthew Willard), 1883-1969
  • Laulin, "Redge"
  • Laulin, Gladys
  • Launer, Philip
  • Leach, Henry Goddard, 1880-197
  • Learmouth, D. H.
  • Learn, Martha
  • Lesser, Alexander
  • Light, Richard
  • Lilly, Eli, 1885-1977
  • Linton, Ralph, 1893-1953
  • Lippincott, Joseph Wharton, 1887-1976
  • Lips, Julie E.
  • Lowie, Robert Harry, 1883-1957
  • Luongo, James M.
  • MacDonald, Ada S.
  • MacLeod, William Christie
  • Manning, E. W.
  • March, Douglas D. H.
  • Marriott, Alice Lee, 1910-1992
  • McCaskill, J. C.
  • McDaniel, W. B.
  • McKern, W. C. (Will Carleton)
  • McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977
  • Mechling, William Hubbs, 1888-1953
  • Meier, Emil F.
  • Menzie, Decker V.
  • Messurier, William L.
  • Miller, Samuel "James"
  • Milling, Chapman J. (Chapman James)
  • Moe, Henry Allen, 1894-1975
  • Montour, Josiah
  • Mook, , Maurice O.
  • Mooney, James, 1861-1921
  • Moorehead, Warren King, 1866-1939
  • Moses, Jesse, Jr.
  • Moulton, Forest Ray, 1872-1952
  • Mueller, Werner
  • Murrow, Glenn R.
  • Musser
  • Myers, John L.
  • Nassau, Robert Hamill, 1835-1921
  • National Academy of Sciences
  • National Research Council
  • Neitzel, Stuart
  • Nelson, Dorothy M.
  • New York Zoological Society
  • Newhouse, Seth, 1842-1921
  • Norton, Jeannette Young
  • Norvell, E. B.
  • O'Brian, G. W. (Mrs.)
  • Oak, Liston M.
  • Obermaier, Anna
  • Olbrechts, Frans M., 1899-1958
  • Opler, Morris Edward, 1907-1996
  • Orchard, W. C.
  • Osgood, Cornelius
  • Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club
  • Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955
  • Penniman, Josiah Harma, 1868-1941
  • Pennsylvania
  • Peters, Nick
  • Picard, L. P. O.
  • Pitt River Museum
  • Pollard, E. B.
  • Poole, Earl E.
  • Prince, John Dyneley, 1868-1945
  • Quimby, George
  • Rathbone, Perry Townsend, 1911-2000
  • Raynolds, Frances
  • Red Thunder Cloud
  • Reed, Ira S.
  • Rehnstrand, Jane
  • Reirmann, Jacques
  • Revillon FrèresTrading Company
  • Reynolds, A. G.
  • Riggs, Bob
  • Rights, Douglas L. (Douglas LeTell), 1891-1956
  • Ritchie, W. A.
  • Rivard, E. M.
  • Roberts, Helen H. (Helen Heffron), 1888-1985
  • Robinson, Roy H.
  • Rohrbaugh, H. L.
  • Rolland, Ann
  • Rousseau, Jacques
  • Rowell, Mary
  • Ryan, Mrs. Charles
  • Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939
  • Sargent, R. W.
  • Saville, Marshall H. (Marshall Howard), 1867-1935
  • Schaeffer, Claude E.
  • Selby, J. S.
  • Sequin, Robert Lionel
  • Shafer, A. E.
  • Shenk, Hiram H. (Hiram Herr), 1872-1954
  • Shoemaker, Henry W. (Henry Wharton)
  • Siebert, Frank T. (Frank Thomas), 1912-1998
  • Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925
  • Smith, Edgar F.
  • Smith, Frank E., 1919-1984
  • Smith, Harlan Ingersoll, 1872-1940
  • Solenberger, Robert
  • Spaulding, A. C.
  • Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
  • Spinder, Herbert J.
  • Staub, Peter
  • Stern, Theodore, 1917-
  • Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1
  • Swales, Bradshaw Hall, 1875-
  • Swan, Sankey
  • Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958
  • Tantaquidgeon, Gladys
  • Taylor, Lyda
  • Thayer, B. W.
  • Thompson, B. A.
  • Tozzer, Alfred M. -- (Alfred Marston), -- 1877-1954.
  • Traynor, Donald P.
  • Trotter, Spencer, 1860-1931.
  • Turner, G. E. S.
  • Tyler, Dorothy Louise, 1899-19
  • University Museum of the Unive
  • University of California
  • University of Pennsylvania, De
  • Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986
  • Walker, Abraham M.
  • Wallace, Paul A. W.
  • Walser, Richard, 1908-
  • Ward, Christopher L.
  • Warfield, J. O.
  • Waugh, F. W. (Frederick Wilkerson), 1872-1924
  • Weitluner, R. J.
  • Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie, 1903-1988
  • White, Leslie A., 1900-1975.
  • White, Richard Jr.
  • White, Stewart Edward, 1873-19
  • Wildens, Harry Emerson
  • Wilder, Harris Hawthorne, 1864
  • Wilkins, C.E.
  • Williams, Spencer F.
  • Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947
  • Wiswall, Richard Hall, 1916-
  • Wyman, Waiter Channing
  • Yoder, Hiram J.
  • Zimmerman, William
  • Zirkle, Conway, 1895-1972
  • Zoological Society of Philadel


  • Abenaki Indians
  • Achumawi Indians
  • Algonquian Indians
  • Algonquian art
  • Anishinaabe
  • Athapascan Indians
  • Atikamekw Indians
  • Beothuk Indians
  • Bororo Indians
  • Catawba Indians
  • Cayuga Indians
  • Chastacosta Indians
  • Cheroenhaka Indians
  • Cherokee Indians
  • Cree Indians
  • Creek Indians
  • Delaware Indians
  • Ethnography
  • Great Basin Indians
  • Hokan-Coahuiltecan languages
  • Houma Indians
  • Indians of North America -- Alberta
  • Indians of North America -- Arizona
  • Indians of North America -- California
  • Indians of North America -- Canada
  • Indians of North America -- Colorado
  • Indians of North America -- Connecticut
  • Indians of North America -- Delaware
  • Indians of North America -- Florida
  • Indians of North America -- Louisiana
  • Indians of North America -- Maine
  • Indians of North America -- Massachusetts
  • Indians of North America -- Montana
  • Indians of North America -- New York (State)
  • Indians of North America -- Newfoundland and Labrador
  • Indians of North America -- North Carolina
  • Indians of North America -- Northeastern States
  • Indians of North America -- Oklahoma
  • Indians of North America -- Ontario
  • Indians of North America -- Quebec (Province)
  • Indians of North America -- Saskatchewan
  • Indians of North America -- South Carolina
  • Indians of North America -- Southeastern States
  • Indians of North America -- Virginia
  • Indians of South America -- Brazil
  • Inuit -- Canada
  • Iroquois Indians
  • Kansa Indians
  • Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg
  • Malecite Indians
  • Mashteuiatsh
  • Mende (African People)
  • Micmac Indians
  • Mistassin Indians
  • Miwok Indians
  • Mohawk Indians
  • Montagnais Indians
  • Nanticoke Indians
  • Naskapi Indians
  • Native American culture
  • Native American linguistics
  • Native American lore & legends
  • Ojibwa Indians
  • Ojibwe people
  • Omaha Indians
  • Pamunkey Indians
  • Passamaquoddy Indians
  • Penobscot Indians
  • Pequot Indians
  • Plains Indians
  • Seminole Indians
  • Seneca
  • Shawnee Indians
  • Sherbro (African People)
  • Sub-Arctic Indians
  • Tuscarora Indians
  • Wawenock Indians
  • Wiyot-Yorok
  • Yana language
  • Yao (African People)
  • Yuchi Indians

Collection overview

1897-195023 linear feet

Subcollection I is divided into several series. Series I is comprised of research material, and is organized according to culture area, tribe, and community. Series II is predominantly correspondence to and from Speck regarding research topics, as well as other professional matters. This series is arranged alphabetically by author. Series III, IV, and V are comprised of graphic materials: photographs, lantern slides, and maps. This subcollection was acquired separately by the Society, and was originally cataloged as the Frank G. Speck Papers (572.97 Sp3).

1903-19508.25 linear feet

Ill-defined area west of Mississippi, north of corn-growing limit, south to approximately Mason-Dixon Line.


Area roughly from Mississippi to the Rockies.


Notes taken by Speck during graduate work at Columbia University under Franz Boas, and utilized for anthropology courses at University of Pennsylvania by Speck; with numerous loose cards and slips, as well as several student term papers interfiled. It is not wholly clear what is Boas and what is Speck material, but the former undoubtedly deserves credit for the northwest-coast linguistics included. Photos of Quechua Indians, miscellaneous others.

F&S 1463

1897-19501.75 linear feet

Images note: 14 illustrations of Pamunkey and Cayuga rattles, Cherokee mask, Toltec designs, and logos of thunderbird, tipi; 1 photograph of Frank Speck in sled at Maniwaki, P.Q.(from William Fenton); 3 photographs of Anthony Wallace at Dismal run.


This series contains 4200+ loose photographs and other images spanning circa 1905-1950, primarily relating to Indigenous communities throughout the continent. The majority of the images were taken by Speck, but a significant portion were taken by others and sent to Speck. Images sent to Speck are not always noted as such in the descriptions, as the extent of photos taken by others is not always clear in the available documentation, but may be established in some cases with further research and contextual knowledge.


Consists primarily of printed maps of various kinds (geological surveys, government land surveys, road maps, etc.) from circa 1905-1945, many of which contain Speck's handwritten annotations noting familial hunting grounds, and sometimes place names, migration routes, and other information. Also contains some entirely hand-drawn maps of this nature. All annotated maps are given below, along with notes on the general types of other non-annotated maps.

1913-19465.5 linear feet

Subcollection II is arranged in four series: correspondence, works by Speck, field notes, and photographs. Series II: Works by Speck constitute the bulk of the series and is arranged alphabetically by title. This subcollections was acquired separately by the Society, and was originally cataloged as the Frank G. Speck Manuscripts on Native Americans (970.3 Sp3p).

1926-19465 folders
1913-19425 Linear Feet
n.d.1 folder
n.d.4 foldersImages with call no. 572.97 Sp3 are located in the basement.

Detailed Inventory

 Subcollection I. Frank G. Speck Papers
1897-195023 linear feet

Subcollection I is divided into several series. Series I is comprised of research material, and is organized according to culture area, tribe, and community. Series II is predominantly correspondence to and from Speck regarding research topics, as well as other professional matters. This series is arranged alphabetically by author. Series III, IV, and V are comprised of graphic materials: photographs, lantern slides, and maps. This subcollection was acquired separately by the Society, and was originally cataloged as the Frank G. Speck Papers (572.97 Sp3).

 Series I. Research Material
1903-19508.25 linear feet
 I. Circumpolar Culture Area
 A. General Circumpolar Area
I(1A1) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Distribution maps for Circumpolar Traits.
n.d.12 itemsBox 1

Separate maps show distribution of divination and miracle shamanism; sweat bath; turtle Atlas myth and world-tree concept; bone divination; bear veneration; curative power of mystic words and formulae; dog-ancestor myth; dog as soul leader; curvilinear patterns; confession to cure taboo violation.   F&S 1464

Access digital object:

I(1A2) Birket-Smith, Kaj, 1893-1977.
Plan for Circumpolar Research
19461 itemBox 1

Concerning forthcoming International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Science at Prague. Includes Birket-Smith Report to the Members of the Committee for International Research in Arctic Ethnology, May, 1936. Status of then-current research.   F&S 1416

 B. General Inuit

Other Descriptive Information: Previously labelled as "General Eskimo." Changed in January 2021. The term is retained below in cases where it is used as a title in the original manuscript.

I(1B1) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Physical Characteristics of the Eskimo (notes on)
n.d.1 itemBox 1

Lecture notes.   F&S 1362

I(1B2) [no entry]
  Box 1
I(1B3) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Eskimo sled dogs, MS
n.d.1 itemBox 1

Discusses training and use of dogs.   F&S 1338

I(1B4) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Story of Eskimo woman who raised bear cub
19231 itemBox 1

Bibliographical note on J. W. Bilby, (1923)   F&S 1343

I(1B5) [no entry]
  Box 1
I(1B6) Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925.
to Frank G. Speck
19245 itemsBox 1

Miscellaneous reading notes on Inuit: Historical Relations of Inuit and Algonkians, notes.  F&S 1341

I(1B6) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Miscellaneous reading notes on Inuit: Miscellaneous book-notes on Inuit
19403 itemsBox 1

Miscellaneous reading notes on Inuit   F&S 325

Other Descriptive Information: Previously labelled as "Miscellaneous reading notes on Eskimos." Changed in January 2021.

