George Ord Collection

Mss.B.Or2

Date: 1831-1864 | Size: 0.25 Linear feet

Abstract

George Ord made important contributions as an ornithologist and writer but is also famous for his contempt of fellow ornithologist John James Audubon. Throughout his life he published numerous scientific articles and assisted in completing Alexander Wilson's life's work, American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Ord also left his mark as a member of the American Philosophical Society and as the president of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia. The George Ord collection consists primarily of outgoing personal correspondence to Charles Waterton ranging from 1831 to 1866 that highlights Ord's professional as well as personal affairs, most notably his hostility toward Audubon. The collection is supplemented by correspondence of Ord's to and from various individuals regarding personal and business matters.

Background note

George Ord (1781-1866, APS 1817) was a naturalist, ornithologist, and writer. He completed the eighth and ninth volumes of Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology after Wilson's death, and he described and formally named several of the specimens returned by the Lewis and Clark expedition. However, Ord is perhaps best known for his animosity towards ornithologist John James Audubon (1785-1851, APS 1831).

Ord was born in 1781 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His father George Ord, a retired sea captain, was a ship chandler and rope maker. His mother was Rebecca Lindemeyer. Ord joined his father in his business in 1800 and continued in the business after his father's death in 1806. He retired in 1829, wealthy enough to allow him a comfortable life devoted to the pursuit of his scholarly interests. While there is no reliable record of his early formal education, he evidently became interested in the study of science and literature at a young age. In 1804 Ord married Margaret Biays, daughter of the Baltimore rope maker and shipbuilder Joseph Biays. Before Margaret died in 1808, the couple had two children, only one of whom survived to adulthood. Ord apparently remarried; however, information about this marriage is lacking.

Shortly after his first marriage, Ord made the acquaintance of the Scottish poet and naturalist Alexander Wilson (1766-1813, APS 1813), who had lived in Pennsylvania since 1794. The two men became close friends, and Ord accompanied Wilson on some of his expeditions around Philadelphia and New Jersey. When Wilson died in 1813, Ord was left to finish the final two volumes of Wilson's illustrated nine-volume American Ornithology.

Ord contributed numerous articles that appeared in the scientific periodicals of the day, including the British Annals and Magazine of Natural History, the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, and the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. His essay on American zoology in William Guthrie's New Geographical and Commercial Grammar (1815) imposed, for the first time, binomial scientific names on several species of American birds and mammals. In this "first systematic Zoology of America by an American," Ord described several of the specimens from the Lewis and Clark Expedition that Meriwether Lewis had deposited at Peale's Museum at Thomas Jefferson's behest. Moreover, Ord was able to draw on information furnished by Henry Brackenridge that came from the journals of Lewis and Clark. Ord eventually wrote the first scientific taxonomies of ten specimens returned by the expedition, more than any other individual. They included the black-tailed prairie dog (Arctomys ludoviciana) and Ursus horribilis, better known as the grizzly bear.

Ord himself undertook only one extended scientific expedition. In 1817 he joined Thomas Say (1787-1834, APS 1817) and Titian Ramsey Peale (1799-1885, APS 1833) on a trip led by William Maclure (1763-1840) and funded by the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia to collect specimens in Georgia and Florida. The "Florida Party," as the group was frequently called in Academy records, undertook what would be the first private, museum sponsored exploration in the United States. The aim was to collect specimens, make them available for study, and publicize the findings in lectures and the Academy's new journal. The Academy hoped that this would put the institution on par with its European counterparts.

In addition to his interest in the natural sciences, Ord also had a passion for literature and philology. This is reflected in the assistance he gave to Noah Webster (1758-1843, APS 1827) in the completion of his dictionary. In addition, Robert Gordon Latham used an extensive manuscript completed by Ord in his revision of Samuel Johnson's dictionary in 1870. Ord also wrote biographies of fellow naturalists Thomas Say and Charles A. Lesueur.

