Zebulon Montgomery Pike biographical materials, 1780-1956

Mss.B.P63

Date: 1780-1956 | Size: 0.25 Linear feet

Abstract

Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) was an explorer and soldier, most often remembered two exploratory trips to the newly acquired Louisiana territory. The first of these trips was to the source of the Mississippi River in 1805; the second was to explore the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red Rivers in 1806. Because General James Wilkinson was responsible for organizing Pike's two expeditions, when the conspiracy charges again Aaron Burr implicated Wilkinson, suspicion was, for a short time, also focused on Pike. Pike worked his way up the ranks of the United States Army, becoming a brigadier-general during the War of 1812. He was killed in the Battle of York in Upper Canada (now Toronto) in 1813.

Background note

Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) was an explorer and soldier, most often remembered two exploratory trips to the newly acquired Louisiana territory. The first of these trips was to the source of the Mississippi River in 1805; the second was to explore the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red Rivers in 1806. Because General James Wilkinson was responsible for organizing Pike's two expeditions, when the conspiracy charges again Aaron Burr implicated Wilkinson, suspicion was, for a short time, also focused on Pike. Pike worked his way up the ranks of the United States Army, becoming a brigadier-general during the War of 1812. He was killed in the Battle of York in Upper Canada (now Toronto) in 1813.

Zebulon Montgomery Pike was born in Lamberton (now part of Trenton), New Jersey in 1779. His father was also named Zebulon Montgomery and his mother was Isabella Brown. His father served in the Revolutionary Army under Washington and remained in the Army after the Revolution, eventually reaching the rank of Major. Pike entered the Army early, joining his father's company as a cadet. At the age of twenty he was commissioned a first lieutenant.

In 1805 Pike was chosen by General James Wilkinson to head a company of twenty men to explore the source of the Mississippi River. After the onset of winter, Pike reached what he mistakenly declared the source of the river. In 1806 he was chosen to lead a longer expedition to the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red Rivers. Part of his mission was to reconnoiter the Spanish settlements in New Mexico. After Pike crossed the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1807, Spanish authorities arrested him for crossing their border. Pike acquiesced freely, welcoming the chance to see the territory of Santa Fe and Chihuahua, where he was questioned by the commandante general.

After his return to the United States, Pike found himself under suspicion by some of being part of the Wilkinson-Burr conspiracy to acquire land in the Southwest. Henry Dearborn, the Secretary of State, cleared Pike of all charges related the conspiracy, and Pike continued military duty. He was commissioned major in 1808 and colonel in 1812. When the second war with Great Britain started in 1812, Pike was made brigadier-general. He led the attack on York (now Toronto), Canada in 1813. While the campaign was successful, Pike was killed when a powder magazine exploded. Pike is best remembered for his expeditions to the Southwest, for which his journals have been published in several additions. Several counties are named for him in various states, and Pikes Peak, a mountain in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, is named in his honor.

Scope and content

This collection includes transcripts and photostats of letters, maps, and some original manuscripts collected by W. Eugene Hollon for his biography of Pike, The Lost Pathfinder (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1949). Correspondents include John C. Calhoun, William Clark, Richard Rush, John Sibley, and James Wilkinson. Subjects covered include military authority, escaped slaves, Pike's expeditions, Texas, Aaron Burr and James Wilkinson. Copies of materials from the National Archives, the Chicago Historical Society, and the Missouri Historical Society.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Physical description

51 items, photostats.

51 items, photostats.

Provenance

Presented by W. Eugene Hollon, 1950; accessioned, 1958 (1958 1627ms).

Processing information

Only map is noted.

Bibliography

Hollon, William Eugene, "The Lost Pathfinder, Zebulon Montgomery Pike" (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, c1949).

Early American History Note

The Zebulon Montgomery Pike Biographical Material Collection contains research data on Pike that Eugene Hollon compiled for his biography of Pike. There are some photocopies and transcriptions of correspondence and other primary sources.

Indexing Terms


Genre(s)

  • General Correspondence
  • Maps.
  • Research Records and Reports

Personal Name(s)

  • Calhoun, John C., (John Caldwell), 1782-1850
  • Clark, William, 1770-1838
  • Hollon, W. Eugene, (William Eugene), 1913-
  • Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813
  • Rush, Richard
  • Sibley, John, 1757-1837
  • Wilkinson, James, 1757-1825

Subject(s)

  • Exploration.
  • Explorers.
  • Travel

Collection overview

1780-1956 

collected by W. Eugene Hollan for his biography of Pike, The Lost Pathfinder. D.and printed items. 51 items (typed, original and photostats), 5 photographs, and 19 leaves of printed materials, including 2 maps. Various sizes. See Film 890 for microfilms which came with this collection. Presented by Hollan, grantee, Jan. 1950,and entered in APS Donation Book, p.229,Jan.23,1950. Table of contents.



