Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker correspondence, 1844-1910

Mss.B.H76

Date: 1844-1910 | Size: 0.25 Linear feet, Ca. 156 items

Abstract

A variety of topics are discussed in these letters, mainly on plant specimens and botanical subjects in relation to England, India, and other parts of the world. The most voluminous correspondence is with Henry Walter Bates, Sir Henry Cole, Sir Richard Strachey, Dawson Turner, and William Crawford Williamson.

Background note

Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911, APS 1869) was an English botanist and traveler, and was interested in the geographical distribution of species. He succeeded his father, William Jackson Hooker, as director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Hooker was a close friend and early supporter of Charles Darwin, and arranged for the joint reading of the paper of Alfred R. Wallace with Darwin's "abstract" on the theory of Natural Selection before the Linnean Society of London.

Hooker was born in Halesworth in Suffolk, England on June 30, 1817. He was the younger son of the botanist Sir William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865, APS 1862) and Maria Sarah Turner. His father William was the regius professor of botany at Glasgow University. As a boy Hooker loved botany and entomology, and began attending his father's botanical lectures from the age of seven. He was especially interested in plant distribution, but also had a lively interest in travelers' tales. He remembered sitting on his grandfather's knee, looking at the pictures in the account of Captain Cook's Voyages, imagining himself among the participants. He received a traditional Scottish liberal arts education at the Glasgow grammar school and high school, and matriculated at Glasgow University, where he graduated M.D. in 1839.

Through his father's influence Hooker got his first work assignment as assistant surgeon and botanist aboard H.M.S. Erebus, commanded by Captain James Clark Ross, that along with its sister vessel, H.M.S. Terror, explored the southern oceans. During the four-year voyage, from September 1839 to September 1843, the ships spent the winters in New Zealand and Tasmania, surveying the Great Ice Barrier around Antarctica and visiting numerous tiny islands surrounding that continent, including the Falklands off the eastern coast of Argentina and the Kerguelen islands in the Indian Ocean. Travel was a major means for aspiring naturalists like Darwin and Hooker to establish a scientific reputation. Before his departure, Charles Lyell (the father of the geologist) had given Hooker a proof copy of Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle. While he eagerly read this account by his role model, Hooker felt slightly intimidated by the daunting physical and mental attributes required of a naturalist, wishing to "follow in Darwin's footsteps." Even though Captain Ross was a friend of Hooker's father William, and encouraged his son's botanical work during the voyage, Hooker's income did not allow him to travel as a gentleman companion to the captain, as Darwin had done. Instead, Hooker sailed as a lowly assistant surgeon, with many onboard duties and subject to naval discipline. Nevertheless, the experiences on the voyage to previously unexplored regions fostered in the younger Hooker a lifelong interest in taxonomy and plant geography. More important, the botanical investigations that Hooker undertook and judiciously recorded on the Erebus voyage would eventually establish his reputation. The results of his work on the voyage would be published in a series of works that appeared over some fifteen years, including the Flora Antarctica (1844-1847), Flora Novae-Zelandiae (1853-1855), and Flora Tasmaniae (1855-1860). These works, collected in six quarto volumes titled The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of the H.M. Discovery Ships 'Erebus' and 'Terror' made him a leading world authority in the field of botany.

Upon his return home in the autumn of 1843, Hooker digested the results of his field research on the voyage in his father's large herbarium and library at Kew. The first fruits of his work was a series of botanical lectures at Edinburgh University to support his candidacy for the professorship of botany, pending the death of Robert Graham, who was seriously ill. After his candidacy proved unsuccessful, Hooker accepted a two year position as a paleobotanist with the Geological Survey. He had earlier shown an interest in paleobotany with a published paper on Tasmanian fossil woods. His first assignment was to prepare a catalog of British fossil plants for the arrangement of specimens in the Geological Survey museum. Although the Survey position was not permanent, Hooker continued to write papers on fossil botany until his appointment as assistant director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in 1855.

