William Francis Gray Swann Papers

Mss.B.Sw1

Date: 1900-1961 | Size: 62 Linear feet

Abstract

The physicist W.F.G. Swann was a pioneer in high energy physics and the study of cosmic rays. Climbing the academic ranks from the University of Sheffield to the Universities of Minnesota, Chicago, and Yale, Swann was selected as the first director of the Bartol Research Foundation of the Franklin Institute in 1927, and remained there until his retirement in 1959. An able administrator and excellent mentor, he was best known for his popular work on the new physics, The Architecture of the Universe (1934) and for his research on cosmic rays. Avocationally, he was an accomplished cellist and in addition to performing, he helped organize and support the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra and other local groups. He died at his home in Swarthmore in 1962.

The Swann Papers consist of 41 linear feet of correspondence, class notes, lectures, and photographs documenting Swann's career at the Bartol Research Foundation from 1927 until the end of his life. The collection is wide ranging, touching on atmospheric electricity, particle acceleration, atomic bomb defense, atomic energy, electrets, electrodynamics, magnetism, music, quantum theory, radiation, relativity and Einstein, science and civilization, stratospheric flights (by balloon and airplane), thermodynamics, psychic science, and wave mechanics. It is particularly rich for study of the history of cosmic ray research and the Bartol Institute, and for study of the popularization of modern physical sciences.

Background note

A pioneer in particle physics and the study of cosmic rays, W. F. G. Swann was the first Director of the Bartol Research Foundation of the Franklin Institute. From its inception in 1927, Swann guided the Foundation for over thirty years, developing it into a major center for research in the physical sciences.

Born at Ironbridge, England on August 29, 1884, Swann demonstrated an early aptitude for music, but little in the sciences. While his love for music continued to grow, however, Swann nevertheless elected to pursue what seemed to be a more practical course in medicine when he entered Brighton Technical College as a scholarship student in 1900. At Brighton, Swann was introduced to James Clerk Maxwell's treatise on electricity and magnetism, and swayed by its elegance and precision, he switched from medicine to physics, transferring to the Royal College of Science, from which he received his BSc in 1905.

As a Junior Demonstrator at the Royal College, Swann gained valuable teaching experience while strengthening his background in the "practical things of science" by studying electrical engineering. His combination of experimental and teaching prowess earned him an appointment as Assistant Lecturer and demonstrator at the University of Sheffield in 1907, where he worked while completing his doctoral studies at the University College London. He received his DSc in 1910. It was the first stop in an upward climb into increasingly prestigious academic appointments.

Despite low pay and less than ideal working conditions, Swann displayed sufficient promise in mathematical physics, electrodynamics, and in the new quantum theory that he garnered the attention of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Lured away from Sheffield in 1913, Swann was appointed Chief of the Physical Division at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, spending much of the next four years in the design and production of an apparatus to assist in magnetic and atmospheric-electric observations aboard the ship Carnegie, but with his reputation rising, other offers were not long in coming.

After war-time service working on submarine detection with the National Bureau of Standards and with the army to determine why their balloons were prone to explosion, Swann accepted a standing offer to join the faculty at the University of Minnesota. An administrative prodigy, Swann developed the graduate program with such remarkable success, reaping the rewards along the way, that by the time he left in 1923, he had become the highest paid professor at the University. Two of his own students won National Research Council Fellowships, but in his own opinion, his greatest success was in mentoring a young Edwin O. Lawrence.

The next stop in Swann's academic climb was the University of Chicago, who in 1923 offered Swann a substantial increase in pay to replace Robert Millikan. Even before he accepted, however, Yale approached him with even more lucrative honor: full professorship, Director of the supremely well-equipped Sloane Laboratory, and responsibilities for only one postgraduate course. As Yale was courting, other offers poured in, including the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, who struck up what Swann called a "fliratation" in connection with a proposed research institute for "practical Electrical Engineering." Funded by a bequest from Henry W. Bartol (d. 1918), a prominent industrialist and member of the Franklin Institute, the institute got off the ground in 1925, when Arthur Bramley became the first Bartol fellow even before a facility or staff were available.

Faced with a Hobson's choice of Chicago, Yale, or the prospective Bartol, Swann chose Yale. The Ryerson Lab at Chicago, he reasoned, was crowded and antiquated, and the research opportunities at Yale offered by Pres. James B. Angell were simply too attractive to turn down. After only one year at Chicago, and despite his department's pleas, Swann therefore moved to New Haven, bringing Lawrence in tow. As the Bartol got off the ground, however, Swann soon reconsidered, and when the number of fellows rose to five, he was tapped as the first Director of the Bartol Research Foundation.

One of Swann's first acts as Director was to secure an agreement with Swarthmore College to relocate the institute from its temporary quarters in Philadelphia to facilities on the college campus. Always meticulous and detail-oriented, his administrative oversight extended even to minor custodial expenditures, yet he was well regarded by the fellows and staff he oversaw, however his attentions appear to have been well appreciated by Bartol fellows. Swann was concerned that "the great industrial rese'rch laboratories" instilled a culture that led physicists away from "using their own hands," and he therefore insisted on manufacturing his own apparatus, including blowing his own glass, and he was adamant that his fellows follow suit. On a personal level, several fellows considered Swann to be something of a "father confessor" as well as scientist.