Detailed Inventory

Papers and material
1780-1956 

collected by W. Eugene Hollan for his biography of Pike, The Lost Pathfinder. D.and printed items. 51 items (typed, original and photostats), 5 photographs, and 19 leaves of printed materials, including 2 maps. Various sizes. See Film 890 for microfilms which came with this collection. Presented by Hollan, grantee, Jan. 1950,and entered in APS Donation Book, p.229,Jan.23,1950. Table of contents.

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Letter to Anthony Wayne
July 21, 1780 

Photostat of A.L.S. 1p.and add.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Military information.

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Letter to William Knox, Philadelphia
Aug. 23, 1792 

Trenton, Photostat of A.L.S. 1p.and add.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Requests material for soldiers.

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Letter to John Mells, Greensville
Dec. 18, 1793 

Greensville, Photostat of L.S. 2p.and add.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning the arrest for court martial of an officer.

United States. Army.
Military documents signed by Z.M. Pike and Zeb[ulo]n Pike
1795-1812 See OS

Photostats of D. 9 leaves. Various sizes. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

Wayne, Anthony, 1745-1796.
Letter to [Zebulon Montgomery] Pike
Sept. 2, 1796 

Detroit, Photostat of L. 1p.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Military orders.

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Letter to Andrew Ellicott
Dec. 31, 1796 

Massac, Photostat of L.S. 1p.and add. (see Z.M.Pike. Papers...) Concerning "his embassy" and hope for its success.

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Receipt to John Wilkins, for military funds
May 9, 1800 

Photostat of D.S. 1p.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Letter to D[avi]d Henley
June 3, 1800 

For Pickering, Photostat of A.L.S. 3p.and end. (see Z.M.Pike. Papers...) Concerning some negroes who have escaped from slavery from the Indians.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:260870/

Mulford, Clarence.
Letter to William Linnard, Philadelphia
July 19, 180511x8-1/2

St. Louis, Typed L. 1p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Business. Expense of Pike's expedition to the source of the Mississippi.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Diary
1806 

ca. Photostats of A.D. 5p.of which 3 are maps and 2 are meteorological data. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

Clark, William, 1770-1838.
Letter to [Henry] Dearborn
May 18, 180711x8-1/2

St. Louis, Typed L. 5p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning the Indian of the mid-West. Refers to Pike. Enc.originally in letter; J.Sibley to S.H.Sibley; June 30, 1807.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Sibley, John, 1757-1837.
Letter to Samuel H. Sibley
June 30, 180711x8-1/2

Natchitoches, Typed L. 4p. Copy. Enc. ( see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Business. Concerning Burr and Wilkinson. Concerning Burr and Wilkinson. Concerning Pikes expedition. Concerning the Indians. For enc., see: W.Clark to H.Dearborn; May 18, 1807.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Fort Bellefontaine, Missouri.
Order book
Aug. 22, 1808 - May 3, 181011x8-1/2

Typed D. 2p. Extracts. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Z.M.Pike.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Receipt for military stores received
Aug. 30, 1809 

New Orleans; Photostat of D.S. 2p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Garrison orders
July 1, 1811 

Baton Rouge, Photostat of A.D. 1p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Garrison orders
1811 

Photostat of D.S.: Z.M. Pike, et al. 6p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

Montero, Bernardino.
Letter to the Governor of Texas, Manuel de Salcedo
Feb. 20, 1812 

Photostat of L.S. 2p. In Spanish. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Pike's expedition to wipe out the bandits.

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Letter to Bernard[i]no Montero
Feb. 26, 1812 

Nachitoches, Photostat of L. 2p. Copy. In Spanish (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Printed in part: Hollon. The Lost Pathfinder; 195.

Montero, Bernardino.
Letter to Manuel de Salcedo
March 1, 1812 

Photostat of L.S. 2p. In Spanish. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Pike and his wish to scour the robbers.

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Letter to James Wilkinson, Washington
March 31, 1812 

Baton Rouge, Photostat of D.S. 1p.and add.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Introduces Lt. King.

Montero, Bernardino.
Letter to the Governor of Texas, Manuel de Salcedo
April 1, 1812 

Nacogdoches, Photostat of L.S. 1p.,end. In Spanish. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Forwards letters by Z.M. Pike, et al.

Montero, Bernardino.
Letter to the Governor of Texas, Manuel de Salcedo
April 1, 1812 

Photostat of L.S. 2p. In Spanish. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Copies a letter from Pike concerning cooperation in getting rid of bandits.

Overton, Walter Hampden, 1788-1845.
Letter to Captain Montero
March 21, 1812 

Nachitoches, Photostat of L.S. 2p. In Spanish. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning the activities of Pike.

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Letter to James Wilkinson, Washington
March 31, 1812 

Baton Rouge, Photostat of D.S. 1p.and add.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Introduces Lt. King.