Despite these publications, Ord is mostly remembered for his less than friendly relationship with John James Audubon. In fact, Ord detested Audubon, calling him a "impudent pretender" and "neither a scholar nor philosopher." He described Audubon's book Birds of America as "stupid" and thought that his illustrations were "vile." After Audubon's death, Ord wrote that he believed his autobiography was a "fable" and that "little reliance can be placed on his [Audubon's] narrative." Audubon was not the only ornithologist to receive harsh words from Ord. Ord once wrote that the botanist and naturalist Thomas Nuttall was a "presumptuous ass" who deserved the "lash." Ord was known for his unkind words and strong opinions. His efforts to discredit Audubon in particular may have stemmed from his desire to preserve the claim to preeminence for Wilson. Indeed, Ord published a tribute to his late friend and mentor, titled Sketch of the Life of Alexander Wilson, in 1828, just when Audubon was beginning to publish his Birds of America.

Ord's scientific contributions were widely recognized. In 1815 he became a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, serving as curator of their collections (1815-1817), vice-president (1816-1834), and on their publications committee (1817-1821, 1832, 1833). In 1817 he was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society, serving as secretary (1820-1827), vice president (1832-1835), councilor (1839), treasurer (1842-1847), and librarian (1842-1848). He was also a member of the Linnaean Society of London. He was president of the ANS from 1851 to 1858, a position that he "never sought after." He accepted the election despite of his age and "infirmities," and his "habits of retirement," which had rendered him "averse to company and the turmoil of life." In his later life he plunged further into the life of a recluse with each passing year. His health was not always good; he suffered from poor eyesight and regular bouts of influenza. He died in 1866 in Philadelphia and is buried in Philadelphia next to his friend and mentor Alexander Wilson.

Scope and content

The George Ord Collection is a significant resource for the study of the life of George Ord, an important figure in the field of ornithology during the 19th century. The collection is primarily comprised of outgoing correspondence from Ord to Charles Waterton between 1831 and 1864, regarding fellow ornithologists, Ord's everyday activities, and his personal affairs. Letters by Ord and from various individuals, including Titian Ramsay Peale, who struggled with his career after the 1848-52 Wilkes expedition, are also part of the collection. This collection clearly draws a picture of Ord's personality as an outspoken, opinionated individual.

Ord's animosity towards John James Audubon is well represented throughout the collection. He calls Audubon an "impudent pretender" and his book "stupid" (23 April 1832). He complains that Audubon was a fake and unworthy of the high esteem that he received as an ornithologist from colleagues, contests numerous aspects of Audubon's writings and detests his drawings. His close personal relationship with Waterton is also illustrated in this collection. Through his correspondence with Waterton a clear picture is drawn of his close but at times distant relationship with Charles Lucien Bonaparte, an influential ornithologist and nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. Other natural scientists who experienced Ord's critical opinion included Thomas Nutall, a "presumpuous ass" who "deserved the lash" (29 September 1835).

In addition to his quick temper and strong opinions, other aspects of Ord's personality are revealed in the letters. He mistrusted paper money and believed that the United States bank had "probably committed more frauds, and has been the occasion of more mischief and suffering, than any similar corporation that ever was erected." Although at times mistrustful, Ord was generally optimistic about emerging technologies, such as photography, steam-power, and telegraphic communication, feeling that he lived "in an age of wonders."

Many of the letters discuss Ord's feelings on everyday matters and many of the issues that concerned ornithologists of the day, such as the description of rattlesnakes and avian taxonomy. Most of the material relating to his membership at the APS and the ANS are found not in his correspondence to Waterton but in the correspondence from various individuals.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Physical description

0.25 linear feet

0.25 linear feet

Provenance

Ord's correspondence with Charles Waterton was acquired in 1942 and 1975. Other letters to and from Ord have been acquired from miscellaneous sources..

Preferred citation

Cite as: George Ord Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

Catalogued by Leigh McCuen, 2001.

Related material

Ord appears as a correspondent in a number of manuscript collections at the APS including the papers of John Lawrence Le Conte, Charles Waterton, Isaac Hays, John Torrey, William Darlington and the Peale-Sellers Family correspondence. As a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Ord also appears in the Library Committee records of that collection.