In the summer of 1851 on July 15 Hooker married Frances Harriet Henslow, the eldest daughter of Cambridge botany professor John Stevens Henslow, the teacher of Darwin. The couple had four sons and two surviving daughters. After Frances' death in 1874, Hooker married Hyacinth Jardine, the only daughter of the geologist William Samuel Symonds.

Given Hooker's lifelong love of travel, his voyage of discovery on the Erebus was only the first of many journeys of exploration. In November 1847 he traveled on a government grant to northeast India, spending most of the time in the central and eastern Himalayan states of Sikkim and Nepal (1847-49). After visiting Calcutta, Hooker went on to Darjeeling in West Bengal in the foothills of the Himalayas, where he met and befriended Brian Houghton Hodgson, an expert on Nepalese culture, a collector of Sanskrit manuscripts and a passionate naturalist. Hodgson assisted Hooker with the preparations for his Himalayan journey, although he fell ill and was unable to accompany him. Instead, he went with Archibald Campbell, a British government agent, who was the superintendent of Darjeeling and a political agent to Sikkim.

When the two men crossed the border from West Bengal into the small, impoverished state of Sikkim, they naturally aroused the suspicions of its raja (ruler) and his chief minister the diwan. Hooker, who was engaged in a survey was occupied with making maps during their travels, and the diwan (rightly) suspected that these might have military, as well as economic significance for the British. The Sikh minister especially warned them not to cross the northern border into Tibet, and when they knowingly violated his order, he used the incident as a pretext to arrest and imprison them. The British government obtained their release within a few weeks, and Hooker spent 1850 traveling in East Bengal with an old university friend Thomas Thompson. After their return to England in 1851, they would collaborate in writing the first volume of a projected work Flora Indica (1855), which was never completed due to lack of support from the East India Company. Nevertheless, Hooker's introductory essay to the book with its admirable account of the history of botany in India, later formed the basis for his superb "Sketch of the Flora of British India" in the Imperial Gazetteer of India published in 1907. Hooker's Himalayan journey was a great success in most other respects. He collected about 7,000 species in India and Nepal, securing a grant to classify and name them upon his return to England. The Rhododendrons of the Sikkim-Himalaya (1849-1851), edited by Hooker's father and illustrated by Walter Hood Fitch, was the first publication to result from the journey. His Himalayan specimens added twenty-five new rhododendron species to the fifty already known, and these spectacular new species created a rhododendron frenzy among British gardeners. The one book most often associated with Hooker's work in India was his Himalayan Journals (1854), a classic of nineteenth-century travel literature dedicated to Charles Darwin with wide general appeal.

Hooker and Darwin, who met briefly for the first time in 1839 would later become close friends. In fact, they became close enough for Darwin to disclose to him the direction of his thinking about species change and the role of natural selection in the evolution of species. Within a few years of their meeting, Darwin confided to Hooker on January 11, 1844 that, ". . . I am almost convinced that species are not (it is like I am confessing a murder) immutable:--I think I have found the simple way by which species become exquisitely accepted to various ends." Over the years Darwin kept him informed of his progress from a tentative theory to a conviction about the evolution of species by the mechanism of natural selection. While Hooker was traveling and publishing to establish his own reputation in botany, Darwin was at work on his "big species book". He had only told close friends such as Charles Lyell and Asa Gray that he was planning a more comprehensive treatment of his theory. The catalyst that pushed Darwin to publish his theory was the receipt of a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace, who asked for Darwin's help in publishing his own theory of the transmutation of species. Enclosing a copy of his manuscript which traced a theory bearing a remarkable resemblance to Darwin's own, Wallace explained that his reading of Malthus had illuminated his thinking on the origin of species. Darwin was eager not to lose to the priority of his idea, but equally concerned to treat Wallace fairly. Since Darwin was ill at the time, he left it to his friends Hooker and Lyell to decide what action to take. They arranged for the reading of Wallace's paper together with an abstract of Darwin's theory (which Hooker had read in 1844), but also a letter from Darwin to Asa Gray that validated the former's claim to priority. Even though the reading of Wallace's paper did not arouse public interest in his letter to Darwin, it did prompt Darwin to publish a shorter, accessible version of his theory at once, and the Origin of Species appeared in November 1859.