 C. Labrador Inuit

Other Descriptive Information: Previously labelled as "Labrador Eskimo." Changed in January 2021.

I(1C1) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Eskimo on the East Coast of Hudsons Bay (Reading notes)
n.d.1 itemBox 1

Notes together with Speck's comments on Arthur Dobbs, (1744).   F&S 1336

I(1C2) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
"The George River Barren Ground Band of Eskimo" (MS carbon)
n.d.1 itemBox 1

Concerning whether Inuit were first an inland or a coastal group.   F&S 1339

I(1C3) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
"Analysis of Eskimo and Indian skin dressing method in Labrador" MS
n.d.5 itemsBox 1

Compares technique according to skins.   F&S 1335

Access digital object:

I(1C4) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Report of 1934 Field Trip (typescript)
19342 itemsBox 1

Summarizes activities and reasons for his field work studying Inuit in Labrador and Newfoundland. Discusses comparisons with Naskapi, and additional research on Beothuk history.  F&S 1342

Access digital object:

I(1C5) Burgesse, J. Allan.
to Frank Speck
19362 itemsBox 1

Letter from J. Allan Burgesse of Hudson's Bay Company, primarily regarding Innu ("Montagnais") birch bark baskets. Images note: Art design filed by Frank G. Speck with Inuit material. Pencil sketches of double curve motif. (Rationale for original cataloging inclusion in Inuit section unclear.)  F&S 2290

Access digital object:

I(1C6) White, Richard Jr..
List of Archaeological Specimens
n.d.2 itemsBox 1

Harpoons, scrapers, and similar artifacts, sent by Richard White, a trader in Nain, Labrador. Handwritten note on back by Speck: "Heye list, Esk. archaeology"  F&S 1315

Access digital object:

I(1C7) [no entry]
  Box 1
I(1C8) [no entry]
  Box 1
I(1C9) Cooper, John M. (John Montgomery), 1881-1949.
to Frank Speck
June 29, 19341 itemBox 1

"Eskimo territorialism." Discusses theism in Labrador; Inuit family rights to hunting grounds.   F&S 1325

Access digital object:

I(1C10) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Labrador Inuit field notebook
n.d.3 itemsBox 1

Lists of Inuit names for animals, plants, manufactured objects, etc.; terms of relationship; general vocabulary; texts with interlinear translation. Includes several botanical specimens. Maps of Newfoundland, including railroad and sailing schedules. Also a few Naskapi items on one page. Letter to Speck from E. B. Delabarre, Mar. 4, 1924, A.L.S., 3p., discussing tales he had heard in Labrador.   F&S 1337

Other Descriptive Information: Previously labelled as "Eskimo field notebook." Changed in January 2021.

Access digital object:

 II. Circumboreal
 A. General
II(2A1a) Double Curve Motif -- a. miscellaneous notes
1915-19434 itemsBox 1

Haddon, Alfred C. Letter to Frank G. Speck, December 17, 1915 -- Curious as to degree of missionary influence on double-curve motif. Birket-Smith, Kaj. Letter to Frank G. Speck, October 30, 1927 -- Discusses Montagnais-Naskapi museum specimens; double curve motif in Inuit art. Asks questions on shared "culture elements" among northern tribes. Quimby, George. Letter to Frank G. Speck, February 8, 1943 -- Discusses possible double curve theme in Hopewell art. His field experience suggests Montagnais-Naskapi bands were differentiated by rivers on which they lived. Speck, Frank G. Table of double curve motif, n.d. --Northwestern tribes, Iroquois, central Algonkian usage charted by technique and variation of motifs.  F&S 338, 1321, 1430, 2294

II(2A1b) Double Curve Motif -- b. "The Double-Curve Motive in Northeastern Algonkian Art" by F.G. Speck
19141 itemBox 1

Images note: A copy of Speck's "The Double-Curve Motive in Northeastern Algonkian Art" (1914), with interleaved photographs and sketches of designs, together with notes, suggesting natural-history origins of motives and variations. The photographs and sketches are digitized below.  F&S 1443

 Removed from Fig. 1 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 2 - Double-curve drawings
 Removed from Fig. 2 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 7 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 7 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 7 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 7 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 7 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 7 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 7 - Double-curve drawings
 Removed from Fig. 11 - Mirror image of vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 11 - Vegetation emerging from water
 Removed from Fig. 11 - Vegetation emerging out of water
 Removed from Fig. 15 - Vegetation emerging out of water
II(2A2) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Traps -- a. Miscellaneous notes
19382 itemsBox 1

Review of John M. Cooper, Snares, deadfalls, and other traps of Northern Algonquians and Northern Athapaskans   F&S 337

Access digital object:

II(2A3) [no entry]
  Box 1
II(2A4) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Distribution of Scapulimancy, etc., in Circumboreal
n.d.1 itemBox 1

Images note: Sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (Scapulimancy); notes on origin and distribution of deer drives (including 1p. note, undated, from A. I. Hallowell); distribution of artifacts among Algonkin, Naskapi, Mistassini.   F&S 372

II(2A5) Downes, P. G. (Prentice Gilbert).
Letter to Frank G. Speck
19361 itemBox 1

"Miscellaneous notes on Circumboreal Region" Discusses his visit to Naskapi near Davis Inlet, to Cree, and to Chip[pewa]s. 2p. of notes (Speck?) in French-English of Indian or Canadian, discussing changes in Indian culture.   F&S 2499

 B. "Montagnais-Naskapi" (Ilnu, Innu, Naskapi)
 1 General Information
II(3B1a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information -- a. Summary of Naskapi life
n.d.1 itemBox 2

Apparently an introductory lecture, leading to study of Naskapi beliefs. 1p. notes on psycho-shamanistic performance.   F&S 2319

II(3B1b) Hammond, R..
General Information -- b. "The Naskapis of Northern Labrador from a Trader's Viewpoint."
n.d.1 itemBox 2

A description of Naskapi customs, round of life, the fur trade, especially the role of fur-bearers vs. caribou, incidents of drunkenness among Naskapi; honesty, etc.   F&S 2293

II(3B1c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information -- c. History of Inuit-Algonkian relations in Labrador
n.d.6 itemsBox 2

Includes bibliographical notes, notes on Inuit-Algonkian cultural correspondences and a 3p, typed document concerning migration routes of the Inuit to the New World.   F&S 1340

Other Descriptive Information: Previously labelled as "History of Eskimo-Algonkian relations in Labrador." Changed in January 2021.

Access digital object:

II(3B1d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information -- d. Short History by Frank Speck, concerning Labrador Indians
1922-19242 itemsBox 2

Includes a 15p. story of incident in Naskapi life and 7p. scraps on natural surroundings.   F&S 2317

II(3B1e) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information: e. Naskapi personality
n.d.1 itemBox 2

Lecture notes.   F&S 2314

II(3B1f) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information: f. Miscellaneous notes
1918-194627 itemsBox 2

Includes 4 slips of bibliographic notes; a card with notes on a lecture of Franz Boas, Philadelphia, 1918, concerning the primacy of custom over inner morality; typed reading notes, 1925 a letter of Felix Agnus Leser to Speck, Dec. 14, 1931, concerning the docking of sled dog's tails. Drawing of a Naskapi tent in the Victoria Museum. 3 miscellaneous slips; 35 slips of notes on Inuit and Montngnais culture from printed sources; and 1 notebook, 1946, containing some linguistic and informant data.   F&S 2309

II(3B1g) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information -- g. Catalogue of Naskapi Collection, Denver Art Museum, as of 2 October 1942, and listing other specimens collected by Frank G. Speck
1920 - 19426 itemsBox 2

Materials collected by Speck. In addition to that at Denver, there are lists of Montagnais and Mistassini specimens sent to George Heye, 1920; Montagnais specimens sent to Reading Museum, 1927; materials collected in 1021 (list sent to Goddard); list dated Sept. 13, 1921, sent to Wissler. Summary of expenses in 1927.   F&S 2298

II(3B1h) h. [no entry]
  Box 2
II(3B1i) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information -- i. Birch Bark Containers
19417 itemsBox 2

Includes 18L. of notes on birch-bark baskets from northwest to northeast; Images Note: 9 photos of Temagami Anishinaabe birch-bark containers; 18 photos of Mistassini, Algonquin containers, as well as 1 negative, 5 sketches, and 10 leaves of notes; 7L. of general notes on birch-bark containers; 4 photos of Kutenai birch-bark containers together with negative and letter of Bella Weitzner to Speck, June 2, 1941; 4p. of notes on Ojibwa birch-bark; 1 photo of Yukon birch-bark; and 4p. of notes and 5 photos of Ojibwa baskets.   F&S 370

 Birch Bark Containers (Ojibwa, Temagami)

Sub-folder within "II(3B1i) General Information -- i. Birch Bark Containers." Notes and photographs relating to birch bark containers from the Temagami Algonquin, some from the collections of the American Museum of Natural History.

Access digital object:

 Birch Bark Containers (General)

Sub-folder within "II(3B1i) General Information -- i. Birch Bark Containers." Notes and photographs relating to birch bark containers, some relating to collections of the American Museum of Natural History. Includes photos of 4 Kutenai (Ktunaxa, Kootenay, Kootenai) baskets. Includes letter of Bella Weitzner to Speck, June 2, 1941.

Access digital object:

 Birch Bark Containers (Algonquin, Mistassini)

Sub-folder within "II(3B1i) General Information -- i. Birch Bark Containers." Notes and photographs of birch bark containers, relating to the collections of the American Museum of Natural History and Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Relates to Cree, Mistassini, Algonquin (Rivière Desert, Maniwaki), and includes a reprint Vincent Petrullo's "Decorative Art on Birch-Bark Containers from the Algonquin River du Lièvre Band."

Access digital object:

 Birch Bark Containers (Alaska, McKenzie, N. Plateau)

Sub-folder within "II(3B1i) General Information -- i. Birch Bark Containers." Notes and sketches regarding birch bark containers, including one letter from Gene Weltfish. Concerns multiple cultures including Secwepemc (Shuswap), Dakelh (Carrier), Nlaka'pamux (Thompson), Gwich'in (Kutchin/Loucheux), Slave, Kawchottine (Hare), and others.

Access digital object:

 Birch Bark Containers (Ojibway)

Sub-folder within "II(3B1i) General Information -- i. Birch Bark Containers." Notes and photographs relating to birch bark containers, some from the collections of the American Museum of Natural History, Denver Art Museum, and Reading Museum. Concerns Ojibwe birch bark containers from White Earth, Bois Forte, and Long Lac.

Access digital object:

 Birch Bark baskets
 Birch Bark containers
II(3B1j) j. [no entry]
  Box 2
II(3B1k) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Information -- k. Account book for field trips, with miscellaneous notes
1903-19228 itemsBox 2

Contains accounts for 1911, 1912, 1913, 1915, 1919, 1920, and 1922 field trips, lists travel costs and cost of obtaining museum specimens. Also 2 newsclippings, 1911, 1913; and a postal card of Speck to his wife, 1919.   F&S 2296

 Account book

Written on notebook cover: "Huron notes." Inside cover, vocabulary notes from Les Escoumins (Essipit), likely in Innu-aimun. Opening 6 pages contain a mix of ethnographic and linguistic notes labelled "Huron," as well as similar notes referring to Les Escoumins (Essipit) and Tadoussac, undated. "Montagnais trip, Apr. 2, 1911": detailed record of travel expenses and prices paid for a wide range of "specimens," 9 pages. "Lake St. John Trip, Apr. 4-14, 1912": detailed record of travel expenses and prices paid for a wide range of "specimens," including note on amount "Asked of Sapir," 7 pages + 3 pages of loose slips inserted, relationship unclear. "Canada rip, June 1912": detailed record of travel expenses and prices paid for a wide range of "specimens," apparently billed to Sapir. Sections include: Lake St. John, includes mention of Tete de Boule (Atikamekw) and Abenaki (4 pages); Moisie (2 pages); Seven Islands (Sept-Îles) (2 pages). "Algonquin Trip, June 5-6, 1913": detailed record of travel expenses and prices paid for a wide range of "specimens," apparently billed to Sapir. Places noted: Temagami, Matagama, Nipissing, Temiskaming, Temagami (11 pages). "Lake St John, March 22 - Apr 2, 1913": detailed record of travel expenses and prices paid for a wide range of "specimens," apparently billed to Sapir. "Canada, June 1, 1913, with [Florence]": additional list of expenses, mentioning Maniwaki, North Bay, Nipissing, Temiskaming, Temagami, Bear Island, Chicoutimi. Wampum noted as specific expense line.  "Montagnais trip, June 4-27, 1915": travel expenses and prices paid for "specimens." Mentions Tadoussac (1 page). "Montagnais trip, April 10-24, 1919": travel expenses and prices paid for "specimens" (1 page). "Lower St. Lawrence trip, June 4-24, 1919": Natural history notes on land forms, birds, animals, plants. Mentions Tadoussac, Les Escoumins (Essipit) (3 pages.) "Tadoussac and Escoumains [Les Escoumins (Essipit)] June 1920": Prices paid for "specimens" (1 page).  "Lake St. John Montagnais, June 28 - July 7, 1920": Prices paid for "specimens," apparently billed to Heye. Includes 1 page on Mistassini (5 pages), + loose pages  "Financial Summary, [Les Escoumin (Essipit)], [Tadoussac], and Lake St. John, June-July 1920": Summary of expenses and price paid for "specimens." Also mentions Mistassini. (2 page). Miscellaneous notes, including vocabulary, object lists, 3 small sketches, personal names and addresses. Mentions "Micmac" (Mi'kmaq), Mistassini, Lake St. John, Natashquan (7 pages). "Huron specimens": prices paid for "specimens, apparently billed to Heye. Date and location unclear. Mentions "Trip to Canada Dec 1908." (3 pages) Miscellaneous notes, brief vocabulary, sketch, expenses, short natural history notes at Abitibi river "June 23."  Loose pages, June 1920: Listing prices paid for "specimens," for "Tadoussac Archaeology," "Pointe Sauvage Archaeology," "Escoumains [Ethnology?]," Lake St. John. Portions in different handwriting, possibly Gladys Tantaquidgeon.

