An Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society

Mss.B.D25

Date: 1799-1882 | Size: 2.5 Linear feet

Abstract

One of the most important natural historians in nineteenth century Britain, Charles Darwin provided the first compelling mechanism to account for organismal evolutionary change. Although lacking a coherent model of heredity, Darwin's natural selection has exerted an enormous influence over the biological sciences and since the introduction of Mendelian genetics, had remained the key unifying principle in the discipline.

The APS Darwin Papers are a large a valuable assemblage of Darwin's correspondence with scientific colleagues, including Charles Lyell and George J. Romanes. They are included in the print version of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge Univ. Press).

Background note

The profound influence of the thought of Charles Darwin on contemporary scientific culture stems largely from his theory of natural selection, the first widely accepted mechanism to account for organismal evolutionary change. A product of Victorian preconceptions of the order of nature and the nature of change, both Darwin and his theories have proven remarkably resilient and remain a vital heuristic in the biological sciences.

The son of the physician Robert Darwin, Charles Darwin was blessed with a pair of illustrious grandfathers from the progressive elite of British Whiggery, the savant and proto-evolutionist, Erasmus Darwin, and the manufacturer of ceramics, Josiah Wedgwood. Born in Shrewsbury on February 12, 1809, Charles entered the University of Edinburgh at age sixteen, intending to follow in his father's footsteps into medicine, but he proved as unmotivated a student as he was unenthusiastic. Repulsed by the experience of attending surgeries undertaken in the absence of anaesthetics, Darwin abandoned his already half-hearted commitment to medicine and in 1827, he left Edinburgh for Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for the ministry.

The change of venue did little to rouse Darwin's enthusiasm for coursework, however at Cambridge, he met three men whose enthusiasm for nature sparked his imagination. With the great geologist, Charles Lyell, Darwin undertook field excursions to south Wales and was introduced to the concept of uniformitarianism; with F.W. Hope, he spent the summer of 1829 collecting bugs and beetles; while the botanist John Stevens Henslow encouraged his interest in the natural sciences, but equally importantly introduced him to Captain Robert Fitz-Roy. After receiving his degree in 1831, Darwin signed on as naturalist aboard Fitz-Roy's H.M.S. Beagle on its cruise around the world. Summarizing Darwin's subsequent career would be an exercise in courting claims to insufficiency while guaranteeing inadequacy, yet

Returning home from the Beagle in 1836, Darwin began in earnest to write and publish in natural history. His first paper, speculating on the origin of coral atolls, was begun in December 1835, and he began his first notebook on theories relating to the transmutation of species in July 1837, only two months after presenting his coral atoll paper at the Geological Society. Financial pressures were not a concern for the well-heeled Darwin, particularly after marrying his wealthy first cousin, Emma Wedgwood, in January 1839, and from the late 1830s onward, Darwin was able to lead an gentleman's life devoted to the pursuit of science, interrupted on occasion by illness and family concerns.

Darwin's first major monograph, his Journal of Researches (London: H. Colburn, 1839), was an important record of the geological and natural historical observations made during his voyage aboard the Beagle, and was a huge popular success. Since his visit to the Galapagos aboard the Beagle, however, Darwin had been percolating with ideas on the transmutation of species, an idea that had concerned his grandfather Erasmus before him. According to Darwin's retelling of the events, his ideas began to gel after reading Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population, which confirmed his predilection for viewing nature as a struggle for existence in which "favourable variations would tend to be preserved and unfavourable ones to be destroyed." Malthusian logic, he believed, would lead one to conclude that the end result would be the differential reproduction of animal populations based upon the characteristics each possessed, leading ultimately to speciation. By the early 1840s, Darwinian natural selection was beginning to germinate.

Yet still he sat. Darwin's research during the 1840s and early 1850s included brushes with the evolutionist thought of the botanist J.D. Hooker, the cosmic Robert Chambers and others, and in 1842, he sketched out the rudiments of his theory, thinking enough of it to have it copied two years later. His ardor for publishing on the topic may have been cooled by the hostility he saw meted out to Chambers' Vestiges of the Natural Creation (1844), but his attention was also divided -- barnacles and migraines were as much part of Darwin's decades as natural selection. Even the appearance in 1855 of Alfred Russel Wallace's "On the Law Which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History did little to prod Darwin onward, nor did the intervention of his old mentor, Charles Lyell, speed the pen. It was not until 1858 that Darwin moved forward, having receiving a letter from Wallace informing him that Malthus's Essay had illuminated his thinking on the origin of species, and enclosing a manuscript for comment that outlined a theory with a strong, coincidental resemblance to Darwin's own. Fearful of losing any claim to priority, Darwin had his 1844 essay and Wallace's published jointly in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society in August 1858, and he proceeded feverishly (often literally so) to work on a longer "abstract" of his ideas, the work that became his magnum opus, On the Origin of Species (London: J. Murray, 1859).