An immensely productive researcher, who wrote over 250 publications during his career, Swann continued to blend theoretical and empirical approaches, evolving as rapidly as his discipline to touch on relativity theory, condensed matter physics, atomic structure, matter, antimatter, and gravitation. He was best known, however, for his pioneering work on cosmic rays and high energy physics. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, he developed a mechanism for accelerating charged particles to cosmic ray energies by means of changing magnetic fields, a device he named the cygnatron ("swan tube"). More in the public eye, he took part in organizing a number of high profile projects to investigate cosmic ray intensities at high altitudes, including a series of manned balloon flights funded by the National Geographic Society and the U.S. Army. Swann subsequently took these studies to airplanes, ships, underwater, and on mountain tops. Late in his career, Swann developed a keep interest in the relationship between religion and science and in psychic research.

As charismatic in presentation as he was dramatic, Swann was a natural teacher and effective public spokesman for science at various levels. Throughout his tenure at the Bartol, he conducted seminars for high school students at the Franklin Institute, he lectured on electrodynamics at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, and later in life, was Professor of Physics at Temple University. His 1934 book The Architecture of the Universe, its interpretation of the new, and often abstruse developments in modern physics, was a major success with the broader public, and as a result, Swann was regularly called upon to appear on the radio and interviewed in the newspaper. With a slightly eccentric image and trademark shock of long white hair, he was a natural as well for television, hosting a weekly program in Philadelphia popularizing science during the 1950s.

Despite the demands of a rigorous schedule of research, administration, and public appearances, Swann managed to preserve time and energy for his great passion, music. An accomplished cellist who had studied under Diran Alexanian, Swann maintained an active social and musical correspondence with musicians and kept an active hand in the music scene in Philadelphia. In addition to his performing as a soloist and with various orchestras, he helped found the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra, worked as assistant conductor of the Main Line Orchestra and as director of the Philadelphia Academy of Music, and was a supporter and honorary fellow of Trinity College of Music, London. Music entered deeply into his private life as well: After his first wife, Frances Mabel Thompson died in 1954, he married Helene Diedrichs, a former child prodigy, pianist and Chair of the Piano Department at the Philadelphia Musical Academy. Mrs. Swann (who played professionally under her maiden name) had studied under Carl Wendling at the Leipzig Conservatory of Music and received degrees from the Royal Academy of Music and the Tobais Matthay Pianoforte School.

Swann was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1926, and served as vice president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1923-1924) and president of the American Physical Society (1931-1933). He received honorary degrees from Yale (1924), Swarthmore (1929), Temple (1954), and was made a fellow of the Imperial College of Science in Technology (1956) and was awarded the Elliot Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute (1960) for his research on cosmic rays. The final honor awarded Swann vaulted him literally to the heavens: In 1967, the International Astronomical Union named a lunar crater in Swann's honor.

In August 1959, already 75 years old, Swann retired to emeritus status at the Bartol Institute and was succeeded by Martin Pomerantz. Unburdened by administrative duties, he continued to conduct research almost until the day he died, January 29, 1962. He was survived by Helene Diedrichs, two sons, William F. Swann and Charles P. Swann, and a daughter Sylvia Swann Briggs. Both sons became prominent physical scientists, Charles at the Bartol.

Scope and content

The William Francis Gray Swann Papers document a long career in the physical sciences, with an emphasis upon Swann's professional interests in cosmic ray research, his administrative work at the Bartol Institute, and his avocational love of music. Although the collection begins with materials that n date from Swann's undergraduate days at Brighton Technical College in 1903, the collection is fullest for the period after his arrival as Director of the Bartol in 1927.

Swann's varied and shifting interests Civil defense in Philadelphia with a number of fascinating items regarding the potential impact of a nuclear bomb on the city, plans for evacuation, etc., 1950 and 1952.

Series I. Correspondence1907-1961 24 linear feet
Series II. Works by Swann 1900-1961 15.5 linear feet
Series III. Architecture of the Universe 1933-1935 1 linear feet
Series IV. Bound Volumes 1903-1961 17 linear feet
Series V. Images and Certificates 1902-1957 3.5 linear feet
Series VI. Motion Picture Films 1934, undated 0.5 linear foot
Series VII. Oversize Undated 0.5 linear feet

Arrangement

Arrangement is for the Reader Copies.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Provenance

Bequest of William Francis Gray Swann, 1962.

Preferred citation

Cite as: William Francis Gray Swann Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Recatalogued by rsc, 2002.

Separated material

A cosmic ray detecting device owned by Swann has been entered into the APS Cabinet of Curiosities.

