Raymond Pearl Papers

Mss.B.P312

Date: 1895-1946 | Size: 28.5 Linear feet

Abstract

Raymond Pearl spent the majority of his academic career (1918-1940) at Johns Hopkins University, where he was Professor of Biometry and Vital Statistics and Director of the Institute of Biological Research. Founder of the Quarterly Review of Biology and Human Biology, he made significant contributions in the areas of biology, genetics, eugenics, and statistics. The Pearl Papers includes correspondence as well as notebooks, scrapbooks, diplomas, photographs, and 33 volumes of diaries. There is significant correspondence with his wife, Maud (ca. 500 letters), and mother, Ida May (ca. 300 letters), particularly for the years 1895-1934. Of special note is Pearl's correspondence with his friend, colleague, and fellow Baltimoreian, H. L. Mencken (ca. 500 letters). The collection contains important information on the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, The Baltimore Sun, the Birth Control Federation of America, Dartmouth College, the International Institute of Statistics, Johns Hopkins University, and the National Academy of Sciences.

Background note

An early and influential advocate for the importation of statistics into biological analysis, Raymond Pearl was a pioneer in American population biology and ecology. The son of Frank Pearl, a grocery clerk and shoe factory foreman, and Ida May McDuffee, Pearl attended Dartmouth College (A.B., 1899) and the University of Michigan (Ph.D., 1902). Like many students of his generation, Pearl traveled abroad after receiving his doctorate to strengthen his education, studying first at the University of Leipzig in 1905, and then under Karl Pearson at University College London (1905-1906). It was Pearson who quickened Pearl's interests in quantitative analysis and fostered his first efforts to apply statistics to population genetics. He married Maud Mary Dewitt, a fellow student at Michigan, and long his collaborator, in 1903.

Pearl's first academic appointments upon returning to the States were as an instructor of zoology at the University of Pennsylvania (1906-1907) and as chair of the Department of Biology at the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station (1907-1918). Befitting his position in Maine, Pearl was engaged primarily in applied research in the genetics of poultry and cattle. Through studies aimed at increasing the productivity of egg-laying in chickens, he turned from an analysis of the inheritance of individual traits to patterns of inheritance in populations. Recognizing, as Mendelian theory predicted, that individuals often did not express the same traits as their parents, Pearl began to study population-level characteristics such as birth rate, death rate, and population size, and to reconceptualize the genetic and environmental dynamics of evolutionary change. His work took him variously into a reanalysis of Malthus' predictions on population density and into direct conflict with the tendencies of much eugenic research to focus on individual traits and individual couples. By 1915, his reputation had grown widely enough in scientific circles to merit election to the American Philosophical Society and, in 1916, to the National Academy of Sciences.

Leaving Maine to become Professor of Biometry at Johns Hopkins in 1918, Pearl entered into the most productive period of his career. At Hopkins, where he served variously as Professor of Biology (1923-1940) and as statistician at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (1919-1935), Pearl turned a statistical eye toward the dynamics of human populations, producing remarkably accurate and durable estimates of changes in world population based upon the best-guess estimates for birth rate and longevity. More controversially, based upon U.S. Census data from 1920, he and Lowell J. Reed theorized that the logistic (sigmoidal) curve was in effect a law of nature describing population growth: after a slow initial period of expansion, populations enter a phase of exponential growth until the they reach the carrying capacity of the environment and level off. Although recognized as a useful heuristic for exploring population dynamics, Pearl's aggressive promotion of the logistic curve and his truculence in its defence alienated many of his colleagues. In other research, Pearl experimented with the factors influencing population dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster, turned to estimates of life expectancy based upon occupation and personal habits, and entered into various statistical aspects of reproductive behavior. An inveterate opponent of most eugenic policies, and critic of eugenic research, he was nevertheless a strong and vocal supporter of birth control and population planning.

Using funds provided by the Rockefeller Foundation, Pearl established the Institute for Biological Research at Johns Hopkins in 1925, heading it throughout its five year existence. He was also active in numerous professional organizations, serving as president of the International Union for Scientific Investigation of Population Problems (1928-1931), the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (1934-1936), and the American Statistical Association (1939),and helping to found and edit the Quarterly Review of Biology in 1926 and Human Biology in 1929. An agile and prolific writer, Pearl wrote 17 books and nearly 700 articles during his career on a extraordinary range of subjects.

Scope and content

A major resource for study of American biometry in the first half of the 20th century, the Pearl Papers contain 14 linear feet of the professional correspondence of Raymond Pearl, longtime professor at Johns Hopkins University, 1.5 linear feet of correspondence with his mother, and one linear foot of letters from Pearl to his wife Maud, concentrated in the period before their marriage, 1897-1899. The Pearl Papers are a rich resource for study of the development of population genetics and population biology during the 1920s and 1930s, as well as biological statistics and biometry, and they contain valuable information on both eugenics and birth control.

The collection is divided into six series:

Series ICorrespondence, 1895-194031 boxes; 15.5 linear feet
Series IIFamily Correspondence, 1895-1946 5 boxes, 2.5 linear foot
Series IIIWorks by Pearl, 1900-19413 boxes; 1.5 linear feet
Series IVScrapbooks, Diaries and Norebooks, 1902-194018 boxes.; 9 linear feet
Series VPhotographs, 1897-194015 items, 0.25 linear feet
Series VICertificates, 1903-19402 folders; 0.25 linear feet

Arrangement

Arrangement is for the Reader Copies and Approved for Reader Use materials.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Restrictions

Restrictions on Use:

Correspondence from H.L. Mencken may not be consulted without permission of Mencken's estate.