 Notes, postcards and newspaper clippings
1903-1915, n.d. 
 2 Hunting Territories
II(3B2a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Hunting Territories -- a. Miscellaneous notes on Montagnais-Naskapi hunting territories
1928-193214 itemsBox 2

Letters concerning aboriginal us. European origins of hunting territories: Diamond Jenness to Speck, Feb. 20, 1928, 1p. T.L.S.; C. Daryll Forde (University College of Wales) to Speck, July 10, 1930, 1p. T.L.S.; Speck to Forde, Oct. 28, 1930, 2p. T.L. c.c.; John M. Cooper to Speck, Sept. 27, 1932, 2p. T.L.S. 9 leaves of miscellaneous notes.  F&S 230

II(3B2b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Hunting Territories -- b. "Terms of Relationship and Family Territorial Band Among the Northeastern Algonkins."
n.d.2 itemsBox 2

M.S. draft and additions.   F&S 339

Access digital object:

II(3B2c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Hunting Territories -- c. "Conservation and the Indians of Eastern North America"
19371 itemBox 2

M.S.   F&S 2299

II(3B2d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Hunting Territories -- d. "Land Ownership Among Hunting Peoples in Primitive America and the World's Marginal Areas."
1922-19262 itemsBox 2

Typed manuscript with annotations.  F&S 1365 [number wrong]

 3 Social Structure
II(3B3a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Social Structure (aside from family hunting Territory) -- a. Review of Lips Naskapi Law
19471 itemBox 2

Review of Julie E. Lips Naskapi Law.   F&S 2316

II(3B3b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Social Structure (aside from family hunting Territory) -- b. "The Social Structure of the Northern Algonkian"
n.d.1 itemBox 2

Typed M.S.  F.S. 2318

II(3B3c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Social Structure (aside from family hunting Territory) -- c. Montagnais Kinship terms
n.d.1 itemBox 2

Rough chart and notes.   F&S 2327

 4. Economic Behavior
II(3B4a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Economic Behavior (aside from family hunting territory) -- a. Hunting customs
n.d.3 itemsBox 2

Concerns ownership of wounded animals; destroying elderly members of family.   F&S 2312

II(3B4b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Economic Behavioir (Aside from family hunting territory) -- b. Miscellaneous notes
n.d.1 itemBox 2

Concerns salmon at Waswanipi.  F&S 2306

 5. Religion
II(4B5a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Religion -- a. Myths
19295 itemsBox 3

4 folkloristic texts in English.   F&S 2313

II(4B5b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Religion -- b. Dream lore
n.d.1 itemBox 3

Brief note and sketch.   F&S 2301

II(4B5c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Religion -- c. "Game Totems Among the Northeastern Algonkins."
19162 itemsBox 3

Typed M.S.   F&S 2093

Access digital object:

II(4B5d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Religion -- d. Animism in Algonkian Mentality
n.d.1 itemBox 3

Lecture notes.   F&S 2297

II(4B5e) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Religion -- e. Miscellaneous notes on Montagnais-Naskapi Religion
19296 itemsBox 3

Undated, incomplete letter of John M. Cooper to ? concerning scapulimancy. Field notes concerning scapulimancy, bear ceremony, drumming, etc. 1 sheet of Naskapi names of moons (religious). Letter of George Heye, to Speck, Jan. 3, 1926, concerning a missionary book in Montagnais. Images note: Pencil and ink sketches of scapulimancy, bear ceremony, drumming. F&S 2308

 6. Linguistic
II(4B6a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Linguistic -- a. Miscellaneous linguistic materials
n.d.3 itemsBox 3

Charts display equivalents in 7 dialects for 30 nouns, adverbs, pronouns, and verb "to see"   F&S 2326

II(4B6b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Linguistic -- b. Montagnais loan words from English
n.d. 45 page(s) ; 6 itemsBox 3

Vocabulary lists with Montagnais [Innu-aimun] and Mistassini [Eastern Cree] equivalents. Also miscellaneous notes, 3p.   F&S 2328

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II(4B6c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Linguistic -- c. Montagnais and Mistassinni Texts
19158 itemsBox 3

Montagnais texts with interlinear translation; 2 maps of hunting territory and notes; Tadoussac texts with interlinear translation; several English texts; list of kinship terms; Escoumains text with interlinear translation. Mistassini texts with interlinear translations. English texts from Mistassini and Lake St. John hands. Notebook relating to Naskapi religion; also 10p. of Michikaman Band texts. Images note: Pencil sketches, maps.  F&S 2329

 7. Moisie Band
II(4B7) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Moisie Band -- A Field notes, 1930, Moisie and St. Marguerite Bands
19301 itemsBox 3

Names of informants for various bands; Seven Islands data on sorcery; miscellaneous material.   F&S 2303

 8. Ste. Augustine Band
II(4B8) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Ste. Augustine Band -- a. Field notes, 1935, Ste. Augustine Band
1935 - 193612 itemsBox 3

Account books list expenses and press botanical and entomological specimens. Notebook includes miscellaneous ethnographic data as well as designs. Map of St. Augustin village. 1p. sketch of animals with Naskapi names; 2 hand-drawn maps of St. Augustin region; miscellaneous materials and family histories. Letters: W. B. Cabot to Speck, July 29, 1930, A.L.S., 1p., concerning his (Cabot's) visit to Labrador; Hayward Hayne to Speck, Sept. 7, 1935, and Mar. 1, 1936, A.L.S., 4p. and 10p., concerning winter activities and Hudson's Bay Company post at St. Augustin; A. Poucher, missionary, to Speck, May 18, 1936, A.L.S., 1p. Images note: 26 pencil and ink sketches maps, village, animals. F&S 2304

 9. Mistassini Band
II(4B9a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mistassini Band -- a. Miscellaneous notes, Mistassini
1915-19308 itemsBox 3

Concerns hunting territories of Mistassini, Waswanipi, Tête de Boule, Chicoutimi. Ethnographic data on childbirth and chiefs.   F&S 2311

II(4B9b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mistassini Band -- b. Document, refering to Pointe Speck
1946-19483 itemsBox 3

Images note: Includes 1p. blueprint of Lake Mistassini, P.Q., showing Pointe Speck. Letter of Jacques Rousseau (Director of Montreal Botanical Garden) to Speck, Nov. 3, 1948, 1p. A.L.S., concerning the adoption of the name Pointe Speck.   F&S 2300

II(4B9c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mistassini Band -- c. Field Notes, 1911-1930
1911-193029 itemsBox 3

6 English folkloristic texts, 1919, 1921, and 1930. A notebook of Montagnais and Mistassini texts in English, 1917; a 17p. typed version of Mistassini tales (1925) taken from above. A brief introductory statement, "Montagnais myths and tales from the Lower St. Lawrence"; ethnohistoric material; miscellaneous notes; 4p. concerning Gay Head Indians (Aquinnah Wampanoag). Letter of Edward Sapir to Speck, June 18, 1912, 1p. A.L.S., concerning Cree-Montagnais linguistic relationship and obtaining of museum specimens. Unrelated: Some notes by Gladys Tantaquidgeon on Gay Head (Aquinnah) Wampanoag.  F&S 2310

 10. Lake St. John Band
II(4B10a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Lake St. John Band -- a. "Family Hunting Territories of the Lake St. John Montagnais and Neighboring Bands."
n.d.5 itemsBox 3

Typed M.S. with additions.   F&S 2302

II(4B10b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Lake St. John Band -- b. Field notes
n.d.7 itemsBox 3

16p. on native names of specimens and artifacts, both Lake St. John and Mistassini: 4p. give account of Wabeno and names of specimens.   F&S 2305

 11. Davis Inlet Naskapi
II(4B11) Waugh, F. W. (Frederick Wilkerson), 1872-1924.
Davis Inlet Naskapi -- a. Waugh's notes
1923-19245 itemsBox 3

13p. of notes, mostly in hand of Frank G. Speck, obtained from F. W. Waugh. Letters of Waugh to Speck, Dec. 18, 1923, and Jan. 19, 1924, 1p. and 1p. T.L.S., concerning Davis Inlet group; copy of William Duncan Strong to Speck, Sept. 4, 1930, concerning Davis Inlet band.   F&S 2322

 12. Tadoussac-Escoumains Band
II(4B12) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Tadoussac-Escoumains Band -- a. Field notes
n.d.7 itemsBox 3

Ethnobotanical data; plant names and medical uses; miscellaneous materials including names of museum specimens and myths.   F&S 2320

 13. Sept-Îles Band
II(4B13) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Sept-Îles (7 Islands) Band -- a. Miscellaneous field notes
1924-192511 itemsBox 3

Several texts with interlinear translations; house data; names of animals. 1p. friendly letter, in French, of Marie Louise Ambroise, Aug. 22, 1924, to Speck.   F&S 391

 C. Algonquin
II(2C1) Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939.
to Frank Speck
19241 itemBox 1

"Linguistic analogues to Wiyot-Yorok" Discusses his postulated Wiyot-Yurok-Algonquian relationship; mentions his work on Subtiaba. Outlines relationships in and around Hokan-Coahuiltecan. Some discussion of migrations, seeing Athabaskan as late arrival.   F&S 2061

II(2C2) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Algonquin field notes
n.d.4 itemsBox 1B

One notebook contains linguistic notes, informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming, Nipissing, Algonquin. The other, dated June 1, contains Temiskaming ethnography, and (in English), Wiskedjak (Wiskyjack) text. Temagami ethnology and texts (in English) and 1 Iroquois legend. Use Film 1429 Reel 1.   F&S 369

 D. Beothuk
II(2D1) Moorehead, Warren King, 1866-1939.
to Frank Speck
19221 itemBox 1

Discusses his New England archaeological field work. Doubts Red Paint People of Maine were Beothuks; difference of art. Labels for University Museum artifacts from collections of Moorehead.   F&S 462

II(2D2) Miscellaneous notes on Beothuk
1911 - 1922 55 page(s) ; 4 itemsBox 1

Boas, Franz. Letter to Frank G. Speck, December 17, 1911 -- Discusses Beothuk report. Dahl, Richard S. Letter to Frank G. Speck, December 30, 1911 - In his career as mining engineer in Newfoundland he has opened many Beothuk sites; offers aid. Howley, James P. Letters to Frank G. Speck, December 12, 1911 and May 18, 1912 -- Howley writes Speck of the latter's meeting a Beothuk survivor, Santu Toney; doubts authenticity, but would like to know more. Images note: Folder includes newsclipping of Oct. 15, 1911, on Speck's discovery and a portion of Howley's book printing a Beothuk vocabulary with Speck pencil notes:184-186. Messurier, William L. Letter to Dr. Bowman, February 15, 1922 -- Encloses article on Newfoundland extracted from "The Great Historical, Genealogical, and Poetical Dictionary... " (London, 1701).   F&S 457, 459, 460, 461

Access digital object:

 E. "Athapascan" (Dene)
II(2E1) Miscellaneous Notes
n.d.10 itemsBox 1

Reading notes.   F&S 429

 F. Ojibwa
II(2F1) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Review of Coleman on Ojibway Designs
n.d.1 itemBox 2

of Sister Bernard Coleman: Decorative designs of the Ojibwa of northern Minnesota [1949].   F&S 2519