A number of pamphlets acquired with the Swann Papers are catalogued in the Book Department. Call no.: BIOSw1xno.1-122

Bibliography

The Book Department includes a number of works by Swann, including:

Indexing Terms


Corporate Name(s)

  • American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • American Physical Society
  • Bartol Research Foundation
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
  • National Geographic Society
  • National Research Council (U.S.)
  • Princeton University
  • Swarthmore College
  • Temple University. Department of Physics
  • Trinity College of Music
  • United States. Army. Air Corps.
  • United States. Navy
  • University of Pennsylvania. Moore School of Electrical Engineering

Genre(s)

  • Laboratory notes
  • Motion pictures
  • Photographs
  • Sound recordings
  • Students' notes

Personal Name(s)

  • Alexanian, Diran, 1881-1954
  • Bainbridge, Kenneth T.
  • Bauer, L. A. (Louis Agricola),
  • Beams, Jesse W. (Jesse Wakefield), 1898-1977
  • Briggs, Lyman J. (Lyman James), 1874-1963
  • Casals, Pablo, 1876-1973
  • Cattell, Jacques, 1904-1960
  • Cattell, James McKeen, 1860-1944
  • Chatterjee, S. D.
  • Clamer, G. H.
  • Clevenger, S. J.
  • Compton, Arthur Holly, 1892-1962
  • Compton, K. T. (Karl Taylor), 1887-1954
  • Danforth, William E.
  • Darrow, Karl K. (Karl Kelchner), 1891-1982
  • Ehrenhaft, Felix, 1879-
  • Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955
  • Eisenberg, Maurice
  • Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler, 187
  • Erikson, Henry A. (Henry Anton
  • Federer, Charles Anthony, 1909
  • Frazer, John A.
  • Gibbs, J. Willard (Josiah Willard), 1839-1903
  • Hess, Victor Francis, 1883-
  • Hudspeth, Emmett L
  • Jackson, William F.
  • Johnson, Thomas H.
  • Kelly, Mary Isabel
  • Korff, Serge A. (Serge Alexander), 1906-1989
  • Lark-Horovitz, K. (Karl), 1892-1958
  • Liddell, Urner
  • McDonald, Ellice, 1876-
  • McGiffert, James
  • Payne, Melvin M.
  • Pepinsky, Abe
  • Pfeiffer, Robert Charles
  • Piccard, Jean
  • Polnauer, Frederick F.
  • Shapley, Harlow, 1885-1972
  • Stromberg, Gustaf, 1882-
  • Swann, William F.
  • Swann, William Francis Gray, 1884-1962
  • Tate, John Torrence, 1889-1950
  • Tutwiler, Carrington C.
  • Zanstra, H. (Herman)

Subject(s)

  • Atomic bomb
  • Civil defense -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
  • Cosmic rays.
  • Electrodynamics
  • Electromagnetic theory
  • Magnetic fields
  • Music
  • Nuclear physics.
  • Particles (Nuclear physics)
  • Physics -- Study and teaching
  • Quantum theory.
  • Relativity (Physics)
  • Thermodynamics
  • Violoncello
  • World War, 1914-1918

Collection overview

1907-196124 Linear Feetbox 1-48

Swann's correspondence is an extensive collection offering thorough documentation of Swann's career after his move to the Bartol Institute in the later 1920s, with some valuable earlier correspondence. The collection is particularly rich in documenting the early years of cosmic ray research in which Swann figured prominently, including the efforts to measure atmospheric intensities of cosmic rays from balloons and airplanes. Swann's administration of the Bartol Institute is also well documented.

Throughout his life, Swann was an avid musician and an accomplished cellist. His correspondence includes interesting exchanges with Diran Alexanian, Pablo Casals, and numerous other musicians, but also with writers and poets and other "artistic" souls. Swann's correspondence also contains information onhis involvement with the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra and other performing groups.

As a public figure from the mid-1930s onward, Swann attracted a great deal of correspondence from non-specialists, people who had heard him on the radio or television, who had seen him lecture at the Franklin Institute, or who had read his popular or semi-popular works. In many cases, these provide insight into the efforts of ordinary Americans to understand the new physics.

1900-196115.5 Linear Feetbox 49-79
1933-19351 Linear Feetbox 80-81

Typescript copy of Swann's Architecture of the Universe, along with related correspondence, early drafts, notes and reviews.

1903-196117 Linear Feetbox 82-115

Among the few notebooks that are clearly identified, most appear to contain notes taken by Swann as a student at the Royal College of Science at Brighton. Eight volumes contain laboratory notes kept at the Physical Laboratory, University of Sheffield.

The series also includes four scrapbooks kept by Swann throughout his career that include newspaper clippings, lecture notices and ephemera relating to his work. One scrapbook is devoted exclusively to his musical interests.

Includes card file index to notes and lectures.

1902-19573.5 Linear Feetbox 116-122

Photographs, Lantern Slides, glass transparencies, membership certificates, diplomas, blueprints. In addition to the photographs housed within the Swann Papers, 421 Swann photographs are located in the APS Photograph Collection.

1934, undated0.5 Linear Feet22 film reelsbox 123

Twenty-two 16mm films, transferred to DVD as part of the Save America's Treasures grant in December 2006. Films Nos. 16 and 18 could not be transferred due to damage.

Undated0.5 Linear Feetbox 124


Detailed Inventory

Series I. Correspondence
1907-196124 Linear Feetbox 1-48

Swann's correspondence is an extensive collection offering thorough documentation of Swann's career after his move to the Bartol Institute in the later 1920s, with some valuable earlier correspondence. The collection is particularly rich in documenting the early years of cosmic ray research in which Swann figured prominently, including the efforts to measure atmospheric intensities of cosmic rays from balloons and airplanes. Swann's administration of the Bartol Institute is also well documented.

Throughout his life, Swann was an avid musician and an accomplished cellist. His correspondence includes interesting exchanges with Diran Alexanian, Pablo Casals, and numerous other musicians, but also with writers and poets and other "artistic" souls. Swann's correspondence also contains information onhis involvement with the Swarthmore Symphony Orchestra and other performing groups.