Salcedo y Salcedo, Nemesio, 1754-1814?.
Letter to the Governor of Texas [Manuel de Salcedo]
May 12, 1812 

Photostat of L.S. 1p. In Spanish. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Pike.

Sibley, John, 1757-1837.
Letter to Major Stoddard
April 2, 181211x8-1/2

Natchitoches, Typed L. 4p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Mexico, Pike, the Indians, and internal affairs of the U.S. Refers to mineralogy. Printed in part: Hollon. The Lost Pathfinder, 196.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Parke, Benjamin, 1777-1835.
Statement of need of Zebulon Pike
Sept. 5, 181811x8-1/2

Typed D. 2p. Certified by Sam. Crane. (see Z.M.Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Oath, declaration of need, and schedule of property
June 12, 182310-1/2x8

Typed D. 3p. Certified: James Dill. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

Dill, James, 1772-1838.
Letter to J[ohn] C. Calhoun, Washington
April, 182410-1/2x8

Lawrenceburg, Ind., Typed L. 1p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Pike's promise of full pay from Jefferson, and his need for funds.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

U.S..
Concerning monies paid to Zebulon Pike from the Revolutionary list
18246x8-1/2

Typed D. 1p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 6x8-1/2

United States.
An act granting pensions to James Barker and Zebulon Pike
March 3, 182510-1/2x8

Washington, Typed D. 1p. Approved: James Monroe. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) ---Typed copy. 5x8-1/2.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
Letter to Richard Rush
July 1, 182810-1/2x8

Lawrenceburg, Ind., Typed L. 2p.,witnessed by James Dill and John Fist. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Forwards documents for relief.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

The Daily Democrat, Doylestown, Penna..
Zebulon M[ontgomery] Pike. A Hero of the War of 1812
Jan. 8, 190611x8-1/2

Typed D. 4p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

The Lawrenceburg Press, Lawrenceburg, Ind..
Concerning Clara Brown Pike, wife of Zebulon Montgomery Pike
Oct. 20, 192714x8-1/2

D. 2p. Mimeographed. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 14x8-1/2

Work projects administration. Louisiana.
Survey of Federal Archives in Louisiana, Book II, (Part 2) Greensburg Land Claims British West Florida
194011x8-1/2

Typed D. 6p. Extracts. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning a land claim referring to Z.M. Pike.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

May, T. R..
Concerning Pike's journal of his trip up the Mississippi, 1805-1806
Sept. 16, 194611x8-1/2

Locust Valley, Typed D. 6p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Pike Family Association.
Letter to [W. Eugene] Hollon
Oct. 16, 194611x8-1/2

A.D.S.: Lilian Pike Packard. 9 leaves. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Z.M. Pike.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Mills, Edwin.
Map of Fort Bellefontaine
19461 map, 21.6 x 35.4 cm

Fort Bellefontaine was the first United States Army post west of the Mississippi River. It was established by General James Wilkinson in 1804.

Goldmann, Sidney, 1903-.
Letter to [W. Eu]gene Hollon, Norman, Oklahoma
Feb. 13, 194711x8-1/2

Trenton, Typed D.S. 2p.,end. (see Z.M.Pike. Papers...) Concerning Z.M.Pike's ancestors in New Jersey.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Evans, David R..
Letter to [W. Eu]gene Hollon, Norman, Oklahoma
Feb. 25, 194710-1/2x7

Somerville, N.J., Typed L.S. 2p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning the location of Zebulon Pike's birth.

General physical description: 10-1/2x7

Missouri Historical Society.
Letter to W. E[ugene] Hollon, Norman, Oklahoma
May 22, 194711x8-1/2

St. Louis, Typed L.S.: Brenda R. Gieseker, Librarian 1p.,end. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Concerning Z.M.Pike material in the manuscript collection.

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Mills, Edwin W..
Pike's expedition up the Osage, 1806
April 29, 195611x8-1/2

Typed D.S. 26p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Dill, James, 1772-1838.
Statement concerning Zebulon Pike's request for relief
Undated10-1/2x8

Lawrenceburg, Ind., [ca.1824]. Typed D. 2p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

Hollon, W. Eugene (William Eugene), 1913-.
List of issues of the Weekly Chronicle of Natchez
Undated11x8-1/2

Miss., concerning Z.M.Pike. Typed D. 1p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Hollon, W. Eugene (William Eugene), 1913-.
List of Letters from W. C. C. Claiborne's letterbooks in which Zebulon M. Pike is mentioned
Undated11x8-1/2

Typed D. 1p. (see Z.M. Pike. papers...)

General physical description: 11x8-1/2

Pike, Zebulon, 1751-1834.
List of children of Zebulon and Isabel Brown Pike
Undated 

Photostat of D. 1p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...) Lists Z.M. Pike among them.

Pike, Zebulon Montgomery, 1779-1813.
Genealogical material
Undated11x8-1/2

D. 6p. (see Z.M. Pike. Papers...)

General physical description: 11x8-1/2