II(2F2) Miscellaneous notes
1927 - 19484 itemsBox 2

Woodman, Henry. Letter to Frank G. Speck, July 16, 1948 -- Discusses decline of crafts among Bear Island Indians (Temagami). Speck, Frank G. Letter to Chief MIchel tchele Buckshot; Maniwaki, Québec, February 10, 1927 -- Requests buckskin and beadwork. Images note: Newspaper clippings, pencil sketches, maps, and photomechanical prints of utensils, dwelling, portraits.  F&S 2516, 2523

Subject(s): Algonquin Indians

II(2F3) Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974.
to Frank G. Speck
19314 itemsBox 2

Describes incidents on field trip to Berens River Saulteaux, Sweet Grass Cree (mentions attitude of Cree to Leonard Bloomfield) and Cold Lake Chipewyan; festivals, etc. Letter of Speck to Hallowell, Aug. 3, 1931, with pencilled responses of Hallowell to questions asked.  F&S 2501

II(2F4) Matagama Ojibwa notes
1914-193821 itemsBox 2

Includes 2p. phonetic key; 1p. letter (carbon) of Frank G. Speck to Samuel (i.e., James) Miller of Gogama, Feb. 18, 1928, requesting ethnographic and map data; 2 printed maps, 1 of Lake Nipigon area, 1 of Mattagama hunting territories, boundaries in ink; 1p. typed reading notes (and a carbon); Feb. 1928 "Romance Story," 15p. sketch of a play for Mattagama Otcipwè (Matagami). Burgeese, J. A. Letters to Frank G. Speck (Jan. 13 and Feb. 24, 1938). Burgesse sends drawing of "flesher" used by Oiibwa; encloses list of hunting territories and biographical information on owners. Letters of D. H. Learmouth to Frank G. Speck (Feb. 22 and 29, and Oct. 2, 1928). Learmouth, a factor for Hudson's Bay Co. at Waswanippi, recounts his experiences in adjudicating Matagama land inheritance; provides ethnographic data sought by Speck from Samuel (i.e., James) Miller of Gogama; and gives data on hunting territories.   F&S 2498, 2508, 2517

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II(2F5) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Ojibwa Hunting territories
n.d.3 itemsBox 2

Brief popular account, refuting Roosevelt (1889-1896), who had denied that Indians have a sense of property. 1p. typed notes from Copway (1847), and 1p. notes.   F&S 2518

II(2F6) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Tamagami myths
n.d.5 itemsBox 2

5 English texts.   F&S 2520

 G. Cree
II(2G1) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Cree syllabary
n.d.6 itemsBox 2

Naskapi names in Cree syllabary; the Lord's Prayer in Cree; miscellaneous syllabary Cree words. Images note: 79 pictographs  F&S 788

 H. Miscellaneous
II(2H1) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Tete de Boule
n.d.1 itemBox 2

Miscellaneous notes on informants; word list. Notes on reverse of 2p. letter of W. C. Orchard (Heye Foundation) to Speck, Dec. 10, 1931.   F&S 2330

Access digital object:

 III. Northeast

Ill-defined area west of Mississippi, north of corn-growing limit, south to approximately Mason-Dixon Line.

 A. General
III(5A1) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
"Remnants of the Eastern Indian Tribes"
n.d.1 itemsBox 3

Brief discussion of location of New England Algonkians.   F&S 336

III(5A2) Linton, Ralph, 1893-1953.
"The Persistence of the Mound Builder's Culture Among Recent Indian Tribes"
19161 itemBox 3

Master's thesis, University of Pennsylvania. Attempts through historical accounts to show persistence both of building of mounds and of artifacts, thought to be prehistoric, and argues that white contact produced the cultural loss.   F&S 1217

III(5A3) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Wampum - miscellaneous notes
1913-19208 itemsBox 3

Includes letters of L. P. O. Picard to Speck, April 24, and May 12, 1914, concerning a belt in Picard's possession; I. B. Delay to Speck, Aug. 23, 1913, and Jan. 1914, concerning beads and sale of belts; Sankey Swan to Speck, Mar. 15, 1914; Josiah Hill of Ohsweken to Speck, June 11, 1914, offering to send wampum string and describing Nanticoke belt; Waiter Channing Wyman, collector, to Speck, Dec. 18, 1920, discussing Shenandoah belt and a Penobscot belt in his possession; W. C. Orchard, Heye Foundation, to Speck, concerning bibliography on wampum.   F&S 2321

III(5A4) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Observations on the Northeast in general
19419 itemsBox 3

Notes used by Speck in summing up the symposium, Man in Northeastern America, meeting of the American Anthropological Association, 1941, at Phillips Academy, Andover. Brief comments on the various papers. On verse of 4p. are letters: Frederick Johnson to Speck, Oct. 13, 1941, Typed L.S., 2p., concerning meeting plans; and James B. Griffin to Johnson, 1941, Typed L., 2p., copy, concerning his paper. Also, 3 copies of printed program and one typed Tentative Program.   F&S 1256

III(5A5) Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005.
"The Agricultural Tribes of the Northeast"
19411 itemBox 3

Principally a discussion of Iroquois and Algonkian maize culture. Attempts to date usage. Notes of Speck on the 1941 Man in Northeastern America conference on reverse of typed sheets.   F&S 1639

III(5A6) De Laguna, Frederica, 1906-2004.
"The Place of the Dorset Eskimo in the Northeast"
n.d.1 itemBox 3

Typed M.S.   F&S 1313

III(5A7) Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986. Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie, 1903-1988.
"Linguistic Considerations of Northeastern America"
n.d.2 itemsBox 3

Special emphasis on midwestern tribes, particularly Sauk and Fox. 1p. note of Frank G. Speck, criticizing the paper.   F&S 1295

III(5A8) Spaulding, A. C..
"Circumboreal Archaeology"
n.d.1 itemBox 3

A brief statement of a lengthier paper.  F. S. 1232

III(5A9) McKern, W. C. (Will Carleton).
"A Cultural Perspective of Northeastern Area Archaeology"
n.d.1 itemBox 3

Typed M.S.   F&S 1218

III(5A10) Howells, W. W. (William White), 1908-2005.
"Physical Types of the Northeast"
n.d.1 itemBox 3

Brief statement of formal paper.   F&S 1304

III(5A11) Ritchie, W. A..
"Archeological Manifestations in the Northeast"
n.d.1 itemBox 3

Typed M.S.   F&S 1224

III(5A12) Cooper, John M. (John Montgomery), 1881-1949.
"The Culture of the Northeastern Hunter"
19412 itemsBox 3

A draft with very little similarity to tile published version. Contains generalizations about shared culture traits in the area. 1p. note of Cooper to Frank G. Speck, Sept. 9, 1941.   F&S 1246

III(5A13) Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939.
to Frank G. Speck
1918-19192 itemsBox 3

Concerning Speck (1918a); Sapir sees Yurok comparisons; discusses general linguistic relationships; excited about reduction of language stocks; inquires after possible typographical errors, pp. 157-158 of article.   F&S 362 and 2062

 B. Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)
 1. General Iroquois
III(6B1a) Moses, Jesse, Jr..
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- a. "The Long-House Man"
n.d.1 itemBox 4

Discusses relationship (from point of view of a Christian Indian) of Christianity and long-house religion; emphasizes government Indian policy; expects victory of Christianity.   F&S 1647

III(6B1b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- b. "Canadian Christian Indians Revert to Pagan Beliefs"
1929-19301 itemBox 4

Argues that better-educated Indians have "gone native" as a means of escaping bureaucracy and clerical greed.   F&S 1659

III(6B1c) Buck, John.
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- c. Iroquois burial customs
18881 itemBox 4

Letter to George S. Conover Re Iroquois burial customs.   F&S 1637

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of this material, including Reading Room photography, is restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns. Please consult the Manuscripts Department for more information.

III(6B1d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- d. Wabanaki War with Iroquois
n.d.7 itemsBox 4

Miscellaneous notes Iroquois, wampum.   F&S 1789

III(6B1e) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- e. Seizure of Iroquois wampum by Canadian government
1914 - 19266 itemsBox 4

Letters: Josiah Hill, Ohsweken, to Frank G. Speck, April 27, 1914, concerning photos of wampum, exchange of wampum with Seth Newhouse; same to same, n.d., complaining that British are unmindful of Loyalist Iroquois aid during eighteenth century; Frank G. Speck to Chief David S. Hill, c.c., Jan. l(i, 1925, concerning dispute with Canadian Indian department (seizure of wampum: loose beads and strings); David S. Hill to Speck, Feb. 15, 1925, stating MS. of Six Nations constitution has reappeared and will be compared with Scott copy (Scott, 1912); Speck to Dr. A. Leon Hatzon, Nov. 3, 1925 and April 17, 1926, criticizing book on wampum by Hatzon; A. Leon Hatzon to Speck, April 15, 1926, reply.   F&S 1655

III(6B1f) Newhouse, Seth, 1842-1921.
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- f. Letters to Frank Speck offering to sell code, etc.
1915-19162 itemsBox 4

1915 Asks, at suggestion of F. W. Waugh, that Speck secure shell for wampum for Newhouse. 1916: Offers to sell Speck his history manuscript, which he has been working on since 1885 [No. 1650]; will try to secure some wampum.   F&S 1648, 1649

III(6B1g) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- g. Nanticokes visit 6 Nations with Frank G. Speck
n.d.1 itemBox 4

A document describing meeting of Delaware, Nanticoke, and Canadian Iroquois in presence of Speck; recounts injustices suffered by Indians in United States and Canada.   F&S 1755, also 2358

III(6B1h) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- h. Cayuga Indian claim
1914-19262 itemsBox 4

Letter of David Jamieson (Des-ka-heh) to Speck, April 4, 1914, concerning making secure Indian rights to land at Ohsweken. Copy of letter of Fred K. Nielsen to George P. Decker, Mar. 27, 1926, with MS. note of Decker to Speck concerning validity of Cayuga land claims before American-British Arbitral Tribunal.   F&S 552

III(6B1i) Menzie, Decker V..
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- i. Cayuga Indian representative in Onondaga Council
19251 itemsBox 4

Concerning Speck's aid on Deskaheh's speech. Newsclipping included.   F&S 558

III(6B1j) Ioma, John.
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- j. Letter to Chief Gibson
19141 itemBox 4

Letter introduces Frank G. Speck to Gibson, with request that he be given data and wampum.   F&S 1643

III(6B1k) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- k. Miscellaneous notes
1936-194824 itemsBox 4

Letters and notes concerning Speck (1945), and masks. Includes: 2p. sketches of masks; 36 slips of miscellaneous Iroquois references, notes, and Wyandot data; 1p. quotation concerning Delaware as women theme; bibliographical note (to Robert T. Hatt, Director of Cranbrook Institute of Science); note on Iroquois art. Letters to Speck include: John L. Buck, Burlington, Ontario, May 18, 1936, offering to sell masks; Merle H. Deardorff, Nov. 29, 1945, concerning Speck and Fenton field work and Speck (1945); Robert T. Hatt, Nov. 18, 1943, concerning publication of Speck (1945); John E. Jacobs, Jan. 12, 1948, concerning Iroquois songs, seeking feathers, sale of bow and arrows; W. N. Fenton, Nov. 15, 1948, concerning wampum strings; Arthur C. Parker, Sept. 11, 1947, concerning splint work of Seneca, basketry-mentions Stockbridge, Mahican, and Brotherton; Mrs. Alfred Martin, May 27 and Feb. 28, 1947, conceming museum specimens and deer tails; Loren C. Eiseley, July 8, 1940, concerning beaver and Algonkin hunting territory; W. N. Fenton, Sept. 1, 1944, concerning Seneca use of Joe Pye plant. Images note: 9 pencil sketches of Seneca false faces.  F&S 1662

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of this material, including Reading Room photography, is restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns. Please consult a librarian for more information.

III(6B1l) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- l. [no entry]
  Box 4
III(6B1m) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- m. "Status of the Six Nations." Brief by St. Regis Mohawks
n.d.1 itemBox 4

Brief concerning Indian rights against New York and federal government after 1924; also, letter of Muzzy Cook, Julius Cook, and Ray Fadden (Akwesasne Counselor Organization).   F&S 2262

III(6B1n) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- n. Review of Listen for a Lonesome Drum by Carl Cramer
n.d.1 itemBox 4

A romantic review of a literary work.   F&S 2267

III(6B1o) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- o. Masks (miscellaneous notes)
1934-194442 itemsBox 4

Includes: 4 letters of John L. Buck Ohsweken, to Speck, Oct. 23, 1936, to March 5, 1944, concerning masks sent to Speck asking Speck to burn tobacco for mask as suggested by a dream; and, concerning pictures Buck wants of his relatives; also, notes on Iroquois and "Eskimo" masks and drama, 1p.; 4p. quotations of printed works on corn-husk masks; 3p. notes on function of masks, east; 2p. on drums, northeast; letter of G. E Fenstermaker to Speck, March 15, 1934, offering to sell Cherokee and Iroquois masks; 3p miscellany. Images note: photographs, postcard, illustrations and sketches of Tuscarora, Onondaga masks.  F&S 1661

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of mask images in this folder, with the exception of the Rattlesnake mask, is restricted.