Only about a month after the appearance of Darwin's Origin of Species did Hooker announce his public support of "the ingenious and original reasonings and theories by Mr. Darwin and Mr. Wallace." Although he had already been aware of his friend's views for fourteen years before adopting them, Hooker arrived at these convictions gradually, and stated that he did so "solely and entirely from an independent study of the plants themselves." He embraced the theory of evolution on the basis of his own taxonomic work and on the evidence of the geographic distribution of plant species. As late as the writing of the introductory essay to the Flora Novae-Zelandiae in 1853, Hooker tentatively asserted the permanence of species as a practical requirement for taxonomy. In the 1855 introduction to his Flora Indica he still insisted that species are "definite creations," although "created with a certain degree of variability." A year later in a review of Alphonse de Candolle's Géographaphie botanique raisonnée in the Kew Journal of Botany, Hooker insisted that there is no proof for the author's belief "that the majority of species were created such as they now exist," and that a "theory of transmutation [of species] accounts better for the aggregation of Species . . . in geographical areas." However, he doubted whether this theory brought science closer to the origin of species, unless one admitted the doctrine of progressive development against which botany presented considerable evidence. Soon after the publication of Darwin's Origin, Hooker became a strong advocate of natural selection. What changed his mind? His eventual acceptance of natural selection was partially compelled by his own phytogeographical evidence. Like his American colleague Asa Gray, Hooker was one of the first botanists to present the mutability and derivative origins of species as an explanation for the geographical distribution of plants.

Hooker became assistant director of the Royal Botanic Gardens in 1855, succeeding his father as director in 1865. His father William Hooker transformed the sterile gardens, once the private property of the British monarchs, by relandscaping them, building more new greenhouses, erecting a herbarium and library and establishing botanical museums. He continued his father's program of improving the gardens by adding more walkways and greenhouses, creating a rock garden, enlarging the arboretum and opening the Marianne North Gallery for the permanent display of botanical paintings. Hooker also made Kew an international center of botanical research with the foundation of the Jodrell Laboratory. On biographer has argued that Hooker's greatest accomplishment was his administration of the Kew Gardens from 1865 until his retirement in 1885.

Another of Hooker's major accomplishments was the new Bentham-Hooker classification of plants, resulting from his collaboration with George Bentham, beginning in 1857. Hooker's official duties prevented him from contributing more than a third of the three-volume Genera plantarum (1862-1883) which remains the standard work in the field. Although not a phylogenetic system showing the evolutionary relationships among plant species, it is a "natural" classification, using (with modifications) the sequence of families proposed by French botanist Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle in 1819. The Genera plantarum was only one of the numerous works abstracted in the Index Kewensis, an essential reference on flowering plants prepared under Hooker's direction. In addition to his editorial work on the Index Kewensis, Hooker edited the fifth through the eighth editions of Bentham's Handbook of British Flora and two well-known botanical periodicals: Botanical Magazine (from 1865-1904) and Hooker's Icones plantarum, founded by his father in 1836. He also published a Student's Flora of the British Isles in 1870.

In 1871 Hooker joined his American friend Asa Gray in the western regions of North America for his last major botanical expedition. Both botanists were intrigued by the similarities between flowering plants in the eastern United States and eastern continental Asia and Japan.

Also in the 1870's Hooker's anxieties over the status of the Botanic Gardens at Kew and his personal reputation in the scientific work drew him into political and personal conflict with Acton Smee Ayrton, the first commissioner of the Office of Works, that took over the administration of Kew from the Office of Woods and Forests in 1850. The immediate cause of what became known as the Ayrton controversy was Richard Owen's natural history museum in South Kensington. The new building that was supposed to house the natural history collections of the British Museum was to include the herbarium of Sir Joseph Banks. However, in 1868 Hooker proposed that the Banksian herbarium be transferred to Kew, citing the alleged mismanagement at the British Museum. Fueling the controversy was Hooker's notorious irritability, but also operative were the sharp ideological difference between Hooker, one of Darwin's best-known public defenders and Owen, his most vocal opponent.