Provenance

Majority of papers acquired, 1973. Some family correspondence donated by Raymond Pearl's granddaughter, Penelope Jencks, sculptor and daughter of Ruth DeWitt Pearl Jencks, 2012 (Accession M2012-13).

Preferred citation

Cite as: Raymond Pearl Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Other finding aids

The printed version of Bentley Glass' A Guide to the Genetics Collections of the American Philosophical Society contains another biography of Pearl and a further description of the Pearl Papers.

Separated material

Photographs are housed with graphic materials.

Related material

A significant quantity of Pearl correspondence appears in the papers of Charles B. Davenport (239 items) and Herbert Spencer Jennings (278 items).

Bibliography

There is a biographical memoir in APS Year Book 1940.

African American History Note

Pearl's opposition to eugenics earned him both friends and adversaries (most notable among the latter, E. M. East), as reflected throughout the Pearl papers. His correspondence with East, Herbert Spencer Jennings, Karl Pearson, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Ira Jewell Williams, Edwin B. Wilson, F. A. E. Crew, the Rockefeller Institute, and William T. Howard (among others) touches frequently on issues of genetics, eugenics, race, and human evolution. The correspondence with the N.A.A.C.P. comprises three folders of materials for the years 1927-1936, primarily concerning a study of Harlem Hospital.

Physiology, Biochemistry, and Biophysics Note

AuthorFormatDateLanguage
Lillie, Frank Rattray, 1870-1947Correspondence (13 items)1902, 1920-1939English
Loeb, Jacques, 1859-1924Correspondence (24 items)1900-1923English

Genetics Note

AuthorFormatDate
Adelmann, Howard B.Correspondence (23 items)1932-1936
Alpatov, Vladimir VladimirovichCorrespondence (52 items)1926-1940
Alvarez, Walter C.Correspondence (40 items)1925-1942
American Association of Physical AnthropologistsRecords (8 folders)1937-1940
American Scientific Congress. Eighth CongressRecords (6 folders)1939-1940
American Statistical AssociationRecords (4 folders)1921-1925
Ames, Joseph S.Correspondence (22 items)1926-1932
Association against the Prohibiton AmendmentCorrespondence (26 items)1922-1930
Association for the Defense of the ConstitutionCorrespondence (2 folders)1935-1936
Baily, Joshua L., Jr.Correspondence (36 items)1926-1940
Baltimore SunCorrespondence (46 items)1928-1939
Bateson, William N.Correspondence (21 items)1905-1924
Bell, James F.Correspondence (11 folders)1919-1939
Berkson, JosephCorrespondence (4 folders)1926-1940
Bernard, LeonCorrespondence (66 items)1928-1931
Biological AbstractsCorrespondence (71 items)1925-1938
Birth Control Federation of AmericaCorrespondence (3 folders)1931-1940
Campbell, James A.Correspondence (76 items)1906-1940
Clark, George G.Correspondence (34 items)1913-1929
Cobb, W. MontagueCorrespondence (37 items)1937-1940
Cole, Leon JacobCorrespondence (230 items)1900-1929
Cox, Eugene A.Correspondence (46 items)1929-1940
Crew, Francis Albert EleyCorrespondence (51 items)1921-1938
Dartmouth CollegeCorrespondence (2 folders)1933-1940
Darwin, LeonardCorrespondence (13 items)1918-1924
DeKruif, Paul H.Correspondence (102 items)1913-1940
DePorte, Joseph V.Correspondence (52 items)1925-1940
DialCorrespondence (35 items)1904-1920
East, Edward MurrayCorrespondence (270 items)1911-1931
Embree, Edwin R.Correspondence (167 items)1924-1930
Encyclopedia BritannicaCorrespondence (2 folders)1925-1927
Fisher, ArneCorrespondence (76 items)1925-1939
Friede-Andreeff, MargaretCorrespondence (49 items)1909-1928
Gaskell, AugustaCorrespondence (44 items)1928-1939
Gause, Georgii FrantsevitchCorrespondence (37 items)1930-1941
Gini, CorradoCorrespondence (124 items)1927-1931
Gowen, John W.Correspondence (67 items)1930-1940
Greenwood, MajorCorrespondence (506 items)1921-1944
Harrison, Ross GranvilleCorrespondence (133 items)1916-1941
Henderson, Lawrence J.Correspondence (279 items)1914-1940
Hoover, HerbertCorrespondence (21 items)1917-1940
Howard, William T.Correspondence (103 items)1919-1939
Huhn, Rudolf vonCorrespondence (58 items)1919-1929
Hurst, FannieCorrespondence (46 items)1923-1934
Indiana UniversityCorrespondence (61 items)1937-1940
International Institute of StatisticsRecords (249 items)1937-1940
International Union for the Scientific Investigation of Population ProblemsCorrespondence (398 items)1925-1939
Jackson, Stuart W.Correspondence (56 items)1934-1939
Jennings, Herbert SpencerCorrespondence (249 items)1899-1929
Johns Hopkins UniversityCorrespondence (55 items)1919-1929
Jones, BassettCorrespondence (105 items)1932-1940
Kelly, Fred C.Correspondence (124 items)1919-1940
LeBlanc, Thomas J.Correspondence (60 items)1925-1933
Lotka, Alfred J.Correspondence (318 items)1921-1940
Mallet, Sir BernardCorrespondence (333 items)1927-1931
Mencken, Henry LouisCorrespondence (509 items)1923-1948
Morgan, Thomas HuntCorrespondence (64 items)1911-1931
National Academy of SciencesCorrespondence (135 items)1919-1924
National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleCorrespondence (85 items)1927-1933
National Research CouncilCorrespondence (57 items)1923-1925
Pearl, Ida May McDuffeeCorrespondence (138 items)1895-1934
Pearl, Maud Mary DeWittCorrespondence (527 items)1901-1929
Pearl, PenelopeCorrespondence (40 items)1930-1942
Pearl, Raymond -- Aims and problems of the Department of Biology and their developmentManuscripts (1 folder)1935
Pearl, Raymond -- DiariesDiaries (44 volumes)1902-1940
Pearl, Raymond -- Laboratory notebooksNotebooks (2 volumes)1930-1931
Pearl, RaymondScrapbooks (10 volumes)1919-1940
Pearson, KarlCorrespondence (141 items)1901-1937
Population Association of AmericaCorrespondence (61 items)1934-1936
Quarterly Review of BiologyCorrespondence (47 items)1927-1940
Rockefeller FoundationCorrespondence (55 items)1930-1936
Rockefeller Institute of Medical ResearchCorrespondence (74 items)1931-1934
Russell, Edward StuartCorrespondence (64 items)1934-1944
Saint John's CollegeCorrespondence (229 items)1928-1936
Sanger, MargaretCorrespondence (390 items)1921-1935
Social Science Research CouncilCorrespondence (132 items)1928-1930
Social Science Research Council. Advisory Committee on PopulationCorrespondence (36 items)1928-1930
Stefansson, VilhjalmurCorrespondence (299 items)1919-1939
Surface, Frank M.Correspondence (51 items)1910-1923
Sweeney, James ShirleyCorrespondence (67 items)1923-1932
Thomas, Charles C.Correspondence (156 items)1927-1932
Walcott, Frederic C.Correspondence (63 items)1919-1938
Welch, William H.Correspondence (141 items)1916-1932
Wheeler, William MortonCorrespondence (243 items)1910-1937
Willcox, Walter F.Correspondence (158 items)1922-1940
Williams, Ira Jewell, Jr.Correspondence (143 items)1925-1941
Wilson, Edwin BidwellCorrespondence (242 items)1922-1936
Wing, Leonard W.Correspondence (45 items)1939
Winsor, Charles P.Correspondence (66 items)1926-1936
Wislocki, George B.Correspondence (54 items)1931-1940
Woods, Charles D.Correspondence (110 items)1906-1925
Yerkes, Robert M.Correspondence (86 items)1903-1929
Yule, George UdnyCorrespondence (155 items)1903-1944