 Rattlesnake mask
III(6B1p) General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- p. Reflections on Iroquois religion
1939-194110 itemsBox 4

Draft of article of Speck protesting missionary competition in reservations and emphasizing Christian character of long-house religion. Submitted originally to Newsletter of Home Missions Board, but rejected for its controversial nature. Published in Crozier Quarterly in 1941. Letters discussing the contents: Alban W. Hoopes, Feb. 12, 1940; Thomas Alfred Trip, Feb. 28, 1940; Mark A. Dawber, March 11, 1940 and Nov. 27, 1940; C. E. Schaeffer, Dec. 3, 1940 (quoting M. H. Deardorff); Charles T. Loran, Oct. 20, 1939; Chief Deskaheh, Nov. 9, 1939; Luther H. Ketels, Nov. 5, 1939; W. N. Fenton, Aug. 5, 1941.   F&S 1664

III(6B1q) Deardorff, Merle H., d.1971.
General Iroquois (Six Nations) -- q. Population statistics 1792
19442 itemsBox 4

2 memoranda, March 19, 1944 and March 26, 1944, with comments on and copies of population statistics of 1792, given in I. Chapin papers in the O'Reilly Collection of the New-York Historical Society (the originals are in No. 234).   F&S 1638

 2. Mohawk
III(6B2a) Rowell, Mary.
Mohawk -- a. Letter on St. Regis Mohawk
19425 itemsBox 4

A former student writes of her summer experiences among St. Regis Mohawk; general impressions of culture; dangers of false traditions being taught. Images note: four photographs of basket weaving, tools.   F&S 2261

III(6B2b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mohawk -- b. Mohawk words and Miscellaneous field notes
1933-194810 itemsBox 4

2p. on names and designs of Caughnawaga traps; 1p. St. Regis mask data obtained from Julius Cook; 4L. scraps (1 printed in Speck (1946):387, on dance). 7 cards of addresses, etc. Ray Fadden to F. G. Speck, May 7, 1947, T.L.S., 1p., congratulating Speck on his Iroquois study (1945).   F&S 2277

III(6B2c) Lagore, Margaret C. (Eli).
Mohawk -- c. Letter to Frank Speck
19471 itemBox 4

Friendly letter concerning sale of baskets at Allentown Fair; mentions visit of Mary Rowell and Ray Fadden.   F&S 2260

III(6B2d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mohawk -- d. Oka Iroquois notes
n.d.1 itemBox 4

Data on hunting territory, chiefships, words.   F&S 1663

 3. Cayuga
III(7B3a) General, Alexander J. (Deskaheh).
Cayuga -- a. letters to Frank Speck
1924-194714 itemsBox 4

General to Speck, Jan. 13, 1925, 1p., concerning Indian claim against Canada and the United States and radio talks; Dec. 29, 1925 (as Deskaheh), 1p.; Mar. 26, 1926, 1p., concerning politics, snow-snake game mentioned; July, 1926, 1p., concerning Delawares, Nanticoke recording; Feb. 21, 1927, 1p., concerning injustices of Canadian RCMP, elections, false-face masks; May 7, 1934, 2p., conceming husk masks and museum specimens; n.d., 1p. receipt and 4p. answers to queries, and questions of Speck with MS. answers of Deskaheh concerning tobacco planting. Images note: 2 sketches of rattles of hickory bark, corn husks.  F&S 556

III(7B3b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Cayuga -- b. Cayuga words
n.d.2 itemsBox 4

Names and phrases.  F&S 566

III(7B3c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Cayuga -- c. Miscellaneous Cayuga field notes
1940-19417 itemsBox 4

Letter of H. W. Dorsey (Smithsonian Institution), Mar. 13, 1941, concerning a Chief Gibson text in Cayuga in Bureau of American Ethnology. Letter of William N. Fenton, 2p., concerning Cayuga winter rituals MS.; suggestions. Miscellaneous notes for Cayuga MS.   F&S 561

III(7B3d) Dodge, Ernest Stanley.
Cayuga -- d. Story about war medicine collected by Dodge
19441 itemBox 4

Cayuga story about war medicine.   F&S 554

III(7B3e) Cayuga -- e. [no entry]
  Box 4
III(7B3f) Cayuga -- f. [no entry]
  Box 4
III(7B3g) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Cayuga -- g. Obeservations on Cayuga religion
19252 itemsBox 4

Letter to Alexander J. General (Deskaheh). Observations on Cayuga religion; Speck suggests a defense of the longhouse from critics by suggesting it is a form of Christanity.   F&S 560

III(7B3h) General, Alexander J. (Deskaheh).
Cayuga -- h. Directions for care and tuning of water drum
n.d.1 itemBox 4

Concerning specimen sent Speck.   F&S 553

III(7B3i) Cayuga -- i. [no entry]
  Box 4
III(7B3j) Buck, John. Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Cayuga -- j. Large notebook of Cayuga material (This notebook also contains data on other tribes, not all of it published.)
1933-19361 itemBox 4

Feasts, 3p.; notebook of 23L, Cayuga, Tuscarora, Mohawk, Onondaga, and Seneca material; notebook, 1936, 8p. notes re bowl game and false faces; 9p. notes on prayer for skin dance by Mrs. Buck, copied by Speck; 4p. in notebook, describing 90 dances, mask data; 2p. Typed D., legend, by Deskaheh. Letters: John L. Buck and Mrs. John L. Buck to Speck, Apr. 25, 1936, and Feb. 29, 1938, concerning masks sent and their stories. William N. Fenton to Speck, Jan. 12, 1933, 2p., concerning field trip and Seneca-Cayuga material. Three letters to Speck concerning death of John L. Buck: John L. Buck, Jr., Feb. 17, 1935; Edward A. Brown, Feb. 18, 1935; Deskaheh, Feb. 18, 1935. Images note: photographic negatives, masks: John Buck, Jerry Aaron and wife; sketches of false face masks, diagrams of dances.  F&S 562

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of this material, including Reading Room photography, is restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns. Please consult a librarian for more information.

 4. Seneca
III(7B4a) Cornplanter, Jesse J..
Seneca -- a. letters from
1941-19476 itemsBox 4

Cornplanter to Speck: Nov. 12, 1941, 2p., concerning his religious beliefs, and changes in the way of life; April 22, 1947, 1p., praising Speck; Feb. 27, 1947, 2p., concerning informants' pay. Typed c.c. letter of Cornplanter to [?], Dec. 20, 1946, sending Christmas greetings; Ho-wonk-gowah (Charles Congdon?) to Go-wa-non-dah Doweestowee, Feb. 8, 1947, recluesting information on husk face; and Cornplanter to Ha-ouh-wonh-go-wah (Charles Congdon?), concerning husk faces.   F&S 3247

III(7B4b) Congdon, Charles (Allegheny).
Seneca -- b. letters from
19452 itemsBox 4

Congratulates Speck on his Iroquois (1945); describes Alleghany ceremonials; gives sketch of arrangement of participants.   F&S 3241

III(7B4c) Congdon, Charles E. (Charles Edwin).
Seneca -- c. "The Native Religion of the Senecas"
19421 itemBox 4

Religion of Handsome Lake is compared with Judaism and Greco-Roman spirits. Comparison of ceremonials.   F&S 3243

III(7B4d) Redeye, Clara.
Seneca -- d. letters from
1941-19482 itemsBox 4

Images note: photograph negative, 1941, of 4 generations of Seneca women; sends dolls.   F&S 3273

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III(7B4e) Clark, Evangeline.
Seneca -- e. letter from
19471 itemBox 4

Thanks for reprints, which she had sent to Suffolk University.   F&S 3500

III(7B4f) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Seneca -- f. Words and miscellaneous notes
19446 itemsBox 4

3p. notes and 6 slips: miscellaneous data. 2 letters, Sherman Redeye to Speck. Nov. 9, 1944, and n.d., concerning corn-husk masks.   F&S 3279

III(7B4g) White, Clayton.
Seneca -- g. Description of the one-year death feast
19421 itemBox 4

Letter to Merle H. Deardorff, encloses description of the one-year death feast (document included). Clayton White was a native informant for Deardorff.   F&S 3280

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of this material, including Reading Room photography, is restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns. Please consult a librarian for more information.

III(7B4h) Seneca -- h. [no entry]
  Box 4
III(7B4i) Seneca -- i. False Face Dance at Coldspring
19441 itemBox 4

Songs transcribed by Jesse Cornplanter from manuscripts of his father, Edward Cornplanter, and George Pierce; also from mernory. Occasional notes in English give tempi, behavior of dancers, sources, etc. 4 letters: Cornplanter to W. N. Fenton, Oct. 11 and 26, 1951; Fenton to Cornplanter, Oct. 18 and 30, 1951, 1p. each.  F&S 3248

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of this material, including Reading Room photography, is restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns. Please consult a librarian for more information.

III(7B4j) Deardorff, Merle H., d.1971.
Seneca -- j. letters from
1942-19432 itemsBox 4

Concerning informant Clayton White, Pennsylvania place names, and Speck (1942). The second is a lengthy discussion of practices of Handsome Lake adherents.   F&S 3249

III(7B4k) Seneca -- k. Notes on Oklahoma Seneca
19403 itemsBox 4

Outline of ceremonials; chart; especially dances and funerary practices. Images note: pencil sketch diagram of Stomp dance. F&S 3278

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of this material, including Reading Room photography, is restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns. Please consult the Manuscripts Department for more information.

III(7B4l) Fenton, William N. (William Nelson), 1908-2005.
Seneca -- l. Seneca Ceremonial Calendar. Coldspring, MS.
n.d.1 itemBox 5

An organized, detailed set of field notes on ceremonies. [NOTE: 2 folders, one is a photocopy, the second is the original. Use photocopy]   F&S 3252

Restrictions on Access: Reproduction of this material, including Reading Room photography, is restricted due to cultural sensitivity concerns. Please consult a librarian for more information.

III(7B4m) Isserman, Ferdinand M. (Ferdinand Myron).
Seneca -- m. Mythology of Senecas
n.d.1 itemBox 5

A student's paper.   F&S 3254

 5. Tuscarora
III(7B5a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Tuscarora -- a. Canadian Tuscarora words
n.d.1 itemBox 5

Geographical terms secured at Six Nations Reserve.   F&S 3817

III(7B5b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Tuscarora -- b. Notes on Canadian Tuscarora
19183 itemsBox 5

Includes: names for the Nanticokes in Cayuga, Tuscarora, Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, and Oneida; notes on wampum, folklore, and the Canadian Tuscarora; some Nanticoke vocabulary.  F&S 4559 and 4864

III(7B5c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Tuscarora -- c. Reading notes on the Chowan (incorporated by Tuscarora)
n.d.3 itemsBox 5

Consists of one page of reading notes on the Chowans, taken from the North Carolina Colonial Records, regarding encroachments of colonists, incorporation by Tuscaroras in 1733, land sale in 1735. Two pages of reading notes on the Mattamuskeet Indians, 1713-1728, from same source, particularly relating to Tuscarora War and mentioning Coree Indians as well. Three notecards labelled "Tutelo" (taken from General John S. Clark), "Suwanoos" (Shawnees, also taken from Clark), and "Nessoneicks" (taken from Bland, Discovery of New Brittaine.)  F&S 751

III(7B5d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Tuscarora -- d. reading notes on New York State Tuscarora
n.d.2 itemsBox 5

1p. Mattawascheet notes; A. I. Hallowell to Speck, Dec. 9, 193-, note concerning Nanticoke and Tuscarora.   F&S 3798

 6. Nottoway
III(7B6) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Nottoway -- a. Nottoway notes
n.d.1 itemBox 5

Miscellaneous; map of Eastern Maryland shore.   F&S 2468

 C. Delaware (Lenape)
 1. General
III(8C1a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- a. Delaware bibliography
n.d.1 itemBox 5

List of authorities for brief article, pp. 7, 8,9, (copy used by printer after 1935?).   F&S 902

III(8C1b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- b. Notes on place names
n.d.3 itemsBox 5