In public Hooker was extremely reticent about his political and religious views. While characterizing himself as a whig and strong Unionist, he never expressed interest in party politics. Despite holding religious views close to the agnosticism of his friend Thomas Huxley, he always remained a church-going Anglican.

Hooker was very highly esteemed in his lifetime, receiving numerous honorary degrees, including ones from Oxford and Cambridge. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1847 and served as its president from 1873-1878. In 1868 he was created a Commander of the Order of Bath, and in 1877 a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India.

In 1869 he was elected a foreign member of the American Philosophical Society. During the 1907 bicentennial celebrations of Carl Linnaeus' birth, the Swedish Academy of Science awarded Hooker a specially struck Linnean Medal as "the most illustrious living exponent of botanical science."

Hooker distinguished himself in a number of botanical disciplines, but most notably in taxonomy and plant geography. His reasoning was instinctively inductive, and he never committed himself to a generalization without examining all of the available facts.

Hooker died in his sleep at home on December 10, 1911 after a brief and apparently minor illness. When given the option of having her husband buried alongside Darwin in Westminster Abbey, his widow Hyacinth honored her husband's wish to be buried alongside his father in the churchyard of Kew Gardens.

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Physical description

Ca. 155 items.

Provenance

Purchased and accessioned, 1956 (1956 1223ms). See in-house shelf list for additional accession numbers and dates.

Early American History Note

This manuscript collection falls outside the geographic scope of the Early American guide (British North America and the United States before 1840). It may be of interest to scholars interested in global history, international relations, imperialism, or the U.S. in the world.

Indexing Terms


Corporate Name(s)

  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Family Name(s)

  • Kirk, John, -- Sir, -- 1824?-1904.

Personal Name(s)

  • Bates, Henry Walter, 1825-1892
  • Brown, Robert, 1773-1858
  • Burton, Decimus, 1800-1881
  • Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de, 1778-1841
  • Cole, Henry, 1808-1882
  • Decaisne, Joseph, 1807-1882
  • Franks, Augustus Wollaston, Sir, 1826-1897
  • Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911
  • Jenner, William, Sir, 1815-1898
  • Jones, Bence, 1814-1873
  • Lubbock, John, Sir, 1834-1913
  • Meteyard, Eliza, 1816-1879
  • Reeve, Lovell, 1814-1865
  • Siemens, Charles William, 1823-1883
  • Spottiswoode, William, 1825-1883
  • Strachey, Richard, Sir, 1817-1908
  • Turner, Dawson (1775-1858)
  • Williamson, William Crawford , 1816-1895

Subject(s)

  • Beyond Early America
  • Botanical gardens -- England.
  • Botanical literature -- England.
  • Botany -- England.
  • Botany -- India.
  • Natural history.
  • Plants -- Collection and preservation -- 19th century.


Detailed Inventory

Papers
  
Table of Contents, B H76
  
Table of Contents, B H76.br
  
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Richard Strachey
1863-1880 

D. 10 items. Various sizes. Botanical subjects. Table of contents available.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letters to Richard Strachey
undated 

1863-1898. D. 21 items. Various sizes. Botanical subjects. Table of contents available.

Hopkinson, Francis, 1737-1791.
Will
Aug. 30, 179015 1/2" x 9 1/2"

Phila., D.S. 3p. and end. Att: May 21, 24, 1791. Seal. Deposited by the Register of Wills Office, Phila; Dec. 10, 1954 - restricted, cf. terms of use, Legal folder. See Bound Volume, Floor E.

General physical description: 15 1/2" x 9 1/2"

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to L[ovell Augustus] Reeve
Aug. 16, 1844 

Regarding color plates.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Hutton
Aug. 27, 1845 

Regarding a testimonial.