The APS also houses a collection of the Papers of Charles Waterton and family.

Bibliography

Robert McCracken Peck, "George Ord," American National Biography 16 (1999): 755-756.

Naval History Note

The Ord Collection contains a few items which may be of interest to naval historians:

Wilkes, Charles, 1798-1877. United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842).
  1. Ord, George. Letter to Charles Waterton. 1838 March 27. Bartram's garden. Expedition for the purpose of exploring the South Seas (Wilkes), the United States Exploring Expedition. Peale's museum. 4 pages.
  2. Ord, George. Letter to Charles Waterton. 1842 November 21. Concerning Audubon, Titian R. Peale, and the Wilkes Expedition (the United States Exploring Expedition), Smithsonian Institution and Charles Lucien Bonaparte. 3 pages.
  3. Ord, George. Letter to Charles Waterton. 1844 August 25. Packets from Petty Vaughan for the American Philosophical Society. Mentions magnetic telegraph; Captain Wilkes' narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. 3 pages.
  4. Ord, George. Letter to Charles Waterton. 1845 June 22. Peale's museum in hands of scheriff. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. Visits from Audubon; his works. Copy of Audubon's Birds for the American Philosophical Society. 4 pages.

Early American History Note

The collection of George Ord correspondence is a relatively small but significant collection. Most of the letters are from George Ord to Charles Waterton, a British naturalist, and reflect their shared interest in natural history, especially ornithology. The letters deal with Ord's rivalry with Audubon. Many of Ord's letters question the accuracy of Audobon's work. Other letters touch on Alexander Wilson and on new techniques for capturing images of animal life, such as the use of the Daguerre process.

The letters also discuss aspects of nineteenth century society. Mention is made of Peale's Museum (the Philadelphia Museum). One letter contains a detailed description of the museum's new quarters in 1838, another in 1854 describes its destruction. Other letters discuss the economy (including the California Gold Rush), politics (especially the election of James K. Polk and the Mexican-American War), and APS business. Ord also mentions Thomas Nuttall (described as a "presumptuous ass"), whose travel journal from 1810 the APS has. The collection contains a detailed description of many letters' content.

Indexing Terms


Corporate Name(s)

  • Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
  • American Philosophical Society
  • British Association for the Advancement of Science.
  • National Gallery of Art (U.S.)
  • National Institute for the Promotion of Science
  • Peale's Museum (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • Philological Society (Great Britain)
  • Royal Society (Great Britain)
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • St. Paul's Church (Philadelphia, Pa.)

Family Name(s)

  • Stout Family

Genre(s)

  • General Correspondence
  • Scientific Correspondence

Geographic Name(s)

  • Cuba -- Insurrection, 1849-1851
  • Great Britain -- Foreign relations -- Russia
  • Harpers Ferry (W. Va.) -- History -- John Brown's Raid, 1859
  • Italy -- Revolution of 1848
  • Italy -- War of 1859
  • Kagoshima-shi (Japan)
  • Russia -- Foreign relations -- Germany-Prussia
  • United States -- Civil War 1861 1865 -- Participation Foreign
  • United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865
  • United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865 -- Economic aspects
  • United States -- Politics and government -- 1861-1865
  • United States. President (1861-1865 : Lincoln).

Personal Name(s)

  • Audubon, John James, 1785-1851
  • Bache, A. D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867
  • Biddle, Alexander, 1819-1899
  • Bonaparte, Charles Lucian, 1803-1857
  • Brown, David Paul, 1795-1872
  • Brown, John, 1800-1859
  • Darlington, William, 1781-1863
  • Du Chaillu, Paul B., (Paul Belloni), 1835-1903
  • Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844
  • Garibaldi, Guiseppe, 1807-1882
  • Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875
  • Herrick, E. C.
  • Humphreys, A. A. (Andrew Atkinson), 1810-1883
  • Hunter, John Dunn
  • Jardine, William, Sir, 1800-1874
  • Kane, Paul, 1810-1871
  • Merrick, S. V. (Samuel Vaughan), 1801-1870
  • Nuttall, Thomas, 1786-1859
  • Ord, George, 1781-1866
  • Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885
  • Raleigh, Walter, Sir, 1552?-1618.
  • Roux de Rochelle, Jean Baptiste Gaspard, 1762-1849
  • Sartori, John B.
  • Tidyman, Philip, d. 1850
  • Vaughan, William
  • Wagner, Tobias
  • Waterton , Charles, 1782-1865
  • Wied, Maximilian, Prinz von, 1782-1867
  • Wilkes, Charles, 1798-1872