Indexing Terms


Corporate Name(s)

  • American Association of Physical Anthropologists
  • Baltimore Sun
  • Birth Control Federation of America
  • Dartmouth College
  • International Statistical Institute.
  • National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
  • The Quarterly Review of Biology

Genre(s)

  • Diaries.

Personal Name(s)

  • Bell, James F.
  • Berkson, Joseph, 1899-
  • Bernard, Léon
  • Campbell, James A.
  • Cox, Eugene A.
  • East, Edward M. (Edward Murray), 1879-1938
  • Embree, Edwin R. (Edwin Rogers), 1883-1950
  • Fisher, Arne
  • Gini, Corrado, 1884-
  • Greenwood, Major, 1880-
  • Harrison, Ross G. (Ross Granville), 1870-1959
  • Jones, Bassett, 1877-1960
  • Mallet, Bernard, Sir
  • Mencken, H. L. (Henry Louis), 1880-1956
  • Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 1866-1945
  • Pearl, Ida May McDuffee
  • Pearl, Maud Mary DeWitt
  • Pearl, Raymond, 1879-1940
  • Pearson, Karl, 1857-1936
  • Ritter, William Emerson, 1856-1944
  • Russell, E. S. (Edward Stuart), 1887-1954
  • Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966
  • Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962
  • Sweeney, James Shirley, 1896-
  • Thomas, Charles C., 1925-
  • Walcott, Frederic Collin, 1869-1949
  • Wheeler, William Morton, 1865-1937
  • Willcox, Walter Francis, 1861-1964
  • Wilson, Edwin Bidwell, 1879-1964
  • Yerkes, Robert Mearns, 1876-1956
  • Yule, G. Udny (George Udny), 1871-1951

Subject(s)

  • Biology
  • Biology -- Periodicals
  • Biology publishing
  • Biology, genetics, eugenics
  • Biometry
  • Birth control.
  • Culture, community, organizations
  • Eugenics
  • Evolution (Biology)
  • Genetics
  • Human evolution
  • Population biology
  • Race, race relations, racism
  • Science publishing.
  • Social conditions, social advocacy, social reform
  • Statistics
  • World War, 1914-1918

Collection overview

1895-1940 box 1-31

Reflecting Pearl's interests in the biometric study of human populations, the collection includes abundant correspondence relating to statistics, human evolution, demography, longevity, and birth control, but the topics covered in correspondence are very diverse. Among the most prolific correspondents were his antagonist, E. M. East (1879-1938), Leon J. Cole (b. 1877), Herbert Spencer Jennings (1868-1947), Alfred J. Lotka (1880-1949), Major Greenwood (b. 1880), T.H. Morgan, Margaret Sanger (1879-1966), Vilhjalmur Stefansson (1879-1962), William Henry Welch (1850-1934), E. B. Wilson, William Morton Wheeler (1865-1937), Corado Gini (b. 1881), Karl Pearson (1857-1936), Bernard Mallet (1859-1932), Robert Mearns Yerkes (1876-1956), and George Udny Yule (b.1871). The series of letters between Pearl and his friend H. L. Mencken (1880-1956), including several written at the time of the Scopes "monkey trial," are of particular interest.