Ross, James Clark, Sir, 1800-1862.
Letter to [Joseph Dalton] Hooker
Sept. 16, 18[4]7 
Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1785-1865.
Letter to ----
Sept. 23, 18487x4-1/4

Kew, A.L.S. 3p.and add. Asks about effects of glass on plants. Concerning pitch from the lake in Trinidad. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7x4-1/4

Decaisne, Joseph, 1807-1882.
Letter to [Joseph Dalton] Hooker
Aug. 1, 1852 

In French.

Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1785-1865.
Letter to ----
Dec. 15, 18527x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 4p. Is moving and is trying to arrange 100 volumes for binding. Concerning his publications on mosses. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Charles Cardale] Babington
Aug. 9, 1854 

Regarding gold medal candidates.

Richmond, George.
Letter to [Joseph Dalton Hooker?]
Apr. 11, 1855 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Addressed envelope to Robert Foster
July 20, 1857 
Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1785-1865.
Letter to ----
Dec. 5, 185711-3/4x8

Kew, A.L.S. 4p. Describes how a botanical guide for a museum should be made up. Concerning Alexander Smith's health. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 11-3/4x8

Frankland, Edward, Sir, 1825-1899.
Letter to Mrs. Hooker
Oct. 21, 1858 

Requests the autograph of Robert Brown. News on the birth of his son a fortnight previous.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Dec. 16, 18607-1/2x4-1/2

A.L.S. 3p. States where he will be, so Strachey can visit whenever he can. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7-1/2x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter Bates]
March 26, 1861 

Regarding a paper sent by Bates.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
June 6, 18657x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 6p. Comments on his ideas of a forest service for India. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mrs. Oliver
June 27, 1861 

Regarding health of the family.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
November 29, 1861 

Regarding a paper by Asa Gray, Darwin preface, Bates's own paper.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Grove"
January 9, 1862 

Regarding the climate of Palestine.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
January 13, 1862 

Regarding language, "creation," "orderly miracle," and variation.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
February 2, 1862 

Regarding variation.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
March 18, 1862 

Regarding variation, "character acquired through the action of local conditions."

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
April 5, 1862 

Regarding drawings, discussion with Darwin.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
May 11, 1862 

Recipient identified as Hooker (rather than Turner) as per Richard Drayton, 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
July 8, 1862 

Recipient identified as Hooker (rather than Turner) as per Richard Drayton, 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
November 12, 1862 

Regarding Bates's paper.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
May 13, 1863 

Urges Bates to disregard Gray's criticism: "I never heard him speak well of any human creature."

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
Sunday, May 1863 

Dated by Clodd memoir.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry Walter] Bates
Sunday, [May 1863] 

Gray has "come round."

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
June 6, 1863 

Regarding hiring, having Forests under the Finance Department.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
June 30, 1863 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
December 16, 1863 

Discusses logistics for meeting.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Eliza] Meteyard
June 20, 1865 

Regarding Mrs. Hooker's health.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Godman
October 4, 1865 

Regarding Godman's offer to examine plants, the impact on his work of Hooker's illness and his father's death.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford Williamson?]
September 28, 1865 

Appreciates congratulations; prepared to carry out his father's vision of Kew; recovering after 8 weeks of rheumatic fever.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Rev. V[?] S. Brown
March 7, 1866 

Regarding bulbs and seeds.

Westwood, J. O. (John Obadiah), 1805-1893.
Letter to [Joseph Dalton] Hooker
May 18, 1866 

Offers the use of his villa.

Miller, William O..
Letter to [Joseph Dalton] Hooker
July 10, 1866 

No communication from the India Board.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Eliza] Meteyard
November 3, 1866 

Regarding Meteyard's book.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Robert Brown]
December 14, 1867 

Invitation.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Henry] Cole
Dec. 31, 18677x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 1p. Will call on Thursday to discuss problem.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Henry] Cole
Jan. 10, 18687x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 1p Friendly note

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Henry] Cole
March 20, 18687x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 1p.and end. Business.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford Williamson?]
September 22, 1868 

Observations on wood.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir John] Kirk
October 18, 1868 

12 pages.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Henry] Cole
Jan. 19, 18697x4-1/2