Subject(s)

  • Abolitionists -- United States -- Attitudes
  • Animals -- Habits and behavior of
  • Audubon, John James, 1785-1851. Birds of America
  • Banks and banking -- United States.
  • Birds -- Study and teaching
  • Birds.
  • Cholic Acid
  • Church buildings -- Pennsylvania-Philadelphia
  • Cicada (Genus)
  • Columbidia
  • Cuckoos
  • Daguerreotypes
  • Dictionary of the English language. Johnson, Samuel, 1709-1784
  • Dove
  • Early National Politics
  • English language -- Dictionaries
  • Exploration.
  • Famines -- Ireland
  • France -- 19th century
  • Frogs -- United States
  • Frost -- Great Britain
  • Geese
  • Gold mines and mining -- California -- 19th century
  • Heatstroke
  • Immigrants -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
  • Influenza -- United States
  • Irish -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
  • Memorials -- Great Britain
  • Mercury
  • Mexican War, 1846-1848
  • Monk, Maria, d. 1850
  • Natural history
  • Partridges
  • Peale, Charles Willson, 1741-1827 -- Art collections.
  • Philadelphia History
  • Potatoes
  • Railroads -- 19th century
  • Rattlesnake
  • Religion
  • Reptiles
  • Science and technology
  • Sea monsters
  • Secession -- Southern States
  • Skin -- Diseases-Treatment
  • Slaves -- Emancipation-America
  • Smoking -- Health aspects -- United States
  • Soap trade -- Pennsylvania
  • Steam-navigation -- Atlantic Ocean
  • Steamboat disasters
  • Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 1811-1896 Uncle Tom's Cabin.
  • Telegraph
  • United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842).
  • Wilkes, Charles, 1798-1872. Narrative of the United States exploring expedition.
  • Williams, Eleazer, 1787-1858


Detailed Inventory

Papers
  
Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Comments on Audubon's book [Birds of America]
July 20, 18319x7-1/2

Walton Hall, A.D.S. 4p.,end.in pencil. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence). Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning Audubon and Wilson, and Audubon's attempt to become a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

General physical description: 9x7-1/2

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to John Vaughan
July 24, 1831 

Brief letter mentioning Mr. Naylor.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
April 23, 18328" x 10"

[Phila.,] A.L.S. 3p. and add. (inc. - begins on p.9) Criticism of Audubon and his work. Arrival of Titian Peale, with rich cargo of the natural productions of the South. Duke of Sussex elected to membership in A.P.S.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
April 23, 183210x8

Philadelphia, A.L. 8p. Incomplete. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Birds. Audubon on the rattlesnake, vultures, bald eagle, and Birds of America Refers to Charles Bonaparte and Titian Peale study of the bald eagle.

General physical description: 10x8

Other Descriptive Information: not located 4/2010

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
April 28, 18338" x 10"

Buckingham, Bucks, A.L.S. 3p. and add. Criticism of Audubon and his work; mentions also Alexander Wilson, Cuvier, Dr. Jones.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
July 16, 183410x8

Buckingham, Penna., A.L. 4p. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning sea-serpents, whales and snakes. Refers to Silliman and his journal and Jacob Bigelow.