As a public figure from the mid-1930s onward, Swann attracted a great deal of correspondence from non-specialists, people who had heard him on the radio or television, who had seen him lecture at the Franklin Institute, or who had read his popular or semi-popular works. In many cases, these provide insight into the efforts of ordinary Americans to understand the new physics.

Aaronson, Milton H.
19614 itemsbox 1
Abbot, C.G.
1916-19419 itemsbox 1
Abbott, Emma M.
19311 itembox 1
Adams, Marie B.
19471 itembox 1
Adelman, Adrien
1939-194015 itemsbox 1
Agnew, P.G.
1918-194710 itemsbox 1
Aiura, Masanobu
19583 itemsbox 1
Ajax Electrothermic Corporation
19251 itembox 1
Akeley, Lewis E.
1946-19474 itemsbox 1
Akimoff, N.W. (Nicholas Wladimir)
1920-192423 itemsbox 1

Re: automobile engine without reverberation

Albagli, Reina
19341 itembox 1
Albrecht, Otto E.
19402 itemsbox 1
Albright, Russell K.
19563 itemsbox 1
Alexander, D.F.
19362 itemsbox 1
Alexander, Eleanor R.
19573 itemsbox 1
Alexander, Jerome
19493 itemsbox 1
Alexanian, Diran
1929-19438 foldersbox 1
Folder 1
1929-19313 itemsbox 1
Folders 2-6
1937 box 1
Folder 7
193822 itemsbox 1
Folder 8
1940-1943 box 1
Alflfvén, H. (Hannes)
19482 itemsbox 1
Alleman, Gellert
1924-19255 itemsbox 1
Allen, Henry B.
1935-19589 foldersbox 1
Folder 1
1935-1939 box 1
Folder 2
1940-1942 box 1
Folder 3
1943-1944 box 1
Folder 4
1945-1946 box 1
Folder 5
1947 box 1
Folder 6
1948-1949 box 1
Folder 7
1950-1951 box 1
Folder 8
1952-1953 box 1
Folder 9
1954-1958 box 1
Allen, J. L.
19591 itembox 1
Allen, Mildred
1929-19405 foldersbox 2
Folder 1
1929 box 2
Folder 2
1930-1931 box 2
Folder 3
1932 box 2
Folder 4
1932 box 2
Folder 5
1933-1940 box 2
Allen, P., Jr.
19515 itemsbox 2
Allibone, T.E.
1948-195919 itemsbox 2
Allyn, Alice
193211 itemsbox 2
Almanzan, Ascension
19353 itemsbox 2
Altinger, T.O.
19241 itembox 2
American Academy of Political Science
19592 itemsbox 2
American Association for Adult Education
19342 itemsbox 2
American Association for the Advancement of Science
1929-19362 foldersbox 2
Folder 1
1929-1932 box 2
Folder 2
1933-1936 box 2
American Council on Education
19251 itembox 2
American Geographical Society
19423 itemsbox 2
American Geophysical Union
1929-19318 itemsbox Unknown container 298 for instance of American Geophysical Union
American Institute
1928-193513 itemsbox 2

Includes talk by Swann, "The Atomic World," 1935

American Institute of Electrical Engineers
1927-19312 foldersbox 2
Folder 1
1927-1929 box 2
Folder 2
1930-1931 box 2
American Institute of Physics
1939-19413 itemsbox 2
American Mathematical Society
1931-194625 itemsbox 2
American Philosophical Society
1926-195619 foldersbox 2-3
Folder 1
1926 box 2
Folder 2
1927 box 2
Folder 3
1928 box 2
Folder 4
1929 box 2
Folder 5
1930 box 2
Folder 6
1931 box 2
Folder 7
1932 box 2
Folder 8
1933 box 2
Folder 9
1934 box 2
Folder 10
1935 box 2
Folder 11
1936 box 2
Folder 12
1937 box 2
Folder 13
1938 box 3
Folder 14
1939 box 3
Folder 15
1940 box 3
Folder 16
1945 box 3
Folder 17
1956 box 3
Folders 18-19
Undated box 3
American Physical Society
1928-193511 foldersbox 3-4
Folder 1
1928-1929 box 3
Folder 2
1930 box 3
Folder 3
1931 January-March box 3
Folder 4
1931 April-June box 3
Folder 5
1931 July-October box 3
Folder 6
1931 November-December box 3
Folder 7
1932 January-March box 4
Folder 8
1932 April-June box 4
Folder 9
1932 June-December box 4
Folder 10
1933 box 4
Folder 11
1934-1935 box 4
American Society of Ancient Instruments
19374 itemsbox 4
Ames, Joseph S.
1920-19264 foldersbox 4
Folder 1
1920 box 4
Folder 2
1921 box 4
Folder 3
1922-1923 box 4
Folder 4
1924-1926 box 4
Amsterdam, Michael
1948-19509 itemsbox 4
Anderson, Arvid E.
1938-19428 itemsbox 4
Anderson, Carl D.
1937-195419 itemsbox 4
Anderson, Orvil
19471 itembox 4
Anderson, Robert B.
19531 itembox 4
Anderson, Samuel E.
19472 itemsbox 4
Andreeva, Tamara
19464 itemsbox 4
Andrews, Donald H.
1926-19557 itemsbox 4
Angell, James R.
1924-194930 itemsbox 4
Anton, David
1937-19439 itemsbox 4
Appelton, Edward V.
1927-19569 itemsbox 4
Applications for Positions
1925-19343 foldersbox 4-5
Folder 1
1925-1930 box 4
Folder 2
1931 box 5
Folder 3
1932-1934 box 5
Archera, Laura
19371 itembox 5
Arctowski, Henry
19436 itemsbox 5
Arms, William T.
19392 itemsbox 5
Arnold, H.D.
191711 itemsbox 5
Arnhym, A.A., Col.
1947-19497 itemsbox 5
Arowan, E.
19511 itembox 5
Ashley, Rose Bishop
19373 itemsbox 5
Astin, Allen V.
1928-193214 itemsbox 5
Avera, F. L.
19342 itemsbox 5
Axt, Richard G.
19552 itemsbox 5
Aydelotte, Frank
1939-195310 itemsbox 5
Ayling, S. Virginia
1944-194512 itemsbox 5
Bainbridge, Kenneth T.
1929-19357 foldersbox 5
Folder 1
1929-1930 box 5
Folder 2
1931 box 5
Folder 3
1932 box 5
Folder 4
1933 January-June box 5
Folder 5
1933 July-December box 5
Folder 6
1934 box 5
Folder 7
1935-1939 box 5
Baisley, H.K.
193613 itemsbox 5
Baker, R.N. Scott
19492 itemsbox 5
Baldwin School (Bryn Mawr, PA)
19388 itemsbox 6