A.L.S. 1p.and end. Will call on Tuesday with a friend.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Henry] Cole
July 20, 18697x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 2p. Concerning a publication.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Henry] Bence Jones
July 30, 1869 

Regarding the Faraday Memorial Meetings.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Henry] Cole
Oct. 30, 18697x4-1/2

A.L.S. 2p. Business.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Austen Henry] Layard
November 11, 1869 

Delighted with the address.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
March 20, 1870 

Regarding points raised in earlier letters from Williamson, applicability to paleontology.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
June 18, 1870 

Regarding Williamson's paper.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Smith
July 21, 1870 

Declining an invitation.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
August 13, 1870 

Recipient Hooker (rather than Turner) as per Richard Drayton, 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Biography of Hooker
September 6, 1871 

Obtained from Mr. Wallace. Page 5 of author biographies.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
February 27, 1872 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
June 21, 1872 
Rivett-Carnac, [H.?].
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
August 13, 1872 

Advises Hooker to look at the East Indian Cotton Collection, of possible use to Kew.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir John] Kirk
November 12, 1872 

2 folded sheets, 8 pages.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Severn
January 3, 1873 

Regarding myrtle blossoms.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Feb. 21, 18736x4

Kew, A.L.S. 2p. Would accept the presidencey. Goes to Hastings for holiday.

General physical description: 6x4

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "Dear Sir"
March 10, 1873 

Accepting the offer of Gardenias.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mrs. Hutton
April 19, 1873 

Regarding his wife's health.

Grey-Egerton, Philip de Malpas, Sir, 10th bart., 1806-1881.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
September 10, 1873 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Robert] Brown
November 12, 1873 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
November 12, 1873 

Recipient Hooker (rather than Turner) as per Richard Drayton, 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dr. [Robert] Brown
January 12, 1874 

Received a copy of Brown's book.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Smith
August 6, 1874 

Regarding a drawing.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
November 5, 1874 

Notification of the award of the Royal Medal from the Royal Society.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dr. [Robert] Brown
December 21, 1874 

Appreciative of the sympathy.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Robert] Brown
December 31, 1874 

Invitation for Tuesday next.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
February 8, 1875 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dr. Appleton
February 20, 1875 

Sympathy.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
March 21, 1875 

Recipient Hooker (rather than Turner) as per Richard Drayton, 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "Dear Lady -----
April 4, 18754-1/2x3-3/4

Kew, A.L.S. 1p Forwards photograph.

General physical description: 4-1/2x3-3/4

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
April 14, 18756-1/4x4

Kew, A.L.S. 3p. Plans for travelling to and in France.

General physical description: 6-1/4x4

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
May 8, 18757-1/4x4-1/2

Kew; A.L.S. 3p. Would like to travel with him in France and suggests route.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
June 1, 18757-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 2p. Questions the wisdom of manufacturing quinine in India.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
June 4, 18757-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 3p. Invitation to visit. The "pots" have arrived and he sent some off to Huxley.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dr. [Robert] Brown
July 8, 1875 

Regrets inability to meet.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dr. King
March 13, 1876 

Regarding Thursday, "a Royal Society night."

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "Dear Cooke"
March 25, 1876 

Regarding Rousouch (?) and Boxale (?).

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
May 15, 1876 

List of names.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
May 25, 18767-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 2p. Lists prominent physicists. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to ----
Aug. 18, 18767" x 4 1/2"

Royal Gardens, Kew, A.L.S. 3p. Contribution to a hospital.

General physical description: 7" x 4 1/2"

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Oct. 25, 18767x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 4p. Wants a brief note on meteorological research from him.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
January 6, 1877 

Letter and envelope.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
March 23, 18777-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 2p. Concerning a post in India.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
April 20, 18777-1/4x4-1/4

A.L.S. 4p. Concerning a proposed visit to the U.S. and a tour of it. Refers to Gray.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/4

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
May 6, 18777-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 1p. and add. Concerning an appointment for a friend. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
May 18, 18774-1/2x3-3/4

A.L.S. 2p. Invitation to dinner to meet scientific friends from Geneva.