General physical description: 10x8

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:233028/

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Sept. 17, 18348" x 10"

Buckingham, A.L.S. 4p., add. Ring doves; humming birds. Mentions Audubon.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:233023/

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Nov. 15, 18348" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Mentions Mr. Vaughan of the Philosophical society, Prof. Jameson, Dr. Harlan, Hays, Titian Peale, Audubon, Harrison Hall, Nuttall, Maclure, Lesueur; death of Mr. Say.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
March 16, 18358" x 10"

Buckingham, A.L. 4p., add. Cold weather. Egg laying. Catholicism.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
April 15, 16, 17, 183510x8

Buckingham, Penna., A.L.S. 12p.end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning Audubon, his reputation in England, Birds of America,especially the raven. Refers to rattlesnakes and fangs, T.R.Peale, eagles, hawks, Jameson. Expulsion from vice-presidency of ANS by Harlan et al, over his eulogy of Say read before APS.

General physical description: 10x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Sept. 29, 183510x8

Buckingham,Penna., A.L. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning the ornithological works of Audubon, Nuttall and Wilson. His work on the cow bunting. Has been building on his home. Refers to the APS.

General physical description: 10x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
March 25, 183810-1/2x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L. 4p. Incomplete. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Comments on religion. Concerning Waterton's popularity in the U.S.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8-1/4

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
March 27, 18388 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Bartram's garden. Expedition for the purpose of exploring the South Seas (Wilkes). Peale's museum.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Bonaparte;]
Sept. 10, 1841 

Phila., Copy of A.L. In French. Transcribed in letter from Ord to Charles Waterton, Sept. 18, 1841.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Sept. 18, 18418" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Noble conduct of Charles Bonaparte; transcribes letter sent to him on the 10th inst. Paintings sent to Petty Vaughan to be sold.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Sept. 30, 18418" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Disposition of paintings sent to Petty Vaughan. Daguerre process; Mr. Cornelius of Philadelphia. Audubon's work. Ord's article vindicating Wilson from the aspersions of Audubon. Mr. Tyler and bank.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Herrick, E. C..
Letter to George Ord
March 17, 1842 

On behalf of Benjamin Silliman. Asks to have papers forwarded to Silliman in New York.

Vaughan, William, 1752-1850.
Letter to George Ord
July 6, 1842 

London. Regarding APS publications. Refers to Ch. Biddle and bank.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton, Wakefield, Eng.;
Nov. 21, 184210x8

Philadelphia, Typed L. 3p. Copy. (from original in possession (1968) of R.Milnes Walker, Wergs Copse, Kintbury, Newbury, Berks.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning Audubon, T.R.Peale and the Wilkes Expedition, Smithsonian Institution and Charles Lucien Bonaparte.

General physical description: 10x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Dec. 25, Dec. 27, 18418" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Ord's paper on the tortoise. Bank situation in the U.S. Last illness of [John Vaughan ?].

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
March 17, 18, 18428" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Failure of the Bank of the U.S.;many suicides resulting. Death of John Vaughan; Ord his successor as librarian and treasurer of th A.P.S.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton
Feb. 5, 1843 

In French. Extract of letter written to Charles Bonaparte. Discusses political situation; refers to Geological society, Academy of Natural Sciences, APS, and Franklin Institute.

Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885.
Letter to George Ord
March 14, 1843 

Refers to lack of support for completion of late expedition. Many specimens are missing. Expects to be penniless soon. Asks about Society and Museum.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Aug. 23, 18438" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p.,add. Audubon's work on the quadrupeds. Positive view of inventions. Mentions Dr. Bachman; the A.P.S. Sale of building housing Peale's museum.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844.
Letter to George Ord
Jan. 13, 1844 

Refers to Roux de Rochelle's letter and donation of a book.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Feb. 24, 184410x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning Audubon's Birds and Quadrupeds. Olfactory nerves of buzzards, with comments on Audubon by Smith, Pollock, Owen, and Bachman. Refers to APS and William Jardine. Refers to Yarrell and Audubon.

General physical description: 10x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Aug. 25, 18448" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 3p. and add. Packets from Petty Vaughan for A.P.S. Mentions magnetic telegraph. Capt. Wilkes' Narrative of the Exploring Expedition.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Wagner, Tobias.
Letter to George Ord
Sept. 30, 1844 

Regarding a meeting of the British Association in London. Reports on several lectures, including by Lyell, Liebig, and Rope.

Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885.
Letter to George Ord
Nov. 26, 1844 

Dislikes his job, poorly paid, is painting his new birds and animals in oil.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Titian Ramsey Peale
Dec. 4, 1844 

Will use influence at Peale's behalf. Mentions Kane and Dr. Patterson. Peale's best friends are attached to the party that has lately won the presidency.

Location of originals: Copy. Orig. at HSP.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
June 22, 18458" x 10"

Phila., A.L. 4p., add. Peale's museum in hands of sheriff. Narrative of the Exploring Expedition. Visits from Audubon; his works. Copy of Audubon's Birds for A.P.S.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Bache, A. D. (Alexander Dallas), 1806-1867.
Letter to George Ord
Feb. 16, 1845 

Refers to Patterson, Kane and Nulty.

Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885.
Letter to George Ord
April 7, 1845 

Letter of introduction for the botanist William Rich, Esq. who would like to consult botany libraries in Philadelphia.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Aug. 23, 18458" x 10"

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p., add. Letter from the Prince of Canino. Pennsylvania state debt.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Merrick, S. V. (Samuel Vaughan), 1801-1870.
Letter to George Ord
May 20, 1845 

Note asking Ord to deliver a copy of Dobson's Encyclopedia to the Franklin Institute.

Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885.
Letter to George Ord
May 20, 1845 

Copy. Refers to a partridge. Mentions Col. Lewis and Peale's Museum. Refers to engravings of animals.

Brown, David Paul, 1795-1872.
Letter to George Ord
May 28, 1845 

Secretary of the A.P.S., [Philadelphia]. Brown would like to rent office space below Athenaeum at $150 per year. General physical description: 7 5/8" x 9 7/8"

Brown, David Paul, 1795-1872.
Letter to George Ord
June 4, 1845 

[Philadelphia]. Brown decided not to rent office space below Athenaeum, but to take office elsewhere. General physical description: 4 7/8 x 6 1/2

Peale, Titian Ramsay, 1799-1885.
Letter to George Ord
July 3, 1845 

Copy. Regarding planned breakup of organization under which remnant of Wilkes expedition is working. Refers to Dr. Pickering.

Humphreys, A. A. (Andrew Atkinson), 1810-1883.
Letter to George Ord
July 7, 1845 

Requests forwarding of packages.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Oct. 24, 18458" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Economic and political aspects. Prince of Canino.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Titian Ramsey Peale
Dec. 21, 1845 

Copy. APS is sued for the executors of Dunn for a debt of $10,000. Ord is thinking of retiring as treasurer.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Feb. 22, 18468" x 10"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. The Canada goose. Thinks Cuvier ventured beyond his depth in his Regne Animal. Sale of Philadelphia museum.

General physical description: 8" x 10"

Tidyman, Philip, d. 1850.
Letter to George Ord
May 1, 1846 
Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
May 24, 18468 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 3p. and add. Mentions Sir Charles Menteath; Charles Bonaparte; Titian Peale; Peale museum. U.S. at war with Mexico.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Sartori, John B..
Letter to George Ord
Sep. 20, 1846 

Sends four pieces of fixed mercury for experiment.

Darlington, William, 1782-1863.
Letter to George Ord
August 18, 18473 p.

Librarian of APS, West Chester. Concerning the origin of the potato and sweet potato and about the assertion that the potato had been introduced into England from Virginia by Walter Raleigh. Proposes A[sa] Gray for membership in the APS.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Feb. 10, 18488 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 3p. and add. Prof. Wagner's criticism of Waterton's Essays. Has resigned as librarian and treasurer of the A.P.S.; criticism of certain members.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton, Wakefield, England;
July 23, 184810-3/4x8

A.L.S. 4p.,add. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. New Post-Office regulations. Would try to ship bull-frogs if possible. Political situation in Paris: comments on republics. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Sept. 23, 18488 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Waterton's lawsuit over alkali. Titian Peale made assistant examiner in the Patent Office. Reasoning power of animals.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Dec. 17, 18488 1/4" x 10 1/2"

A.L.S. 4p., add. Nuisance of unpleasant odors from nearby soap and candle manufactory. Political situation in Rome. Excitement caused by news of gold in California.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
March 4, 18498 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Owner of soap and candle manufactory indicted. Gold rush. Ord's birthday. Mentions Charles Bonaparte and Agassiz.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
April 30, 18498 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Emigration to California begins to slacken. Political situation in Italy. Charles Bonaparte and Titian Peale convinced that several of Audubon's birds were "fictitious (?) representations."