re: Sylvia Swann

Bales, E.R.
19303 itemsbox 5
Bantock, Granville
1936-194019 itemsbox 5
Barail, Louis C.
193912 itemsbox 5
Barba, William
19322 itemsbox 5
Barfield, A.R.
19384 itemsbox 5
Barnard, Chester I.
19386 itemsbox 5
Barnes, George
1932-19342 itemsbox 5
Barnes, James
1944-195421 itemsbox 5
Barnes, William J.
19331 itembox 5
Barr, Jean B.
19394 itemsbox 5
Barrett, W.J.
19402 itemsbox 5
Barry, James W.
19361 itembox 5
Bartlett, Percy
19402 itemsbox 5
Bartol, Eleanor G.
1938-19404 itemsbox 5
Bartol, Grier
1944-19514 itemsbox 5
Bartol Foundation-Fence
195412 itemsbox 5
Barton, Henry A.
1927-19455 itemsbox 5
Barton, William H.
1938-19397 itemsbox 5
Bashew, Amelia
19332 itemsbox 5
Bass, Robert E.
1953-19613 itemsbox 5
Bateman, Ethel
19392 itemsbox 5
Bateman, Harry
1918-19407 itemsbox 5
Bauer, Louis A.
1912-19219 foldersbox 6
Folder 1
1912-1913 box 6
Folder 2
1914 January-June box 6
Folder 3
1914 July-December box 6
Folder 4
1915 January-June box 6
Folder 5
1915 July-December box 6
Folder 6
1916 box 6
Folder 7
1916 January-June box 6
Folder 8
1916 July-December box 6
Folder 9
1919-1921 box 6
Bautista, Gonzalo
19435 itemsbox 6
Beals, Ralph A.
193810 itemsbox 6
Beach, C. L.
1932-19334 itemsbox 6
Beams, Jesse W.
1943-19615 foldersbox 6
Folder 1
19283 itemsbox 6
Folder 2
1943-195316 itemsbox 6
Folder 3
1954-195614 itemsbox 6
Folder 4
1958-195910 itemsbox 6
Folder 5
1960-196112 itemsbox 6
Bearden, J.A.
19351 itembox 6
Beck, Clifford K.
19512 itemsbox 6
Beck, Henry, Jr.
1956-19582 itemsbox 6
Becker, D.M.
19341 itembox 6
Beier, L.C.
19381 itembox 6
Belmont, Georges
Undated1 itembox 6
Bender, William
19312 itemsbox 6
Bengelsdorf, Irving S.
19581 itembox 6
Benham, T.A.
19561 itembox 6
Benjamin, Robert M.
19382 itemsbox 6
Bennett, R.
19573 itemsbox 6
Bennett, Samuel R.
19091 itembox 6
Bennett, Willard H.
1929-19303 itemsbox 6