General physical description: 4-1/2x3-3/4

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dr. Trentler
June 4, 1877 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
June 26, 18774-1-2x3-3/4

A.L.S. 1p. Hopes to join him tomorrow.

General physical description: 4-1-2x3-3/4

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Aug. 8, 18778x5

San Francisco, A.L.S. 6p. Concerning his travels in the U.S. Geology. Refers to A. Gray.

General physical description: 8x5

Spottiswoode, William, 1825-1883.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
January 1, 1878 

Regarding Hooker's book, an expedition.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to ----
May 31, 18787-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 3p. Approves of the changes. Kew gardens opening date.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to ----
October 17, 1878 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Nov. 12, 18787-1/4x4-1/4

A.L.S. 4p. Is overwhelmed with Royal Society work and botanical problems. States what Kew needs from India.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/4

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Cooke"
November 14, 1878 

Regarding finances.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Lady Jane Maria Grant] Strachey
Nov. 25, 18786x4

A.L.S. 3p. Thanks for the Check. Comments on her husband.

General physical description: 6x4

Siemens, Charles William, 1823-1883.
Letter to Sir Joseph [Dalton Hooker]
December 15, 1878 

Regarding Royal Society subscription.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Aunt"
March 3, 1879 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Sir William [Jenner]
October 23(?), 1879 

Introduction of H. J. Ryder. Includes envelope and Ryder's card.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Šir Richard] Strachey
Dec. 20, 18797x4-1/2

A.L.S. 4p. Identification of his Indian botanical specimens.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Jan. 17, 18807-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 8p. Concerning various collections of natural history material to be made in India.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Browne
February 18, 1880 

Manufacturing and material details.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Feb. 22, 18807-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 3p. Will be glad to get the Indian specimens all done. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
February 28, 1880 

Museum business.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Severn
April 27, 1880 

Arrangements to meet Severn's mother.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
May 17, 1880 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
June 10, 1880 

Regarding nomenclature.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] S[trachey]
Sept. 15, 18804-1/2x3-1/2

A.L.S. 4p. The Grays arrive tomorrow and he is invited to visit with them. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 4-1/2x3-1/2

Franks, Augustus Wollaston, Sir, 1826-1897.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
October 11, 1880 

Accepts Hooker's invitation.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:238828/

Strachey, Richard, Sir, 1817-1908.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
January 1, 1881 

Arrangements to send gardner to Kew to "pick up anything suitable."

Franks, Augustus Wollaston, Sir, 1826-1897.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
January 5, 1881 

Regarding a visit to Kew; hopes to meet "your Chinese friend."

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:241388/

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
May 17, 18827x4-1/2

A.L.S. 3p. Division of natural history material from India. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
June 7, 1883Half penny post card.
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
June 16, 1883Half penny post card.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
July 19, 1883Half penny post card.
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
August 31, 1883 

Recipient Hooker (rather than Turner) per Richard Drayton, 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
July 22, 18847-1/4x4-1/2

A.L.S. 2p. "Huxley, Flower, Lubbock and myself" are working on the Affghan [sic] settlement. Comments on a man needing a post.

General physical description: 7-1/4x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to----
Jan. 14, 18854 1/2" x 3 1/2"

Royal Gardens, Kew, (?) A.L.S. 2p. Suggests that he apply to Mr. F.O. Bower for aid.

General physical description: 4 1/2" x 3 1/2"

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Bewicke
July 9, 1885 

Regarding a paper.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
18857x4-1/2

A.L.S. 1p. Retires from Kew "on the 30th."