A bibliographical note from Heckewelder and a quotation.   F&S 1183

III(8C1c) General -- c. Copy of Detroit treaty,
17 June 17771 itemBox 5

A copy made by Peter F. Timothy, a Moravian Delaware, in Aug., 1888, and transmitted to Frank G. Speck by Jesse Moses, Nov. 31, 1945. Copied from British Public Record Office.  F&S 1748

III(8C1d) Peters, Irma.
General -- d. White Peters, an Indian captive
18953 itemsBox 5

Letter to editor of [Buffalo Evening] Standard, 1895, concerning captivity of White Peters and his descendants; intermixture with Negro and Tuscarora mentioned.   F&S 897

III(8C1e) General -- e. Notes on Delaware-Munsee Bear Rite
after 19411 itemBox 5

Handwritten notes regarding Delaware-Munsee Bear Rite.  No Freeman number

Restrictions on Use: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(8C1f) Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986.
General -- f. Linguistic analysis of Delaware (mimeographed)
1939-19692 itemsBox 5

Includes copy of letter from R. H. Goddard III to the APS dated 1969 attributing the document to Carl Voegelin.   F&S 1182

III(8C1g) General -- g. [no entry]
  Box 5
III(8C1h) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- h. Miscellaneous notes
1933-194825 itemsBox 5

Includes: Gladys Tantaquidgeon, Delaware Indian designs, 5p.; miscellany, 3 slips; miscellany, linguistic notes 1941, 2p.; miscellany, 2 cards; notebook with botanical specimens and 10p. of miscellaneous. Letters: Katharine Bennet to Speck, Oct. 22, 1945, A.L.S., 2p., concerning his celestial bear article (1945); Carl Voegelin to Speck, Jan. 5, 1948, T.L.S., 2p., concerning meaning of Walam Olum title; War Eagle to Speck, March 4, 1935, A.L.S., 2p., concerning earthquake and museum specimens, and card of queries with War Eagle's answer; George P. Murdock to Speck, March 5, 1943, T.L.S., Delaware data in John Fitch MS.; Jesse Moses to Speck, A.L.S., 4p. and continued on envelope, concerning Six Nation Delaware reservations incidents.   F&S 911

Restrictions on Use: This folder contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(8C1i) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- i. Review of Kinietz Delaware Culture Chronology
19461 itemBox 5

Review of Kinietz, Delaware Culture Chronology   F&S 919

III(8C1j) General -- j. [no entry]
  Box 5
III(8C1k) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- k. "The Delaware Indians Past and Present"
n.d.1 itemBox 5

Introduction to article; includes population statistics.   F&S 904

III(8C1l) General -- l. Quiripi and Delaware vocabularies compared
n.d.1 itemBox 5

Quiripi words based on published sources with some Delaware comparisons arranged, in parallel columns.   F&S 3201

III(8C1m) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- m. Reviews and comments on Speck's Delaware publications
1932-19458 itemsBox 5

Letters relating to Speck (1931): Ruth Renedict to Al[exander Lesser]?, March 23, 1932, T.L.S., 1p.; Frans M. Olbrechts to Speck, June 6, 1932, A.L. postal card; Dr. W. Krickeberg (Berlin Volkerkünde Museum) to Hiram H. Shenk, July 14, 1932, 1p. copy; M. R. Harrington (Curator, Southwest Museum) to Speck, March 3, 1937, T.L.S., 1p., concerns also Zeisberger analysis of Delaware "tribes"; Father P. W. Schmidt (Vienna) to Speck, A.L.S., 3p. in German, and Speck's reply, May 13, 1932, T.L.S., 2p., concerning dualism or unity in Delaware God concept; Charles F. Goddard to Speck, March 13, 1934, A.L.S., 2p., concerning Long Island archaeology. W. N. Fenton (1946), T.D., c.c., 7p.  F&S 920

III(8C1n) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- n. Delaware-as-women
19463 itemsBox 5

Letters to Frank C. Speck concerning his article (1946). John H. Morice to Speck, Nov. 26, 1946, T.L.S., 2p.; Merle H. Deardorff, Nov. 25, 1946, T.L.S., 3p., discusses linguistic aspects of the problem.  F&S 906

III(8C1o) Springer, Ethel M..
General -- o. Delaware remnants in state of Delaware
19171 itemBox 5

Concerning Delaware remnants in the state of Delaware, intermixture with Negro.  F&S 923

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III(8C1p) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- p. Delaware religion evaluated
n.d.6 itemsBox 5

Notes for a lecture on dangers in Indian policy and the destruction of Indian culture.  F&S 905

III(8C1q) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- q. Delaware grammar and vocabulary materials
n.d.27 itemsBox 5

Contains a transcript of Jefferson's Edgepullock Delaware vocabulary with phonetic transcription by Speck, 21p. [Chief Webber thinks it is Munsee]; transcript of Heckewelder's Munsi and Mahicanni vocabularies, 8p.; text froth Gabriel Thomas' "Account" in Myers (1912), 5p.; 1p. from printed source; field notes; 2p. of Objurgatives (profanity); 12p. of verbs; 4p. abstracts of grammar and sacred terms; 3 vocabulary slips and 5 cards of linguistic items.   F&S 1178

III(8C1r) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- r. Delaware ceremonial patterns
n.d.3 itemsBox 5

Contains 3p. discussion, 10p. of charts illustrating origin, procedure and ceremonial host for various ceremonies, and a page indicating facing directions.  F&S 903

Restrictions on Use: This folder contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(8C1s) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General -- s. Delaware High God concept
19372 itemsBox 5

Includes 2 documents: 1. discussion of Supreme Deity in Delaware, including some peculiar linguistic usages, suggesting difference from general Algonquian. 2.a translation from the Swedish of "Om Gudsbegreppet's Hos Lenape," Albin Widdn, vol. 2, no. 4 (July, 1937), an article which rejects Father Schmidt's contention that Delaware religious concepts of supreme being are independent of Christian influence, citing John Campanius' mission work and his translation of Luther.  F&S 922

Restrictions on Use: This folder contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

 2. Oklahoma Delaware
III(9C2a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- a. List of Museum specimens
19293 itemsBox 6

Lists of 1929 and 1935 specimens obtained by Speck from Oklahoma and Canadian Delaware with provenance of items given. 1935 list of items deposited at Delaware County Institute of Science.  F&S 910

III(9C2b) Parks, J. A..
Oklahoma Delaware -- b. Letter concering painting of ceremony
1930-19333 itemsBox 6

Parks, Sept. 12, 1930, discusses drawings he will make of ceremonies; March 30, 1932, discusses painting of ceremony; March 7, 1933, discusses loan of painting.   F&S 895

III(9C2c) Washington, Joe.
Oklahoma Delaware -- c. Drawings of cow-bone roach spreaders
19462 itemsBox 6

Images note: 10 color pencil drawings by an Oklahoma Delaware Indian of cow-bone roach spreaders.  F&S 935

 Cow-bone roach spreaders
III(9C2d) Oklahoma Delaware -- d. Field notes
19324 itemsBox 6

Texts, names of tribes, and ceremonies (Delaware-English); also kinship terms, names, and ceremonial and ethnographic data. Partly used in publications. Images note: sketches of Peyote designs from Yuchi feather wand of 12 eagle feathers, face colors of war chief, round stone, dance bustles, fan of hawk tail feathers. F&S 1180

Restrictions on Use: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(9C2e) Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie, 1903-1988.
Oklahoma Delaware -- e. Field notes
19381 itemBox 6

Concerning names and data on Delaware informants. Shawnee data on Delaware in Oklahoma.  F&S 925

III(9C2f) Washington, Fred.
Oklahoma Delaware -- f. letters from
1932-194715 itemsBox 6

Letters concerning museum specimens and their manufacture; meanings. One from Mrs. Jane Washington (Fred's mother), Sept. 18, 1942, 1p., re specimens.   F&S 934

Restrictions on Use: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(9C2g) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- g. Myth of the great earthquake by War Eagle
1938-19396 itemsBox 6

Materials relating to Speck (1941d): (1) 2p. quotation from Sidney Perley on the earthquake of 1638 in Esser Antiquarian, vol. 1, 1895, p. 173. (2) 2p. abridgment of same. (3) 2p. T.D. Report on effects of earthquakes by Joseph Berman, 1938. (4) Fred Washington to Speck, Nov. 24, 1939, 1p. and 8p., account of Delaware earthquake legend. (5) F. G. Speck, "The great Pennsylvania earthquake of Indian days," 3p. T.D.  F&S 915

III(9C2h) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- h. Miscellaneous notes
1932-19419 itemsBox 6

Letters to Speck from native informants: George T. Anderson to Speck, Dec. 27, 1932, 1p., and March 24, 1933, 2p., concerning museum specimens; Mrs. Alex Elijah, March 23, 1935, 1p., concerning baskets (Ontario Delaware); A. F. Frenchman, Nov. 5, 1941, 2p., (son-in-law of George Anderson); Fred Keeler, Jan. 11, 1940, 2p., discussion of Delaware by an Oklahoma Cherokee; Minnie A. Garrett, March 14, 1935, 3p., asking for genealogical data on her Indian forebears. 5 cards and a 1p. typed document on a test for determining a murderer.  F&S 913

III(9C2i) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- i. Peyote notes
1923-19404 itemsBox 6

Includes 3p. critical notes on peyote as described in Lindcluist (1923); 2p. scraps; of Omer C. Stewart to Speck, Feb. 6, 1940, T.L.S., 1p., seeking data for comparative study of peyote.  F&S 918

III(9C2j) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- j. "Additional notes on Big House Ceremony"
n.d.2 itemsBox 6

Speck has, with aid of George Anderson, informant, discovered evidences of "dualism" in Delaware religion.   F&S 900

Restrictions on Access: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(9C2k) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- k. Delaware relations with Quapaw Indians
19421 itemBox 6

Also concerns Peyote Cult.   F&S 927

III(9C2l) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- l. Delaware witchcraft
19392 itemsBox 6

An 8p. account, noting Plains Indian difference from Nanticoke; 10p. revision to Frank G. Speck. Cf. Pawnee witch story with letters of War Eagle, No. 932.  F&S 929

Restrictions on Use: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(9C2m) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- m. Story of a reace between man and horse
n.d.2 itemsBox 6

11p. story with 16p. free revision by Speck.   F&S 933

III(9C2n) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- n. Objects used in Delaware Peyote rites
n.d.3 itemsBox 6

3p. account by Speck of specimens collected from War Eagle and 5p. account of the same by War Eagle, Nov. 1, 1939.  F&S 917

Restrictions on Access: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(9C2o) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- o. Legend of Snow Boy
19333 itemsBox 6

3p. original by War Eagle; 2p. free revision by Speck.   F&S 930

III(9C2p) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- p. Legend of Woods dwarf
n.d.2 itemsBox 6

2p. original by War Eagle; 1p. typed D. free revision by Speck.   F&S 931

III(9C2q) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- q. Cherokee and Delaware Alliance
19332 itemsBox 6

3p. original account by War Eagle; 3p. free revision by Speck.   F&S 640

III(9C2r) Oklahoma Delaware -- r. Delaware art designs in color
n.d.10 itemsBox 6

Images note: 11 crayon sketches.  F&S 859

III(9C2s) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- s. "Delaware Tales"
19281 itemBox 6

18p. section concerns Peyote and the Delaware; 10p. concerns George Wilson (related to John Wilson of Peyote Cult).  F&S 928

Restrictions on Use: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(9C2t) Moses, Jesse, and Nick Peters.
Oklahoma Delaware -- t. Little people slay great bull
n.d.3 itemsBox 6

Material obtained by Frank G. Speck. In English.   F&S 894

III(9C2u) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- u. song texts
n.d.2 itemsBox 6

Text with interlinear translation; 2 versions of 1 song. Meant to accompany "Record H" (unknown).   F&S 1184

III(9C2v) Oklahoma Delaware -- v. Text on morality
n.d.1 itemBox 6

Text with interlinear translation.   F&S 1189

III(9C2w) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- w. Social organization field notes
n.d.12 itemsBox 6

Notes and brief typed documents relating to the Turtle clan (7p.), class divisions (6p.), funeral ceremony (2p.), history of clans (3p.), names (13p.), locations and place names (4p.), concept of soul (4p.), miscellaneous (10p. and 8 cards). Fred Washington, Wolf Clan Ceremonies (2p.). Images note: pencil sketches of totem emblems: turtle, horse, turkey symbolizing signatures. F&S 921

Restrictions on Use: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

III(9C2x) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Oklahoma Delaware -- x. Gourd designs
n.d.1 itemBox 6

Images note: pencil sketches of symbols on gourd rattle with interpretations; rattle for Peyote ceremonies.  F&S 908

III(9C2y) Wilson, Reuben.
Oklahoma Delaware -- y. letters from
194112 itemsBox 6

Letters concerning museum specimens, model, and sketch of Big House. March 18, 1941, 1p. and enc., concerning masks, other specimens, sketch of Delaware church (1925); April 23, 1941, 1p., concerning Big House and "Messing 1941, 1p. sketch of mask and costume of Messing; May 2, 1941, 2p., concerning Messing; May 7, 1941, post card of Fred Washington to Speck concerning Wilson; Sept. 12, 1941, 1p., concerning a mortar; Oct. 11, 1941, 1p., concerning Lenape words and Big House model. List of articles and prices; 1p. 2 queries of Speck on cards with Wilson's answers. Images note: photographs of Reuben Wilson, Washington County, Oklahoma Delaware; sketches of peace pipe, tobacco pouch, homing spoon, canoe, paddle, figure with bear hide cover and mask.  F&S 937

Restrictions on Use: This item contains potentially culturally sensitive material. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is prohibited.