Includes TLS from A. Robert Millikan

Bensinger, George C.
1940-19423 itemsbox 6
Benton, W.E.
19251 itembox 6
Berkey, Charles P.
19372 itemsbox 6
Berkley, Harold
1938-19415 itemsbox 6
Berko, Stephen
19503 itemsbox 6
Bernays, Edward L.
1953-19557 itemsbox 7
Bernstein, Herbert J.
19371 itembox 7
Bethe, Hans A.
1937-19555 itemsbox 7
Bevan, Arthur
19391 itembox 7
Biester, Dorothy
19352 itemsbox 7
Bilger, Leonora Neuffer
19383 itemsbox 7
Birkhoff, George D.
1936-19437 itemsbox 7
Bishop, D.W.
19443 itemsbox 7
Bitter, Francis
1936-19396 itemsbox 7
Bittinger, Charles
1934-194132 itemsbox 7
Blackburn, Harmon L.
19423 itemsbox 7
Blackburn, Charles M.
19251 itemsbox 7
Blackett, P.M.S.
19402 itemsbox 7
Blackett, Patrick
19561 itembox 7
Blair, William B.
19211 itembox 7
Blanchard, Frances
19373 itemsbox 7
Blanchard, Duncan
19611 itembox 7
Blau, Adi
19334 itemsbox 7
Blaxland, M.
1956, 19612 itemsbox 7
Bleick, Willard E.
19292 itemsbox 7
Bliss, Gilbert Ames
1922-19378 itemsbox 7
Bliven, Bruce
19402 itemsbox 7
Block, I. Edward
19521 itembox 7
Blodgett, Alice E.
1941-19427 itemsbox 7
Bloom, Julius
1943-19569 itemsbox 7
Bludworth, T. Franklin
1944-195522 itemsbox 7
Boggs, S. Whittemore
19402 itemsbox 7
Bohr, Aage
19571 itembox 7
Bohr, Niels
19341 itembox 7
Bok, Bart J.
19412 itemsbox 7
Bok, Mrs. Curtis
19361 itembox 7
Bok, Mary
1939-19407 itemsbox 7
Bolster, C.M.
1949-19524 itemsbox 7
Bond, Kirk
1953-19547 itemsbox 7
Bond, R.T.
19372 itemsbox 7
Bongards, H.
19232 itemsbox 7
Bonner, T.W.
1940-19572 itemsbox 7
Boocock, C.B.
19373 itemsbox 7
Boott Mills
19211 itembox 7
Borie, Edith
Undated1 itembox 7
Born, Max
1937-19382 itemsbox 7
Bostelmam, John C, Jr.
1935-193932 itemsbox 7
Bouvet, Rene
1941-19424 itemsbox 7
Bouvier, Julian J.
19401 itembox 7
Bowker, R.C.
19445 itemsbox 7
Bowles, Gordon T.
19512 itemsbox 7
Boyajian, A.
19367 itemsbox 7
Boyd, George A.
1938-19415 itemsbox 7
Bracking, Ivy A.
19401 itembox 7
Bradbury, N.
19461 itembox 7
Bradshaw, Hamilton
1937-19397 itemsbox 7
Bradt, Helmut L.
19475 itemsbox 7
Bragg, Lawrence
19542 itemsbox 7
Bragg, William
19402 itemsbox 7
Brakeley, George A.
19371 itembox 7
Bramhall, Ervin Hicks
19331 itembox 7
Bramley, Arthur
19342 itemsbox 7
Brammer, Douglas
19571 itembox 7
Bransfield, J.W.
19551 itembox 7
Brasefield, Charles J.
19551 itembox 7
Breisky, John V.
19387 itemsbox 7
Breit, Gregory
1924-195819 itembox 7
Brennan, Herbert
19252 itemsbox 7
Brentano, J.C.M.
19422 itemsbox 7
Brice, C. Frederick
1938-19426 itemsbox 7
Bridgman, P.W.
19232 itemsbox 7
Briggs, H.B.
19293 itemsbox 7
Briggs, Lyman J.
1934-19585 foldersbox 7
Folder 1
1934 box 7
Folder 2
1935-1936 box 7
Folder 3
1945-1947 box 7
Folder 4
1948-1949 box 7
Folder 5
1950-1958 box 7
Briggs, Sylvia Swann
1940-19423 itemsbox 8
Brighton School of Music
1928-193411 itemsbox 8
Brinkworth, J.H.
19113 itemsbox 8
Bronk, Detlev W.
19492 itemsbox 8
Bronson, Howard L.
19281 itembox 8
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Undated1 itembox 8
Brown, F.C.
19372 itemsbox 8
Brown, G.H.
19362 itemsbox 8
Brown, Louis
19532 itemsbox 8
Brown, Marshal S.
19379 itemsbox 8
Brown, Raymond Charles
194210 itemsbox 8
Broxon, James W.
1921-19342 foldersbox 8
Folder 1
1921-1923 box 8
Folder 2
1927-1934 box 8
Bryn Mawr College
19391 itembox 8
Buchta, J.W.
1936-19552 foldersbox 8
Folder 1
1936-1939 box 8
Folder 2
1941-1955 box 8
Buckingham, Edgar
1921, 19273 itemsbox 8
Bunker, John W.
19401 itembox 8
Burdick, C. Lalor
19363 itemsbox 8
Burgess Battery Company
1935-193613 itemsbox 8
Burkholder L.M.
19502 itemsbox 8
Burlew, John S.
1955-195932 itemsbox 8
Burns, George R.
19402 itemsbox 8
Burroughs, Robert E.
19362 itemsbox 8
Burton, Ernest D.
19243 itemsbox 8
Bush, Vannevar
1940-194220 itemsbox 8
Bye, Arthur Edwin
192911 itemsbox 8
Byrd Antarctic Expedition II
19333 itemsbox 8
C.B. Christiansen Company
19368 itemsbox 8
Cady, Walter G.
194512 itemsbox 8
Caldwell, Orestes H.
19332 itemsbox 8
Calhoun, Phil, Maj.
19492 itemsbox 8