Pearl's opposition to eugenics earned him both friends and adversaries (most notable among the latter, E.M. East), as reflected throughout the collection. His correspondence with East and Cole, Jennings, Pearson, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, I.J. Williams, E.B. Wilson, F.A.E. Crew, the Rockefeller Institute, and W.T. Howard (among others) touches frequently on issues of genetics, eugenics, race, and human evolution.

1895-1946 box 31-35

Correspondence to his mother, Ida May, his wife, Maud, and a small number of letters to family and friends. Plus, letters to his daughter, Penelope Pearl. Includes postcards written to Raymond Pearl from scientists all over Europe.

1900-1941 box 36-38

Primarily research notes, with some originals of printed works.

1902-1940 box 39-56

Diaries, manuscripts, notebooks, scrapbooks, and scientific "commonplace books". The diaries consist of very brief daily entries with relatively little detail.

1897-19401 folderbox 57
Originals can be found in the oversize flat-file drawers.

Miscellaneous formal and informal photographs depicting Pearl and his associates throughout his career. In addition to a few portraits of Pearl there is an image of researchers at the Maine Biological Laboratory, 1897, and one taken at the dinner at the 10th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists held in honor of the 70th birthday of Ales Hrdlicka.

1903-1940, n.d.2 foldersbox 57
Originals can be found in the oversize flat-file drawers.


Detailed Inventory

Series I. Correspondence
1895-1940 box 1-31

Reflecting Pearl's interests in the biometric study of human populations, the collection includes abundant correspondence relating to statistics, human evolution, demography, longevity, and birth control, but the topics covered in correspondence are very diverse. Among the most prolific correspondents were his antagonist, E. M. East (1879-1938), Leon J. Cole (b. 1877), Herbert Spencer Jennings (1868-1947), Alfred J. Lotka (1880-1949), Major Greenwood (b. 1880), T.H. Morgan, Margaret Sanger (1879-1966), Vilhjalmur Stefansson (1879-1962), William Henry Welch (1850-1934), E. B. Wilson, William Morton Wheeler (1865-1937), Corado Gini (b. 1881), Karl Pearson (1857-1936), Bernard Mallet (1859-1932), Robert Mearns Yerkes (1876-1956), and George Udny Yule (b.1871). The series of letters between Pearl and his friend H. L. Mencken (1880-1956), including several written at the time of the Scopes "monkey trial," are of particular interest.

Pearl's opposition to eugenics earned him both friends and adversaries (most notable among the latter, E.M. East), as reflected throughout the collection. His correspondence with East and Cole, Jennings, Pearson, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, I.J. Williams, E.B. Wilson, F.A.E. Crew, the Rockefeller Institute, and W.T. Howard (among others) touches frequently on issues of genetics, eugenics, race, and human evolution.

Abbott, E.A.
1909 box 1
Abel, J.J.
1926 box 1
Acta Biotheoretica
1935-1938 box 1
Adams, Charles C.
1909 box 1
Adams, Samuel Hopkins
1927, 1940 box 1
Adams, Thomas
1926 box 1
Adelmann, Howard B.
1932-1936 box 1
Agar, W.E.
1927, 1937-1938 box 1
Allard & Sons, Printers
1902 box 1
Allee, W.C.
1940 box 1
Allen, Bennet M.
1937 box 1
Allen, Glover M.
1911 box 1
Alpatov, W.W.
1926-19402 foldersbox 1

Vladimir Vladimirovich

Alvarez, Walter C.
1925-19422 foldersbox 1
American Adding Machine Company
1903 box 1
American Association for the Advancement of Science
1925 box 1