 Reuben Wilson (Weekpakehing)
III(9C2z) War Eagle.
Oklahoma Delaware -- z. letters from
1933-194436 itemsBox 6

Concerning War Eagle's collecting legends and traditions; his obtaining museum specimens; information on peyote and on Big House; his health; reservation and national Indian affairs; some mention of Pawnee, Nanticoke, etc. See various other documents listed separately, but transmitted with these letters. Includes the following tales: snow boy tale, boy captive of bear, trickster tale, Pawnee witch story.   F&S 932

 3. Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware
III(8C3a) Moses, Jesse, Jr..
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- a. letters from
1932-194819 itemsBox 5

Letters: April 7, 1934, 1p., concerning obtaining data; Oct. 5, 1940, 4p., concerning reservation activities; Dec. 11, 1941, 4p., reservation affairs; Nov. 23, 1942, (typed copy?), 1p., concerning Speck (1942) and Indian affairs; Nov. 13, 1944, 5p., wrongs to Indians and miscellaneous; Nov. 29, 1944, 4p., concerning Lenni Lenape and data Moses is gathering; Dec. 3, 1944, 8p., same subject; Dec. 7, 1944, 4p., (typed), Story of Nick (Peters?) and white captives; Sept. 7, 1945, 3p., concerning Delaware affairs, speculations on Delaware religion, concept of Great Spirit and conversion to Christianity; Aug. 4, 1947, 4p., miscellaneous Cayuga and Delaware affairs; Nov. 31, 1945, 6p., sends treaty of 1777 of British and Indians at Detroit, discusses manufacture of museum specimens; Sept. 7, 1948, 3p., miscellaneous, discusses meeting with Mormon missionaries; ca. 19431944, 1p., fragment of letter. Speck field notes taken from Jesse Moses, 1944, 3p. Images note: 7 photographs of old and young Jesse Moses. F&S 893

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III(8C3b) Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- b. [no entry]
  Box 5
III(8C3c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- c. Miscellaneous notes
1938-194516 itemsBox 5

Abstract of report on University of Pennsylvania grant (Bear Ceremony), 1p. Ethnographic notes, 17p. Letters: M. R. Harrington (Southwest Museum) to Speck, March 11, 1938, T.L.S., 1p., concerning his MS. on Delaware (1945a) and comparisons with Minsi; Charles Edgar Gilliam to Speck, Oct. 22, 1945, A.L.S., 2p., concerning the celestial bear theme, refers to William Byrd's attributing aphrodisiacal powers to bear meat and Gilliam suggests that the winter ceremony thus insures birth of children at harvest when there will be food; Paul A. W. Wallace to Speck, Sept. 11, 1945, T.L.S., 1p., concerns Joseph Montour and his return to his native religion. Images note: ink sketch of shaft and cup. F&S 912

Restrictions on Access: This material has been designated as potentially culturally sensitive. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is restricted. Please consult the Curator of Native American Materials for more information.

III(8C3d) Hill, Jasper "Big White Owl".
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- d. Stories
1934-194311 itemsBox 5

Two narratives by an acculturated Moravian Delaware and accompanying letters (seeking and transmitting information): Hill to Frank G. Speck, Mar. 15, 1934; April, 1934; April 28, 1934; Feb. 28, 1943. Images note: photograph of Big White Owl, sketch by Big White Owl of logo. F&S 892

III(8C3e) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- e. Notes on life and geneology of Joseph Montour
19323 itemsBox 5

Includes chart of succession of chiefs, 1855-1937; data from Joseph Montour (biographical). 3p. biography of Nicodemus Peters (1859-1938).  F&S 916

Access digital object:

III(8C3f) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- f. Field notes
19451 itemBox 5

Linguistic materials: names of objects, materia medica names. Images note: 2 pencil sketches by John Witthoft of bow.  F&S 1177

III(8C3g) Montour, Josiah.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- g. Texts narrated by
1931-19367 itemsBox 6

Six texts in Delaware with interlinear translations.   F&S 1173

III(8C3h) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- h. Field notes
19464 itemsBox 6

Field trip with Anthony F. C. Wallace and Mr. and Mrs. E. S. Carpenter: Delaware text, no translation, from Josiah Montour; Delaware, Cayuga, and Mohawk words.   F&S 1181

III(8C3i) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- i. Field notes
19362itemsBox 6

Ethnographic and linguistic notes; concerns ceremonies and text. Letter of Nicodemus Peters to Speck, March 2, 1936, concerning masks and a turtle rattle.   F&S 907

Restrictions on Access: This material has been designated as potentially culturally sensitive. Reproduction, including Reading Room photography, is restricted. Please consult the Curator of Native American Materials for more information.

III(8C3j) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- j. Hoop game
1944-19453 itemsBox 6

Cayuga hoop game data from Deskaheh. Typed D. description of Delaware-Munsee hoop game. Postal card, Nov. 24, 1944, of Ernest S. Dodge to Speck, concerning reference to hoop game in Morgan's League of the Iroquois (1851).   F&S 559

III(8C3k) Peters, Nick.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- k. Letters from and concerning
1935-193915 itemsBox 6

Letters of Peters to Speck concerning museum specimens being obtained by Peters: Jan. 3, 1938; April 11, 1938; May 1, 1938; and no date. Letters concerning death of Peters and his collecting museum specimens: Irma Peters to Speck, Nov. 23, 1938, 2p., Margaret Vanderberg to Speck, Jan. 8, 1938; ? to Speck, n.d., concerning Peters data on executions; three letters of Frank Siebert to Speck, July 24, 1938, 2p., Nov. 20, 1938, 2p., and June 25, 1939, all concerning linguistic field work with Peters and museum specimens. 4p. biographical data concerning Nekatcit.  F&S 898

III(8C3l) John, Samuel.
Canadian (Grand River, Ont.) Delaware -- l. letters from
1934-19354 itemsBox 6

Three letters concerning John's Tutelo background and Speck's visit to Canadian Delawares. Sept. 4, 1934, 3p.; Jan. 8, 1935, 4p.; June 2, 1935, 2p.   F&S 3821

 D. New England Algonkians (also including Algonkians of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick)
 1. General New England
III(10D1a) Butler, Eva L..
General New England -- a. "Letters of the Indians"
n.d.1 itemBox 6

29 letters of seventeenth-century Indians, principally from archives in Connecticut State Library. A pamphlet issued by Industrial Arts Cooperative Service. Contents and index.   F&S 343

III(10D1b) Butler, Eva L..
General New England -- b. "Colonial Letters of our Ancestors"
n.d.1 itemBox 6

19 letters of seventeenth-century colonial Connecticut, principally from Connecticut State Library. A pamphlet issued by Industrial Arts Cooperative Service. Contents and index.   F&S 342

III(10D1c) General New England -- c. Tribal Maps
n.d. Box 6

[see map files]

III(10D1d) Butler, Eva L..
General New England -- d. "Ethnobotany and Ethnozoology of the New England Indians"
n.d.1 itemBox 6

90p. of ethnobotanical references, 29p. of ethnozoological references found in a 3p. bibliography of seventeenth and eighteenth century sources.   F&S 331

III(10D1e) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
General New England -- e. Bibliography of New England Tribes
n.d.1 itemBox 6

Nineteenth-century printed references; some twentieth-century.   F&S 2092

 2. Penobscot
III(11D2a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- a. "Bird Lore of the Northern Indians"
n.d.2 itemsBox 7

A faculty public lecture, University of Pennsylvania. Images note: photomechanical print of Penobscot around campfire. F&S 2925

III(11D2b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- b. Miscellaneous Notes
1912-194655 itemsBox 7

Correspondence relating to Speck's Penobscot work also, letters from informants, and various documents. Speck to Roland E. Nelson (Needahbeh), May 14, 1928, T.L., c.c., 1p., concerning drum for exhibit. Franz Boas, May 31, 1940, T.L.S., 1p. John M. Cooper, Aug. 11, 1940, A.L.S., 2p. William B. Goodwin, Nov. 9 and 21, 1940, T.L.S., 6p. and 1p. E. V. McCollum, May 24, 1940, T.L.S., 1p. Roland E. Nelson, April 28, 1940, A.L.S., 2p. J. Dyneley Prince, May 18, 1940, A.L.S., 2p. all concerning Penobscot Man; Clifford P. Wilson to Speck, Dec. 29, 1937 and Feb. 2, 1938, T.L.S., 1p., both concerning Moosehair embroidery; Edward Reman, May 19, 1940, T.L.S., 2p., concerning Norse influence on Penobscot; Carrie A. Lyford, May 9, 1941, A.L.S., lp., concerning moose-wool controversy and Ann Stimson's report; Ann Stimson, n.d. (1941?) T.L.S., 1p., letter of thanks; Henry Noyes Otis, March 20, 1939, A.L.S., 2p. concerning genealogy of Indians named Sias on Cape Cod (Speck marked this Penobscot). Princess Pretty Woman, April 13, 1946, 1p., concerning her dress. Dorothy Panco, April 27, 1946, A.L.S., 2p., concerning Princess Pretty Woman's dress (both are Indians). Roland W. Mann, Nov. 8, 1943, A.L.S., 2p., concerning site of Indian occupancy according to Penobscot tradition; Ryuzo Torii, July 26, 1943, T.L.S., 1p., letter of introduction. 1p. typed transcript from printed D., 5p. transcript of agreements of Indians of Nova Scotia and English, Aug. 15, 1749, and 2p. transcript of agreement of July 13, 1727 (letter of transmittal, Lloyd Price to Miss MacDonald, Sept. 24, 1936, A.L.S., 1p.). Ann K. Stimson, Moose Wool (A.D., 2p. and 3 1p. typed copies) and Climbing Powers of the American Mink (A.D. 2p. and 3 1p. typed copies). Miscellaneous: 14p. and 17p. of field notes, Malecite and Penobscot. 9p. songs, kinship, totem, medicine, social units, 4p. Penobscot words and their cultural use; 10p. misc., and B cards. Images note: 10 sketches of face painting. F&S 2932

III(11D2c) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- c. Penobscot religion
191015 itemsBox 7

An introductory statement in 4p. with a 5p. revision; also, 8L. of miscellaneous notes.   F&S 2938

III(11D2d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- d. Penobscot field notes
1909-191132 itemsBox 7

An introduction and description of canoemaking; miscellaneous ethnographic field notes; data on face painting, etc. Images note: 11 contact prints, 3 albumen prints, 42 sketches of canoe-making, face painting, double curve design, portraits, snow snake, game diagrams. F&S 2927

III(11D2e) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- e. MS. of Penobscot Man
n.d.46 itemsBox 7

77p. of manuscript for Speck (1940a); plates (figures); Bp. letter of Frank (Siebert?) to Speck, May 29, 1939, concerning his Penobscot MS. Images note: 112 ink sketches of mocassins, baskets, utensils, bowls, spoons, show shoes, combs, shelters, bark implements.  F&S 2937

III(11D2f) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- f. Counting and measuring
n.d.1 itemBox 7

Material not printed in Penobscot Man (1940a): 4p. on counting; 2p, on names of acculturated objects; 4p. on manners and dispositions; 2p. on attitudes and behavior.   F&S 2926

III(11D2g) Swadesh, Morris and Charles F..
Penobscot -- g. Scientific Penobscot Alphabet
n.d.1 itemBox 7

Scientific Penobscot alphabet   F&S 2946

III(12D2h) Echstorm, F. H..
Penobscot -- h. letters from
1936-194114 itemsBox 8

Letters concerning publication and criticism of Penobscot Man; ethnographic data on Penobscot; relationship of Penobscot-Mohegan and Mahican; also, comparison of Zuñi-Navajo and Red Paint; Tutelo.   F&S 2920