Flying saucers and use of light for propulsion

Callaghan, Thomas A.
19472 itemsbox 8
Callendar, H.L.
1907-19249 itemsbox 8
Camacho, Manuel Avila
19438 itemsbox 8
Cambridge Instrument Company
19251 itembox 8
Campbell, George A.
1932-19339 itemsbox 8
Campbell, W.W.
19272 itemsbox 8
Cancer Research Fund
1929-19355 foldersbox 8
Folder 1
1929 box 8
Folder 2
1930-1931 box 8
Folder 3
1932 box 8
Folder 4
1933-1934 box 8
Folder 5
1935 box 8
Canfield, Jennings W.
19542 itemsbox 8
Canova, E.C.
19471 itembox 8
Cardoza, J.B.N.
19324 itemsbox 8
Carnegie Institution of Washington
1926-195140 itemsbox 8
Carnegie Institution of Washington. Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
19237 itemsbox 8
Carp, Louis
19555 itemsbox 9
Carpenter, Samuel
19521 itembox 9
Carr, Fred
19344 itemsbox 9

Re: James Jeans' view of the new physics

Carroll, C.M.
19431 itembox 9
Carson, Cyril T.
19612 itemsbox 9
Carter, Howard A.
194719 itemsbox 9
Carter, Robert S.
19562 itemsbox 9
Carter, W.J.
19362 itemsbox 9
Casals, Pablo
1947-196064 itemsbox 9
Cassell, Norman S.
19221 itembox 9
Castellini, William A.A.
19362 itemsbox 9
Caster, Kenneth E.
19523 itemsbox 9
Cattell, James McKeen
1927-19436 foldersbox 9
Folder 1
1927, 1936 box 9
Folder 2
1937-1939 box 9
Folder 3
1940 box 9
Folder 4
1941 box 9
Folder 5
1942 box 9
Folder 6
1943 box 9
Cattell, Jacques
19423 foldersbox 9
Folder 1
1942 box 9
Folder 2
1943-1944 box 9
Folder 3
1945 box 9
Cattell, Ware
1939-194220 itemsbox 9
Central Scientific Company
19332 itemsbox 9
Century of Progress
19334 itemsbox 9
Chalmers, Gordon K.
19378 itemsbox 9
Chambers, Carl C.
1933-19514 itemsbox 9
Chambers, Robert, Jr.
19514 itemsbox 9
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan
19552 itemsbox 9
Chapman, R.
19111 itembox 9
Chapman and Grimes, Publishers
19362 itemsbox 9
Charlesby, A.
19579 itemsbox 9
Charlton, William J.
19352 itemsbox 9
Chase, Harry W.
19383 itemsbox 9
Chatterjee, S.D.
1950-195825 itemsbox 9
Cheyney, E.P.
19413 itemsbox 9
Christian, L.
19251 itembox 9
Civil Defense
1950-195716 foldersbox 9-10
Folder 1
1950 March-October box 9
Folder 2
1950 November-December box 9
Folder 3
1951 January box 9
Folder 4
1951 February box 10
Folder 5
1951 March box 10
Folder 6
1951 April box 10
Folder 7
1951 May box 10
Folder 8
1951 June box 10
Folder 9
1951 July box 10
Folder 10
1951 August box 10
Folder 11
1951 September box 10
Folder 12
1951 October box 10
Folder 13
1951 November box 10
Folder 14
1951 December box 10
Folder 15
1952 box 10
Folder 16
1956-1957, undated box 10
Clamer, G.H.
1945-19567 foldersbox 10
Folder 1
1945-1946 box 10
Folder 2
1947-1948 box 10
Folder 3
1949 box 10
Folder 4
1950 box 10
Folder 5
1951-1953 box 10
Folder 6
1954-1955 box 10
Folder 7
1956 box 10
Clancy, Edward P.
Undated1 itembox 10
Clark Cooper Company
19461 itembox 10
Clarke, Joseph R.
19141 itembox 10
Clay, J.
1935-19498 itemsbox 10
Clementson, M.K.
19463 itemsbox 10
Clemons, Harry
19422 itemsbox 10
Clevenger, H.L.
19431 itembox 10
Clevenger, S.J., Jr.
1943-19596 foldersbox 11
Folder 1
1943 box 11

Franklin Institute

Folder 2
1944 box 11
Folder 3
1945-1948 box 11
Folder 4
1949-1951 box 11
Folder 5
1952-1954 box 11
Folder 6
1955-1959 box 11
Clews, M. Madison
19493 itemsbox 11
Cline, Mary
19383 itemsbox 11
Clinger, H.
19431 itembox 11
Clipp, Roger W.
1954-19555 itemsbox 11
Clothier, Isaac H., Jr.
19401 itembox 11
Clothier, Morris L.
1939-19426 itemsbox 11
Coade, E.N.
19245 itemsbox 11
Coates, Joseph K.
1948-19564 itemsbox 11
Cobbs, Susan P.
19583 itemsbox 11
Coblentz, William Weber
1951-19553 itemsbox 11
Cockcroft, John D
1956, 19602 itemsbox 11
Coffey, W.C.
19422 itemsbox 11
Coffin, L.A.
19563 itemsbox 11
Coffin, Lewis G.
19482 itemsbox 11
Coffman, L.D.
1921-19229 itemsbox 11
Cohen, Leslie
19532 itemsbox 11
Cohen, Robert S.
19441 itembox 11
Cohn, Byron E.
1949-195212 itemsbox 11
Cohn, George I.
19562 itemsbox 11
Colby, M.Y.
19491 itembox 11
Cole, Leon Jacob
19351 itembox 11
Cole, Lois Dwight
1937-19415 itemsbox 11
Coleman, Warren
19353 itemsbox 11
Collie, C.N.
19573 itemsbox 11
Collins, B.R.T.
19332 itemsbox 11
Collins, George B.
19501 itembox 11
Collins, Margaret W.
19462 itemsbox 11
Collotype Company
19471 itembox 11
Colton, F. Barrows
1949-19523 itemsbox 11
Columbia Transcriptions
1950-195847 itemsbox 11
Columbia University
1921-192810 itemsbox 11