Committee of One Hundred

American Association of Physical Anthropologists
1937-19408 foldersbox 1
American Birth Control League, Inc.
1926 box 1
American Book Company
1938 box 1
American Breeders' Association
1910 box 1
American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom
1939-1940 box 1
American Express Company
1903 box 1
American Journal of Botany
1926-1937 box 1
American Journal of Science
  box 1
American Medical Association
1925-1936 box 1
American Physicians' Art Association
1938 box 1
American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists
1937 box 1
American Statistical Association
1921-19254 foldersbox 1
Ames, Joseph S.
1926-1932 box 1
Andrews, E.A.
1929-1937 box 1
Andrews, Eliza Frances
1921 box 1
Andrews, James M.
1936-1940 box 1
Andrews, Justin
1935 box 1
Angon, J.B.
1903-1904 box 1
Ann Arbor Printing Company
1902 box 1
Annals of Eugenics
1938 box 1
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences
1937 box 2
Annual Review of Biochemistry
1938 box 2
Anthonisen, Margaret R.
1938 box 2
Anthropologischer Anzeiger
1926-1936 box 2
Appel, Fred and Elizabeth
1940 box 2
Ark, P.A.
1939 box 2
Armsty, H.P.
1917 box 2
Association Against the Prohibition Amendment
1922-1930 box 2
Association for the Defense of the Constitution
1935-19362 foldersbox 2
Athenaeum of London
1927-1931 box 2
Atkinson, Reginald
1920 box 2
Atterbury, Howard
1935, 1940 box 2
Atwood, William T.
1906 box 2
Austrian, Charles R.
1939 box 2
Aznoe's National Physicians' Exchange
1928-1929 box 2
Bachelder, Frank S.
1900 box 2
Bachmetjen, P.
1909 box 2
Bacon, Clara L.
1940 box 2
Baerg, W.J.
1928-1936 box 2
Baetjer, Edward G.
1935 box 2
Bailey, Frank W.
1929 box 2
Bailey, Irving W.
1924-1937 box 2
Baily, Joshua L., Jr.
1926-1940 box 2
Baily, Ruth Ingersoll
1940 box 2
Baker, Lawrence H.
1926-1928 box 2
Baker, Mary W.
1934 box 2
Balamuth, William
1938-1940 box 2
Balfour, Andrew
1928 box 2
Balinsky, B.I.
1937 box 2
Baltimore Sun
1928-19392 foldersbox 2
Barbour, Thomas
1929-1939 box 2
Bardeen, Charles R.
1926 box 2
Barker, Lewellys F.
1940 box 2
Barnard, Chester I.
1939 box 2
Barr, Mark W.
1938-1939 box 2
Barstow, ___
1901 box 2
Bateson, William
1905-1927 box 2
Bauer, Julius
1923-1924 box 2
Bauernschmidt, Marie O. von H.
1940 box 2
Baür, Erwin
1914-1928 box 2
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company
1902 box 2
Bayard, E.S.
1921 box 2
Beal, Kenneth
1920-1929 box 2
Beardsley, E.J.G.
1925, 1929 box 2
Becking, L.B.
1926 box 2
Beckwith, Cora J.
1920 box 2
Beecher, Peck and Lewis
1902 box 2
Bell, Alexander Graham
1903-1922 box 2
Bell, Ford
1934 box 2
Bell, James F.
1919-193911 foldersbox 2-3
Bell, W. Blan
1910 box 3
Bellock, ___
Undated box 3
Bénézet, Louis P.
1940 box 3
Berkson, Joseph
1926-19404 foldersbox 3
Bernard, Leon
1928-19313 foldersbox 3
Bertalanffy, Ludwig von
1937-1938 box 3
Bingley, George A.
1936 box 3
Biodynamica
1939 box 3
Biological Abstracts
1925-19382 foldersbox 3
Biological Bulletin
1925-1930 box 3
Birth Control Federation of America
1930-19403 foldersbox 3
Bissonnette, T. Hume
1935-1936 box 3
Bittner, John J.
1936 box 3
Blacker, C.P.
1937 box 3
Blakeslee, A.F.
1938-1940 box 3
Bliss, Sidney
1926 box 3
Bloodgood, Joseph Colt
1925-1930 box 4
Boas, Franz
1940 box 4
Bonnell, Robert O.
1938 box 4
Book Reviews
1939-1940 box 4
Boquet, D.
1928 box 4
Bordley, John Earle
1934 box 4
Borges Vieire, F.
1920 box 4
Boring, Alice M.
1920-1929 box 4
Boring, Edwin G.
1922 box 4
Boston Society of Natural History
1908 box 4
Boudreau, Frank G.
1940 box 4
Bowerman, Walter G.
1939-1941 box 4
Bowman, Isaiah
1925-1941 box 4
Boys, C.V.
1937 box 4
Breder, C.M., Jr.
1932-1935 box 4
Brekhus, Peter J.
1939 box 4
Bridges, Calvin M.
1925 box 4
Bridgman, Frederick J.
1923 box 4
Brink, R.A.
1929 box 4
Brinton Associates
1940 box 4
British Association for the Advancement of Science
1937 box 4
Britton, S.W.
1940 box 4
Bromley, Dorothy Dunbar
1937-1938 box 4
Brooks, S.C.
1927 box 4
Brothers of the Book
1913 box 4
Brown, Edward
1918 box 4
Brown, Lawrason
1919-1920 box 4
Browne, Francis F.
1910 box 4
Brues, C.T.
1929 box 4
Brun, B. Lucien
1927, 1938 box 4
Buchholz, H.E.
1929-1934 box 4
Buck, Walter H.
1931-1940 box 4
Buck, Mrs. Walter H.
1933 box 4
Bulletin d'Histologie Appliquée
1926 box 4
Bumpus, ___
1901 box 4
Bunn, Edward B.
1940 box 4
Burden, Henry
1920 box 4
Bureau Der Medinischen Refgratenblätter
1926-1941 box 4
Burnett, Paul M.
1936 box 4
Burr, H.S.
1933-1935 box 4
Burrows, J.C.
1902-1903 box 4
Burrows, Montrose T.
1940 box 4
Burrows, William
1937-1939 box 4
Butschli, Otto
1905 box 4
Buxton, P.A.
1928-1937 box 4
Cairns, Huntington
1935-1939 box 4
Campbell, James A.
1906-19402 foldersbox 4
Cannon, Walter B.
1921 box 4