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Sept. 3, 18498 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Audubon's Quadrupeds. Charles Bonaparte. Marie Monk of the "Awful disclosures." Crops abundant.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton, Scarborough, England;
Oct. 22, 184910-1/2x8

A.L.S. 4p.,add.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Business. Friendly letter. Refers to C[harles] B[onaparte?].

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Feb. 18, 185010-1/2x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. His trial against a common nuisance. California fever for gold. Concerning the "so-called" wooley horse-a forgery.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
May 5, 18508 1/4" x 10 1/2"

A.L.S. 3p. and add. Ord's illness. Return of the Pope to the Eternal City; Italian situation. Desires news of Charles B[onaparte]. Titian Peale still in Patent Office.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
July 8, 18508 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Waterton's accident. Gold in California. Ord's ill health. Audubon.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Aug. 11, 18, 18508 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Bonaparte's part in conspiracy against the Papal government. Garibaldi in U.S. British association for the advancement of science; similar association in U.S.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Oct. 6, 18508 1/4" x 10 1/2"

A.L.S. 4p., add. His mind somewhat below par. American politics. Charles Bonaparte's collection now in possession of the Academy of natural sciences. Mentions Wilson, Owen, Audubon, and Titian Peale.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Aug. 24, 18518 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Maria Monk's"Awful disclosures" a tissue of falsehoods. Excitement due to recent events in Cuba.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Oct. 13, 18518 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 3p. and add. The cuckoo and its young, End to invasion of Cuba. Preparations, being made for arrival of Kossuth. The Crystal Palace.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Titian Ramsey Peale
Jan. 27, 1852 

Ord elected president of Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
May 13, 185210-1/2x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning hybrids. Emigration, especially from Ireland. Kossuth and his fund raising. Squirrels placed in the parks.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Oct. 7, Oct. 8, 185210-1/2x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 5p.and end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Rattlesnakes. Concerning Audubon and his death. Was honored by Charles Bonaparte in Paris. Refers to T.R.Peale.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Titian Ramsey Peale
Dec. 4, 1852 

Refers to Peale's unpublished book on the Wilkes' expedition.

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Dec. 12, 18528 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 2p. and add. Has had influenza. Cuba situation settled. Mentions Charles Bonaparte.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
April 17, 185310-3/4x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. His health. Current craze for lecturing, and sends greetings from one lecturer Thackeray. Refers to Lea's house burning. Coments on Charles Bonaparte's rise in the world.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
June 26, 18538 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 2p. and add. Emigration from Europe. Mentions Charles Bonaparte and Padre Gavazzi.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
July 31, 18538 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Railroad travel in U.S. Mrs. Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin." New York Crystal Palace. Mentions Gavazzi, Achille, Kossuth, Prof. Wilson, Sir Charles Lyell, and Lord Elsemere.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
March 19, 185410-3/4x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. His health. Crimean War news: his ideas on the war.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Dec. 7, 18548 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 4p., add. Destruction of Peale's museum; dispersal of specimens and portraits.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Aug. 22, 18588 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Phila., A.L.S. 3p. and add. Marvels at speed of communication; transmarine telegraph completed. Reported death of Sir William Jardine. Monument to Alexander Wilson.

General physical description: 8 1/4" x 10 1/2"

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
April 3, 185910-3/4x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Natural history. Comments on dictionaries in England and the U.S. Refers to proposed monuments for Wilson and Latham. Friendly letter. Refers to academy of natural sciences.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8

Letter to George Ord
May 27, 1859 

Walton Hall, A.L.S. 3p.and add.,end. On war in Europe and foreign affairs. Gorilla. Frosty weather destroyed fruits and vegetables, but summer birds are here.