Includes letters of Edward U. Condon, Bergen Davis, Frank D. Fackentha

Columbia University Press
19433 itemsbox 11
Colvin, Amy
19442 itemsbox 11
Comar, C.L.
19302 itemsbox 11
Compton, Arthur H.
1933-19403 foldersbox 11
Folder 1
1933-1936 box 11
Folder 2
1937-1938 box 11
Folder 3
1939-1940 box 11
Compton, Karl T.
1924-19523 foldersbox 11
Folder 1
1924-1934 box 11
Folder 2
1937-1942 box 11
Folder 3
1946-1952 box 11
Conant, James B.
19405 itemsbox 11
Conant, Lloyd V.
19583 itemsbox 11
Condit, Carl W.
19533 itemsbox 11
Condon, Eugene U.
1927-195212 itemsbox 11
Conklin, Edward G.
1935-19423 foldersbox 12

American Philosophical Society

Folder 1
1935-1937 box 12
Folder 2
1938-1939 box 12
Folder 3
1940-1942 box 12
Conley, Patrick
19475 itemsbox 12
Conrad, R.F.
19483 itemsbox 12
Conrad, V.
19263 itemsbox 12
Constantinides, Ph. A
19252 itemsbox 12
Contemporary Club (Philadelphia, Pa.)
19312 itemsbox 12
Conway, Thomas F.
19463 itemsbox 12
Cooke, James Francis
19384 itemsbox 12
Cooksey, Donald
19593 itemsbox 12
Coolidge, William D.
19342 itemsbox 12
Corbett, Harriet Cumming
1954-19574 itemsbox 12
Cornell University
1928-193123 itemsbox 12

Letters Of R. C. Gibbs, Harley Howe, Vladimir Karapetoff, E. H. Kennard, V. E. Peter

Coroniti, S.C.
1951-19523 itemsbox 12
Corr, John E.
19562 itemsbox 12
Correll, Malcolm
19612 itemsbox 12
Corson, Edward M.
1948-195711 itemsbox 12
Corwin, Robert Nelson
19241 itembox 12
Cosinuke, Walter
1943-19465 itemsbox 12
Coulson, Thomas
1946-19535 itemsbox 12
Courtney, Pratt, J.S.
19579 itemsbox 12
Cowie, Dean
1933-193511 itemsbox 12
Cox, Richard T.
1946-19492 itemsbox 12
Crane, A.H.
19581 itembox 12
"Crank" Letters
1926-19385 foldersbox 12
Crenshaw, J.L.
19334 itemsbox 12
Crew, Henry
1920-195026 itemsbox 12
Crew, William H.
19455 itemsbox 12
Crittenden, Miss
Undated1 itembox 12
Cross, Wilbur L.
1925-19388 itemsbox 12
Culler, Vaughan
19552 itemsbox 12
Cummer, Frederick G.
1926-19362 foldersbox 12
Folder 1
1926-1933 box 12

Mortgage to W.F.G. and Mabel Swann

Folder 2
1934-1936 box 12
Cummings, William
19341 itembox 13
Culp, Harvey W.
1953-19548 itemsbox 13
Current Research
19512 itemsbox 13
Cyclotron Specialties Corporation
19461 itembox 13
Czerlinski, George
19582 itemsbox 13
Dahl, G.C.
19331 itembox 13
Dalley, Florence Bartol
19594 itemsbox 13
Danforth, John L.
1943-194636 itemsbox 13

MIT

Danforth, William E.
1932-19596 foldersbox 13
Folder 1
1932-1937 box 13
Folder 2
1938-1946 box 13
Folder 3
1947-1951 box 13
Folder 4
1952 box 13
Folder 5
1953-1954 box 13
Folder 6
1955-1959 box 13
Darby, Hugh Hackland
1932-193416 itemsbox 13
Darling, Hugo
19361 itembox 13
Darrow, Karl K.
1925-19595 foldersbox 13
Folder 1
1925-1935 box 13
Folder 2
1941-1942 box 13
Folder 3
1943-1949 box 13
Folder 4
1950-1952 box 13
Folder 5
1953-1959 box 13
Dashman, Saul
1924-19255 itemsbox 13
Davey, Wheeler, P.
1934-19383 itemsbox 13
Davies, C.E.
19243 itemsbox 13
Davies, Lawrence E.
19361 itembox 13
Davies, W.T.
1945-19467 itemsbox 13
Davis, Charles C.
19472 itemsbox 13
Davis, Don
19573 itemsbox 13
Davis, R.R.
19514 itemsbox 13
Davis, Watson
1937-19526 itemsbox 13
Davisson, C.J.
19352 itemsbox 13