Carey, Henry R.
1929 box 4
Carey, James, 3rd
1941 box 4
Carlton, Newcomb
1934-1935 box 4
Carnegie Institution of Washington
1903-1906 box 4
Carr, A.F., Jr.
1936 box 4
Carrel, Alexis
1920-1935 box 4
Carty, John J.
1926 box 4
Caspari, Ernst
1940-1941 box 4
Castle, William E.
1913-1914 box 4
Cathcart, Maxwell
Undated box 4
Catlin, G.E.G.
1926 box 4
Cattell, J. McKeen
1913-1921 box 4
Cattell, R.B.
1940 box 4
Caxton Printers, Limited
1938 box 4
Chaddock, Robert E.
1927-1928 box 4
Chapman, Ross McC.
1932 box 4
Chapman, V.J.
1935 box 4
Charles, Enid
1939 box 4
Charo, Walter J.
1939 box 4
Chemisches Zentralblatt
1938 box 4
Cheslock, Louis
1937-1940 box 4
Chesney, Alan M.
1940 box 4
Chester, Kenneth Starr
1932-1939 box 5
Chicago Record-Herald
1901-1903 box 5
Chicago Writing Machine Company
1902 box 5
Chickering, A.M.
1929 box 5
Child, ___
1903 box 5
China Journal
1926-1927 box 5
Chinard, Gilbert
1936-1938 box 5
Chittenden, F.H.
1901 box 5
Chronica Botanica
1935-1939 box 5
Chugerman, Samuel
1940 box 5
Claoné, C.
1936 box 5
Clark, B. Preston
1938 box 5
Clark, George G.
1913-193434 itemsbox 5
Clark, Hubert Lyman
1940 box 5
Clark, Janet H.
1940 box 5
Clarke, Francis
1923-1924 box 5
Clarke, George L.
1938-1939 box 5
Cleland, Ralph E.
1946 box 5
Clendening, Logan
1928 box 5
Cleveland, Richard F.
1931 box 5
Clinical Club
1933-1940 box 5
Close, C.F.
1936 box 5
Cobb, W. Montague
1937-194037 itemsbox 5
Colby, John C.
1920 box 5
Cole, H.N.
1907 box 5
Cole, Leon Jacob
1900-19299 foldersbox 5
Collins, James H.
1920, 1927-1929 box 5
Colton, Harold S.
1927-1928 box 5
Comitate Italiano
1937 box 5
Commission on Medical Education
1926-1928 box 5
Commonwealth Fund
1926 box 5
Compton, Karl T.
1929 box 5
Concilium Bibliographicum
1902 box 5
Conklin, Edwin G.
1900-1940 box 5
Connolly, Helen S.
1929 box 5
Conseil International pour L'Exploration de la Mer
1939 box 5
Cook, Walter W.
1930 box 5
Cook, William W.
1927 box 5
Coolidge, Calvin
1925 box 5
Cooper, Charles G.
1905-1906 box 5
Cooper Union Forum
1926-1927 box 5
Cornelius, James T.
1920-1921 box 6
Cornell University
1927-1928 box 6
Correns, C.
1907 box 6
Cowdry, E.V.
1926-1929 box 6
Cox, Eugene A.
1929-19402 foldersbox 6
Craft, W.A.
1937-1938 box 6
Crampton, C. Ward
1925 box 6
Crank Letters
1925-1927 box 6
Crawford, Stanton C.
1933 box 6
Creaser, C.W.
1939 box 6
Crew, F.A.E.
1921-19382 foldersbox 6
Crittenden, A.R.
1903 box 6
Cross, Wilbur
1931-1934 box 6
Crowe, Robert S.
1940 box 6
Crum, X.X.
1921 box 6
Cumings, E.R.
1902 box 6
Cummins, Charles A.
1934 box 6
Cushing, Harvey
1930 box 6
Cutter, Ruth M.
1922-1924 box 6
Dabney, William M.
1928 box 6
Daland, Ernest M.
1929 box 6
Dalrymple-Champneys, Sir Weldon
1943 box 6
Damon, S.R.
1927 box 6
D'Amour, Fred E.
1934-1936 box 6
Dana, Charles L.
1921 box 6
Dana, John Cotton
1928 box 6
Danchakoff, Vera
1929 box 6
Daniel, J. Frank
1936-1937 box 6
Darbishire, Arthur Duckenfield
1910 box 6
Darlington, P.J., Jr.
1937 box 6
Dartmouth College
1933-19443 foldersbox 6
Darwin, Leonard
1918-192413 itemsbox 6
Daubenmire, R.F.
1937-1938 box 6
Davenport, Charles B.
1903-1929 box 6
Davies, G.R.
1927 box 6
Davis, D.J.
1937-1938 box 6
Davis, David E.
1941 box 6
Davis, Donald W.
1927 box 6
Davis, H. Jackson
1930 box 6
Davis, Janover W.
1940 box 6
Davis, Katherine Bement
1927 box 6
Davis, Watson
1929 box 6
Day, Arthur L.
1916-1936 box 6
Day, Clarence A.
1927 box 6
Dead Letter Office
1901 box 6
Deale, J.E.
1925 box 6
Dean, A.S.
1930 box 6
Deason, Hilary J.
1928 box 6
Deetjen, Chr.
1927, 1931 box 6
Deevey, Edward S., Jr.
1941 box 6
DeKruif, Paul H.
1913-19402 foldersbox 6
Deom, Georges
1926 box 6
DePorte, J.V.
1925-194052 itemsbox 7
Derby, ___
1901 box 7
Derick, R.A.
1926 box 7
DeSayda, S.D.
1928 box 7
Detwiler, Margaret
1925 box 7
Detwiler, S.R.
1929-1939 box 7
Deuber, Carl G.
1925-1928 box 7
Deute, Arthur H.
1939-1940 box 7
Deutsche Aerzte-Zeitung
1928-1930 box 7
Dhar, N.R.
1926-1931 box 7
Dial (editor)
1904-192035 itemsbox 7
Dickerson, Albert I.
1940-1941 box 7
Dickinson, Robert L.
1925-1928 box 7
Dittus, C.W.
1940 box 7
Doggett, Marguerite V.
1939 box 7
Dohme, Alfred R.L.
1940 box 7
Dohrn, Anton
1905 box 7
Donaldson, Emma
1940, undated box 7
Donaldson, Henry H.
1904-1923 box 7
Dorfman, Joseph
1929-1930 box 7
Dorr, A.W.
1904 box 7
Drake University
1901 box 7
Driesch, Hans
1923 box 7
Dublin, Louis I.
1926-1930 box 7
Duerden, J.E.
1905-1909 box 7
Dufrenoy, Jean
1937-1938 box 7
Dunbar, Frances
1903-1905 box 7
Duncker, Georg
1901 box 7
Dunkerly, J.S.
1927 box 7
Dunn, Gano
1924 box 7
Dunn, Halbert L.
1923 box 7
Dunn, Leslie Clarence
1930 box 7
DuPont, Pierre S.
1931 box 7
Earle, Swepson
1932 box 7
Earp, J. Rosslyn
1926-1928 box 7
East, E. M.
1911-19319 foldersbox 7