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
March 4, 186010-3/4x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Describes his ageing self. Story of John Brown. Free Negroes in Philadelphia. Mesmerism in vogue and proffered experiments by members of the APS.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton, Wakefield, England;
June 3, 186010-3/4x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 2p.and add. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Has been ill. Is failing so badly that he forgets familiar names and the spelling of simple words. Knows nothing of the young doctor who, he presumes, graduated from pennsylvania.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Nov. 29, 186011-1/4x9-1/2

Philadelphia, A.L.S.with initials. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence) Formerly B Or2.1. Turner on cuckoos, and Ord's ideas on the subject. Italian politics and Lincoln in the White House.

General physical description: 11-1/4x9-1/2

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
March 10, 186110x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S.with initials. 4p. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning Italy. Secession of the Southern States and his belief they will fall of their own weight and lack of funds

General physical description: 10x8

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
June 2, 186111-1/4x9-1/2

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Civil war started. Finances of both North and South and predictions of dire disaster for the South.

General physical description: 11-1/4x9-1/2

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
July 21, 186110x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning Du Chaillu and his stories of Africa and the gorilla. Du Chaillu in the U.S. and John Cassin's comments on him in the Academy of natural sciences. Civil war.

General physical description: 10x8

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Oct. 20, 186111-1/4x9-1/2

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning Du Chaillu and his work on gorillas. Concerning J.D.Hunter's work on the Indian: his claims to have preceeded Lewis and Clark. Conversation with Sir J. Franklin over Hunter's work. Refers to the Academy of natural sciences and Cuvie and Cass.

General physical description: 11-1/4x9-1/2

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Dec. 1, 186110x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. His opinion of Du Chaillu. Cass on Hunter and Du Chaillu, plus a story of an Iroquois claiming to be the lost Dauphin. cass comments on Sir John Franklin and Hunter. Fire in charches in Philadelphia.

General physical description: 10x8

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
April 20, 186210-3/4x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Concerning the Civil War. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
July 27, 186210-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Monument to Wilson. News of local events. Has met some Scotsmen and read of Scotland recently.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Aug. 4, 186210-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 2p. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Asks him to forward a letter to Sir James Menteith. His health. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Nov. 3, 186210x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 2p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. His health. Civil War: England should not aid the South.

General physical description: 10x8

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Jan. 18, 186310x8

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Ill again. Concerning T.R.Peale. Civil War. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 10x8

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
March 11, 186310-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 3p.and end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Friendly letter. Surprised at the marriage of his son. News of friends in Philadelphia.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton, Wakefield, Eng.;
May 23, 186310-1/2x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S.with initials. 3p.and add.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. His health. Civil war. Friendly letter. Glad Edmund is married.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8-1/4

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Aug. 23, 186310-1/2x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. News of his health. Friendly letter. Civil war news.

General physical description: 10-1/2x8-1/4

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
Oct. 24, 186310-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 3p.and end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. News of the war. European events.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Dec. 19, 186310-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Compares British outrages in Japan with Civil War news of New Orleans. Concerning J.E.Gray.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
March 20, 186410-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. His health. Increase in use of tobacco and its injurious effects. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
May 8, 186411-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 3p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Friendly letter. Garibaldi and Italy. News of the war.

General physical description: 11-3/4x8-1/4

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to [Charles Waterton];
July 17, 186410-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 3p.and end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Friendly letter. Illness and death of Stout.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton, Walton Hall, Eng.;
Sept. 25, 186410-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 3p.and end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Death of Stout and his other friends. News of the war. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

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Ord, George, 1781-1866.
Letter to Charles Waterton;
Oct. 2, 186410-3/4x8-1/4

Philadelphia, A.L.S. 4p.,end. (see Ord-Waterton correspondence.) Formerly B Or2.1. Harvests in the U.S. News of the war.

General physical description: 10-3/4x8-1/4

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