III(12D2i) Penobscot -- i. [no entry]
  Box 8
III(12D2j) Penobscot -- j. [no entry]
  Box 8
III(12D2k) Needahbeh.
Penobscot -- k. Penobscot sayings
n.d.1 itemBox 8

Miscellany not used in book (1940).   F&S 2939

III(12D2l) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- l. House furnishings
19352 itemsBox 8

Some parts not used in Speck (1940a).   F&S 2928

III(12D2m) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- m. Hunting morality
n.d.1 itemBox 8

Religious aspect of hunting.   F&S 2929

III(12D2n) Penobscot -- n. [no entry]
  Box 8
III(12D2o) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- o. Notes on Penobscot Social Organization
n.d.6 itemsBox 8

Charts on family, its size, totem, etc., 2p.; 2p. on family history and names; 39p. miscellaneous notes, 1918, including text interlinear translation; Micmac data.   F&S 2933

III(12D2p) Penobscot -- p. [no entry]
  Box 8
III(12D2q) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- q. Penobscot calendar system
1916-19282 itemsBox 8

Notebook on calendar and seasons for hunting and sugar-making. Letter (part c.c.) of A. L. Kroeber to Speck, together with 1p. cluestionnaire on comparative calendars.   F&S 2936

III(12D2r) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- r. Penobscot animal lore
19242 itemsBox 8

Data; cf. Speck (1935b) (?).   F&S 2934

III(12D2s) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- s. Penobscot Art and the Penobscot texts
n.d.5 itemBox 8

Material not used in Penobscot Man because of duplication in Speck (1927b). Images note: 6 photgraphs of wampum, tobacco pouch, mocassins, beaded cuffs, woman's hair ornament; 118 ink sketches of double curve designs. F&S 2935

 Buckskin tobacco pouch
III(12D2t) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- t. Penobscot texts (I)
192819 itemsBox 8

Texts with interlinear translations; several English texts; typed versions of texts in English.   F&S 2945

III(12D2t) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Penobscot -- t. Penobscot texts (II)
19285 itemsBox 8

F&S 2945

 3. "Malecite" (Wolastoqiyik)
III(13D3a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Malecite -- a. Malecite Dance
19364 itemsBox 8

Pedlar's dance in Wolastoqiyik ("Malecite") and Penobscot versions with interlinear translation (2 p.); separate Wolastoqiyik song given in musical score (1 p.) and with words in interlinear translation (1 p.) [Previous description: "Text with interlinear translation; notes; musical score." Changed February 2021.]  F&S 2099

III(13D3b) Prince, J. Dyneley.
Malecite -- b. Passamaquoddy-Malecite Dictionary
19211 itemBox 8

Indian-English, arranged according to English alphabet; also, English-Indian. Based on 1911 collection of Passamaquoddy texts printed in Prince (1921).   F&S 2649

III(13D3c) Malecite -- c. [no entry]
  Box 9
III(13D3d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Malecite -- d. Miscellaneous Malecite field notes
1917-194819 itemsBox 9

7p. of slips containing Wolastoqiyik words; 1p. printed map of St. John's River with Wolastoqiyik villages marked; 12p. Wolastoqiyik, Mi'kmaw, and Penobscot word list, from Mrs. Barlow, Old Town, Maine, 1948,: 12p. unpublished notes on hunting territories. Some of the informaiton provided by Gabe Perley. Letter of J. Clarence Webster (Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada), July 24, 1945, T.L.S., 1p., concerning present life of Wolastoqiyik and Mi'kmaq. Letter of Edwin Tappan Adney, Feb. 9, 1946, T.L.S., 1p., concerning the Celestial Bear, Wolastoqiyik-Delaware comparisons.   F&S 2101

III(13D3e) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Malecite -- e. Malecite notes
19491 itemBox 9

Vocabulary list, hunting terms, names of trees. Images note: 7 sketches of pictographs. F&S 2100

 4. Mohegan-Mohican
III(10D4a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mohegan-Mohican -- a. Mohegans in Maine
19392 itemsBox 7

Reading notes. Images note: sketches and newspaper clippings photographs of tribal living. F&S 2283

III(10D4b) Tantaquidgeon, Gladys.
Mohegan-Mohican -- b. Correspondence with
19382 itemsBox 7

A Connecticut Mohegan Indian, employed by the Government, writes of Shawnee legends and inquires about silk appliqué techniques. Newsclippings.   F&S 3648

III(10D4c) Mohegan-Mohican -- c. Miscellaneous notes
1916-193619 itemsBox 7

Commentary on Fidelia Fielding's Texts, 15p. in notebook; notes for 1920 Pequot trip, with Nehantic and Pennacook notes. 3 letters of Hon. Thomas W. Bicknell to Frank G. Speck, Feb. 11, March 1, and March 11, 1924: commentaries on lectures, etc. concerning Indians in Rhode Island. Notes on Mohegan social organization 2p.; 1p. of incomplete letter of Red Wing concerning Indian affairs; miscellaneous Stockbridge notes, 5p.; George Heye to Speck, Feb. 8, 1916, T.L.S., 1p., re publication; J. R. Swanton to Speck, June 22, no year, A.L.S., 3p., concerning his exhibition for Mohegan Stockbridge data, 3p. from published sources; postal card from Princess Pretty War, re dress, Oct. 26, 1943; Ernest E. Rogers to Speck, March 7, 1934, T.L.S., 1p., of New London Hist. Society re Mohegan-Pequot Diary of Speck. Miscellaneous 4p. and 6 cards  F&S 2284

III(10D4d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mohegan-Mohican -- d. Plants at Mohegan
n.d.1 itemBox 7

21 trees and uses of their products noted on cards; other cards lacking data.   F&S 2287

III(10D4e) Butler, Eva L..
Mohegan-Mohican -- e. "Mohegan Indians Deeds"
n.d.1 itemBox 7

22 deeds of seventeenth century signed by Connecticut Mohegan Indians: Connecticut archival sources. A pamphlet of the Industrial Arts Cooperative Service. Contents and index. Images note: 48 ink sketches of totem symbols as signatures. F&S 2285

III(10D4f) Mohegan-Mohican -- f. [no entry]
  Box 7
III(10D4g) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mohegan-Mohican -- g. Mohegan elect chief
n.d.1 itemBox 7

Copy for a news release.   F&S 2282

III(10D4h) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Mohegan-Mohican -- h. Mohegan Pequot Texts and vocabulary material
n.d.1 itemBox 7

Mohegan-Pequot texts, 28p. together with a 22p. carbon of another draft. 2p. text and interlinear translation; 2p. phonetic notes; 5p. comparative material and names; 3p. grammatical notes and comparisons; an 1892 vocabulary of Mohegan, 2p. and 1 card. 4p. comparisons.  F&S 2286

 5. "Micmac" (Mi'kmaq)
III(13D5a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Micmac -- a. Micmac Dance
n.d.2 itemsBox 9

Text with interlinear translation and notes; musical score.   F&S 2246

III(13D5b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Micmac -- b. Miscellaneous Micmac notes
1909-192626 itemsBox 9

15 bibliographical slips, 8p. of reading notes, concerning hieroglyphics of Micmac. 2p. list of informants; 1p. list of specimens, 1916; 2 copies of printed Micmac mission newspaper, Setaneoei. 1910 and 1920. Note book 1914, 24p. containing words and names of informants; 1 card. 8p. notes including a text in English; 12p. reading notes; 2p. "nominal suffixes"; 1p. bird names of Micmac; 2p. miscellaneous. Letters: Stansbury Hagar to Speck, Jan. 7, 1909, 3p. A.L.S. concerning his Micmac and Cherokee notes; also his bibliography. Same to same, March 8, 1926, 2p. incomplete and 1p. typed copy, concerning his explanation of triangulation to a Micmac chief. John Sark to G. A. Paul, June 30, 1914, 1p. transmits 3p. Micmac text (in mission Micmac). Newell Lyon to Speck, Feb. 21, 1919, 2p. A.L.S. thanking Speck for book. Mrs. Newell Lyon, March 13, 1919, 2p. A.L.S. concerning Lyon's death. News-clipping.   F&S 2231

III(13D5c) Milais, J. J..
Micmac -- c. Observations
19077 itemsBox 9

An incomplete article or set of reading excerpts taken after 1922 by Speck from J. J. Millais (1907).   F&S 2232

III(13D5d) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Micmac -- d. Traveler's account of the Micmac in 1822
n.d.1 itemBox 9

A brief article.   F&S 2233

III(13D5e) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Micmac -- e. Micmac Field Notes
19159 itemsBox 9

Notebook of 13p. concerning wampum, Hunting Territories; some reference to Passamaquoddy; notebook of 29p. Cape Breton Micmac texts; Newfoundland Micmac data and traditions. 7p. Cape Breton Micmac Texts (English); 1p. map with names of Bear River Band members; 4p, draft of article on Micmac Hunting Territories; 1 envelope of miscellaneous notes; 1 piece birch bark with pictographs inscribed.   F&S 2230

III(13D5f) Butler, Eva L..
Micmac -- f. Notes from Jesuit Relations
n.d.1 itemBox 9

Extracts concerning the sweat house.   F&S 2227

III(13D5g) Witthoft, J..
Micmac -- g. Micmac notes
19494 itemsBox 9

10p. of linguistic notes and vocabulary collected along the Miramichi River. 6p. typed copy by John Witthoft.   F&S 2247

 6. Narraganset
III(14D6a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Narraganset -- a. Physical measurements of the Narraganset male
19171 itemBox 9

Male 1/4 Nehantic, 1/2 Brotherton (Narraganset).   F&S 2369

III(14D6b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Narraganset -- b. Miscellaneous notes
1916-19264 itemsBox 9

Comparative vocabulary of Massachusetts, Narraganset, Mohegan, Pequot, and Naugatuck (ca. 30 items); 3 vocabulary lists on cards; 1p. of names. E. B. Delabarre to Speck, May 6, 1920, A.L.S., 2p., prefers Cherokee to Narraganset as explanation of origin of characters on Rhode Island stone. Images note: newspaper clipping photographs peace pipe, native attire, tipi. F&S 2368

 7. St. Francis Abenaki
III(14D7a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
St. Francis Abenaki -- a. Conjuring lodge
n.d.1 itemBox 9

Description.   F&S 296

III(14D7b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
St. Francis Abenaki -- b. Miscellaneous notes
1901-19466 itemsBox 9

Two cards of reading notes; typed copy of Indian poem in English, from John Reade (1887). Also 3p. A.L.S. Frederick S. Dick son to Speck, re Abenaki vocabulary, May 5, 1920, 1p. Typed L.S. Edwin Tappan Adney, February 18, 1946, concerning place names and Maine Indian shamans. Images note: photomechanical print of Montagnais in camp. F&S 297

 8. Abenaki
III(14D8a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Abenaki -- a. Field notes
n.d.1 itemBox 9

Notes on Abenaki "demons" and "personal magic," mainly consisting of terms in Abenaki and English. Four short interlinear texts on various topics, including "The Place of Skulls" and "When a person wants to propose." Brief notes on games, villages, chiefs. 3 place names for Saratoga Springs, Glens Falls, and Lake George, NY. Location where notes were recorded and with whom is unclear. Also contains some briefer notes on similar Innu-Aimun ("Montagnais-Naskapi") terms for some of the topics noted above. Notebook was in the possession of Speck's student A. Irving Hallowell and was located among his papers when they were donated to the APS Library in 1983. The notebook was then added to the Frank Speck Papers. Some of the handwriting in the notebook may be Hallowell's.

 9. Scatticook
III(14D9a) Scatticook -- a. Miscellaneous notes
1904, 1939-19404 itemsBox 9

1904 vocabulary. 2 letters of Chief Swimming Eel to Speck, Aug. 16, 1939 and Aug. 5, 1940, concerning Indian social activities; 1 broadside. Images note: newspaper clipping photograph of George Coggswell. F&S 3230

III(14D9b) Scatticook -- b. Scatticook field notebook
19031 itemBox 9

Vocabulary census, and reservation data; biographical notes and traditions.  F&S 3231

 10. Pequot
III(14D10a) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Pequot -- a. Miscellaneous notes
1922-19418 itemsBox 9

2 cards with Mohegan names; 7p. reading notes; 1p. animal names; 3p. typed letter, c.c., of Harral Ayres to the Smithsonian Institution, Feb. 15, 1941, concerning Connecticut place names; Gertrude Bell Browne to Speck, Feb. 19, 1924, A.L.S., 7p., concerning seventeenth-century Pequot-Mohegan history.   F&S 2281

III(14D10b) Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950.
Pequot -- b. Pequot archaeology
n.d.1 itemBox 9