Edward Murray

Eckels, Richard P.
1938 box 7
Edge, P. Granville
1933-1939 box 7
Edgeworth, F. B.
1918 box 7
Edinger, Tilly
1941 box 7
Edsall, David L.
1929 box 7
Ehrenfest, Hugo
1926-1936 box 7
Eiger, Yeshivah Rabbi Akibah
1925 box 7
Eighth American Scientific Congress
1939-19406 foldersbox 8
Elliott, L.B.
1901-1903 box 8
Ellis, Havelock
1927 box 8
Ellis, T.A.
1920-1921 box 8
Embree, Edwin R.
1924-19305 foldersbox 8
Emerson, C.F.
1902, 1922 box 8
Emerson, Haven
1927-1930 box 8
Emerson, Natt W.
1930 box 8
Emerson, R.A.
1922-1937 box 8
Emslie, Raymond G.
1930 box 8
Encyclopaedia Britannica
1925-19272 foldersbox 8
Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences
1928-1930 box 8
Encyclopedie Francaise
1937 box 8
Engelmann, Wilhelm
1926 box 8
Enoch Pratt Library
1940 box 8
Enriques, Federigo
1911 box 8
Enriques, Paolo
1909 box 8
Epstein, H.
1941 box 8
Eugenics Congress
1912 box 8