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875.
Letter to Sir Joseph [Dalton Hooker]
July 11, 1887 

Regarding botanical names.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Lady Jane Maria Grant] Strachey
March 21, 18887x4-1/2

A.L.S. 1p. and add. Thanks her husband for his help. Friendly letter.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Aunt"
April 12, 1889 

Regarding a request for a picture, an invitation, and family updates.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Aunt"
April 18, 1889 

Regarding travel, children's education.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Aunt"
April 18, 1889 

Family updates.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "Aunt"
April 21, 1889 

Regarding picture to be sent.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Aunt"
June 2, 1889 

Regarding the return of the picture; Australian expedition.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [William Crawford] Williamson
July 17, 1889 

Regarding flora, fossils.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Aunt Effie"
September 19, 1889 

Regarding picture, family updates.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Dec. 26, 18987x4-1/2

A.L.S. 2p. Comments on books on Africa.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Woodward
December 15, 1890 

Family updates.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
May 1, 1893 

REcipient Hooker per Richard Drayton 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Clements] Markham
March 29, 1895 

Regarding meeting.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Woodward
September 22, 1897 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mr. Melvile
November 24, 1897 

Separated material: Purchased with Letters of scientists.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Cousin"
April 22, 1901 

Family updates.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Woodward
August 2, 1902 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "Cousin Polly"
May 16, 1904Includes envelope addressed to Woodward.

Regarding a photograph of Dawson Turner.

General physical description: Includes envelope addressed to Woodward.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "Cousin Polly"
July 2, 1905 

Personal news.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Woodward
September 28, 1905 

Regarding Tibet.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to "My dear Cousin"
June 14, 1907 

Personal news, health.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Woodward
November 28, 1908 

Personal news.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mrs. Woodward
November 28, 1910 

Personal news, health.

Burton, Decimus, 1800-1881.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton?] Hooker
January 27, undated 

Regarding a package.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
April 19, undated7-1/2x4-1/2

Kew, A.L.S. 2p. Asks him to take chair. Business.

General physical description: 7-1/2x4-1/2

Reeve, Henry, 1813-1895.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
April 23, undated 

Regrets he was too unwell to attend the Royal Society the previous evening.

Ferguson, William, 1820-1887.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton] Hooker
May 21, undated 

Plans to be at the Atheneum.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
July 31, undated8x5

A.L.S. 2p. Encloses Spottiswoode's answer to Galton, etc. Friendly letter. Compliments him on his publication.

General physical description: 8x5

Ramsay, A. C. (Andrew Crombie), 1814-1891.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton?] Hooker
November 25, undated 

Recommends contacting Reeks to ask about Ball, about whom Ramsay knows nothing.

Candolle, Alphonse de, 1806-1893.
Letter to [Sir Joseph Dalton?] Hooker
Monday, undated 

In French. Regarding plans to meet.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir H. Ellis?]
Monday, undated 

Regarding plants.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Lovell Augustus Reeve?]
Monday, undated 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
Tuesday, undated 

Recipient Hooker (rather than Turner) as per Richard Drayton 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Dawson [Hooker]
Wednesday, undated 

Recipient Hooker (rather than Turner) as per Richard Drayton 8/92.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Eliza] Meteyard
Thursday, undated 

Regarding requests to Mr. Wedgwood, books, photography.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to Mrs. Stokes
Thursday, undated 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir John William] Lubbock
Friday, undated 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Lovell Augusts Reeve?]
Friday, undated 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Friday, undated 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
Saturday, undated 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Lovell Augustus Reeve?]
undated 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard] Strachey
undated7x4-1/2

Friday. A.L.S. 4p. In pencil. Humidity. Refers to Tyndall. Friendly letter. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 7x4-1/2

Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911.
Letter to [Sir Richard Strachey]
undated5-1/2x3-1/2

Kew Saturday. A.L.S. 1p. Archibald Smith would like to visit. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 5-1/2x3-1/2

Envelopes
June 10, 1907; undated 

2 envelopes. June 10, 1907; undated.

Hopkinson, Francis, 1737-1791.
Notebook, 1784-1791
undated5 1/4" x 3"

A.D. 5 leaves paper bd. Mentions APS bond for £300, Feb. 20, 1784. Unlocated March 1, 2011.

General physical description: 5 1/4" x 3"

Hopkinson, Francis, 1737-1791.
Poems
undated 

A.D.S. 11 items, with one duplicate copy. Various sizes. (for titles, see table of contents) Now 12 items, since one leaf was divided. Unlocated March 1, 2011.