Newspaper clippings

Evans, Ifor Leslie
1925 box 8
Evans, York
  box 8
Ewer, Mrs. R.F.
1939 box 8
Fairchild, David
1908, 1940 box 8
Fairchild, H.P.
1925 box 8
Fairchild, Milton
1933 box 8
Farrar and Rinehart, Inc.
1938 box 8
Fawcett, C.B.
1931 box 8
Fayle, Jane L.
1917-1940 box 8
Fellman, A. M.
  box 8
Fetcher, Edwin S., Jr.
1939 box 8
Field, Herbert Haviland
1902 box 9
Fields, Harold
1929 box 9
Fink, Harold K.
1940 box 9
Finlay, G.F.
1924 box 9
Fischer, Eugen
1932-1935 box 9
Fischer, Gustav
1902, 1938 box 9
Fishbein, Morris
1926 box 9
Fisher, Arne
1925-19392 foldersbox 9
Fisher, Irving
1908-1939 box 9
Fisher, R.A.
1925-1930 box 9
Fitz, Reginald
1928 box 9
Fletcher, Marjorie Howard
Undated box 9
Fletcher, S.W.
1935 box 9
Flexner, Louis
1940 box 9
Flexner, Simon
1926 box 9
Florida Academy of Sciences
1938 box 9
Foot, Katharine
1916 box 9
Footeur, Bill
1940 box 9
Forbes, ___
1909 box 9
Forok, ___
1909 box 9
Forum
1927-1929 box 9
Fossler, M.L.
1928 box 9
Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung
1937 box 9
Frank, Glenn
1928 box 9
Frank, Grace
1940 box 9
Frank, Tenney
1931 box 9
Freeman, Allen Weir
1926, 1934 box 9
Freeman, Walter
1934 box 9
French, W.F.
1930 box 9
Frets, G.P.
1928 box 9
Friede-Andreeff, M.
1909-19282 foldersbox 9
Friedenwald, Harry
1938 box 9
Friedenwald, Jonas
1937-1941 box 9
Friedli, W.
1928 box 9
Friedmans'
1925 box 9
Frost, E.B.
1921 box 9
Frost, W.H.
1929-1938 box 9
Frumkin, G.
1937 box 9
Furwirth, C.
1909-1910 box 9
Gaither, General Charles D.
1935 box 9
Galt, William
1939-1940 box 9
Galton Society
1918, 1931-1935 box 9
Gannett, Frank
1939 box 9
Gannon, Joseph W.
1908 box 9
Gardner, M.W.
1939 box 9
Garrett, Robert
1939 box 9
Garrison, Fielding H.
1929-1934 box 9
Garwood, R.S.
1902 box 9
Gary, E. Stanley
1939 box 9
Gary, Guy L.
1901 box 7
Garza Brito, Angel De La
1940-1941 box 9
Gaskell, Augusta
1928-1939 box 9
Gaskell, Edwin
1929 box 9
Gates, R. Ruggles
1908-1940 box 9
Gause, G.F.
1930-1941 box 9
Gay, Frederick P.
1923-1930 box 9
Gelder, van
1910 box 9
George, W.C.
1940-1941 box 9
Gill, Robert S.
1940 box 9
Gilles, Helen T.
1929-1935 box 9
Gillet, Charles B.
1933 box 9
Gilman, Elizabeth
1934, 1939 box 9
Gilman, John S.
Undated box 10
Gini, Corrado
1927-19317 foldersbox 10
Ginn and Company
1901, 1934 box 10
Glenn, John M.
1930 box 10
Godlowski, Emil
1904 box 10
Gontcharoff, B. de
1910 box 10
Gonzales, B.M.
1923-1928 box 10
Goodman, Jules Eckert
1937 box 10
Goodman, Philip
1925-1939 box 10
Goodnow, Frank J.
1923-1929 box 10
Goodrich, Nathaniel L.
1944 box 10
Goodwin, L.E.
1925-1926 box 10
Gorbman, Aubrey
1941 box 10
Gosset, W.L.
1930 box 10
Goto, Seitano
1926 box 10
Gotto, Mrs. S.
1909-1911 box 10
Gowen, John W.
1930-19402 foldersbox 10
Graham, A. Michael
1937 box 10
Graham, W.R.
1909, 1914 box 10
Grant, John B.
1921-1929 box 10
Grape, A.H., and Company
1927, 1930 box 10
Graves, William Washington
1940 box 10
Greenwood, Major
1921-194418 foldersbox 10-11
Greenwood, Rosa
1927 box 11
Gregg, Clifford C.
1940 box 10
Greif, Amy F.
1933 box 11
Griffith, Melvin E.
1937 box 11
Gruenberg, Benjamin C.
1926 box 11
Gruenwald, Peter
1940 box 11
Guan, Arthur
1940 box 11
Gudger, E.W.
1938-1940 box 11
Gulick, Addison
1937-1939 box 11
Gumbel, E.J.
1938-1939 box 11
Hadley, Philip B.
1910 box 11
Hake, John L.
1937-1939 box 11
Hahn, Martin
1925 box 11
Hale, George E.
1906, 1920-1928 box 11
Hall, Alton L.
1926 box 11
Hall, Arnold B.
1926 box 11
Hall, Edwin H.
1923 box 11
Hall, G. Stanley
1901-1903, 1921 box 11
Hall, Milton W.
1922 box 11
Hall, R.P.
1938-1939 box 11
Hamburger, Louis P.
1934 box 11
Hamman, Louis V.
1928, 1936-1937 box 11
Hammett, Frederick S.
1927-1930, 1937-1940 box 11
Hammend, E. Cuyler
1937 box 11
Hanrahan, Edward M., Jr.
1928 box 11
Hanson, J.M.
1901 box 11
Harding, T. Swann
1928-1929 box 11
Hargrove, W.H.
1929 box 11
Harmon, G.E.
1927 box 11
Harper Brothers
1927 box 11
Harper, Fowler V.
1939 box 11
Harris, F.K.
1906 box 11
Harris, J. Arthur
1907, 1926 box 11
Harrison, Ross Granville
1916-19415 foldersbox 11
Hartman, Howard R.
1928 box 11
Harvard University
1936 box 11
Harvey, H.E.
  box 11
Haskell, A.C.
1925 box 12
Hastings, Harold R.
1940 box 12
Hatai, Shinkishi
1904-1931 box 12
Hatcher, J.B.
1902 box 12
Hawkes, Ralph W.
1940 box 12
Hawley, Paul R.
1923-1933 box 12
Hayner, Leonidos
1929 box 12
Hayward, Sidney C.
1940-1943 box 12
Headland, Mariane
1922 box 12
Heath, D.C., & Company
1902 box 12
Hegner, R.W.
1925, 1934 box 12
Hektoen, Ludwig
1925-1930 box 12
Hemburger, Theodore
1929-1936 box 12
Henderson, Edith T.
1919, 1931 box 12
Henderson, Lawrence J.
1914-19408 foldersbox 12
Henry, Daniel M.
1925-1931 box 12
Henry, Frank F.
1920-1922 box 12
Hergesheimer, Joseph
1937 box 12
Hermannsson, H.
1927-1929 box 12
Hernando, Eugenio
1923-1938 box 12
Heron, David
1925-1933 box 12
Herrera, A.L.
1928 box 12
Herskovits, Melville J.
1927-1929 box 12
Hertwig, R.
1905 box 12
Herwerden, M.A. van
1927 box 12
Hesketh, Florence E.
1926 box 12
Hill, A. Bradford
1937 box 12
Hill, Arthur
1937 box 12
Hiller, Paul W.
1930 box 12
Hinrichs, Ernest H.
1940 box 12
History of Science Society
1935 box 12
Hoban, Owen A.
1936-1939 box 12
Hodge, C.F.
1906 box 12
Hodson, Cora B.S.
1927-1934 box 12
Hoffman, Robert
1926 box 12
Hofmann, Fred W.
1927 box 12
Hogan, John F.
1936 box 12
Hogstad, Anton, Jr.
1926 box 12
Holland, Joseph W.
1929 box 12
Holt, Henry and Company
1903 box 12
Holman, W.L.
1926 box 12
Holt, Hamilton
1919-1920 box 12
Holzapfel, Ruth A.
1935-1936 box 12
Holzinger, C.
1929 box 12
Hooper, F.H.
1925 box 12
Hoopes, Lillie G.
1929 box 12
Hooten, Earnest A.
1940 box 12
Hoover, Herbert
1917-1940 box 12