In the spectacular sequence of books that followed, Darwin elucidated various aspects of the theory of natural selection, progressing with increasing confidence through The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (London: J.Murray, 1868), The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (London: J. Murray, 1871); and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and the Animals (London: J. Murray, 1872). Lacking, as he admitted, in any coherent theory of heredity, Darwin's natural selection nevertheless provided a persuasive explanation of the mechanics of organismal change. While the response to natural selection was not uniformly warm, perhaps even providing impetus to Lamarckian theories of inheritance, it was chiefly responsible for establishing evolutionary change as an integral part of biological explanation. The broader implications of Darwin's thought, including the role of contingency, relativism, and stochasticity in organismal change continue to define biological interests. More subtly, his ideas catalyzed a slow shift away from typological thinking (imaging the organism with respect to a perfect "type") toward viewing organisms in the context of a population, an attitudinal adjustment with profound implications for the practice of science in the twentieth century.

Darwin continued with research and writing until the time of his death on April 19, 1882. His last work was the quirky, fascinating, and perhaps prophetic book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms (London: J. Murray 1882).

Scope and content

This collection also includes correspondence between Charles Darwin and Charles Lyell (see the "Non-Carroll Darwin Materials" section). Also contained in this section is correspondence to Lyell from others than Darwin. (N.B.: All correspondence written by Lyell to others than Darwin, and held by APS, will be found in the Sir Charles Lyell Papers, Mss.B.L981.)

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Physical description

2.5 linear feet

2.5 linear feet

Provenance

Acquired, 1950s to present.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Charles Darwin Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Processing information

The Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society was edited and annotated by P. Thomas Carroll, with a foreword by Frederick Burkhart.

The print edition was published by SR Scholarly Resources Inc. in 1976.

Address:

Scholarly Resources, Inc.

1508 Pennsylvania Avenue

Wilmington, Delaware 19806

The Library of the American Philosophical Society took its first step toward assembling a collection of manuscripts and books relating to Charles Darwin and evolution in 1950. In that year, at the suggestion of William E. Lingelbach and with the support of Edwin G. Conklin, librarian and president respectively, the Society purchased at auction in London 177 letters from Darwin to Sir Charles Lyell and some 277 more to Lyell from other British and European scientists. Copies of the letters were deposited in the British Museum, and the originals became the nucleus of the Society's Darwin collection. (See Edwin G. Conklin, "Letters of Charles Darwin and Other Scientists and Philosophers to Sir Charles Lyell, Bart.," Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., 95 (1951): 220-22.)

To extend the collection Dr. Lingelbach asked the assistance of Dr. Loren C. Eiseley, who was then writing Darwin's Century. For some years Dr. Eiseley systematically scanned catalogues, made lists of desiderata, and, on visits to booksellers here and in England, purchased books by and about Darwin. Meanwhile the Library continued to acquire letters of Charles Darwin and other 19th century naturalists until it now has almost 700 by Darwin alone.

In 1973, the preparation of a calendar was begun by the Library in the belief that scholars could use a guide that was something more than a list but short of fully edited transcriptions of the Darwin letters. The work has been supported by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and it is now published with the approval of Mr. George P. Darwin.

The calendar was prepared by P. Thomas Carroll. Besides providing concise descriptions of the contents of unpublished letters, Mr. Carroll has indicated when changes were made in published versions, corrected erroneous transcriptions and added notes. A particularly important contribution of this calendar is the method Mr. Carroll and a colleague, Professor Thaddeus Trenn, have devised for dating the letters more accurately. All Darwin scholars are familiar with this difficult problem and all of them will appreciate help with it.

The present volume contains a substantial portion (about 15%) of all the Darwin letters that have so far been located. A search is now in progress to find as many more as possible for a "Collected Letters of Charles Darwin" of which I am a Co-Editor with Dr. Sydney Smith of St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. On the basis of my experience, I can attest to the skill and thoroughness with which Mr. Carroll has dealt with the many difficulties that confront an editor of Darwin's correspondence.

Scholarly interest in Darwin has been growing steadily in recent years and the Library of the American Philosophical Society has become a center of Darwin research on this side of the Atlantic. The present volume is thus a welcome introduction to a collection that has become an indispensable resource for research on the life and work of Charles Darwin and the history of the theory of evolution.

Other finding aids

Many of these letters are described briefly in P. Thomas Carroll, An Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1976). Call no.: 012 D25c.

A comprehensive calendar of Darwin manuscripts is provided in Frederick Burkhardt and Sydney Smith, A Calendar of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, 1821-1882 (N.Y.: Garland, 1985). Call no.: 016.091 D25b

Related material

Although Darwin's correspondence is very widely dispersed, the largest collection of Darwin Papers is housed at the Cambridge University Library (http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/MSS/Darwin.html). Cambridge hosts an on-line calendar of Darwin correspondence at http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Departments/Darwin/calintro.html.

The Getz Collection (B D25.m) contains additional Darwin Papers, and the Library houses the complete files of the Darwin Papers Editorial Project (Ms. Coll. 28) (including photocopies of all extant Darwin letters) and microfilm of Darwin materials held at Down House (films 496,13; 496,14), along with material relating to Erasmus Darwin and other members of the Darwin family.

In addition to manuscript letters to and from Charles Darwin, several other items in the Library of the American Philosophical Society may be of interest to the Darwin scholar. These are discussed below in more-or-less general way which, although not a comprehensive list, should give readers some idea of the nature of these collections. The items are discussed in groups, by type of document.

Manuscript items

Included under this rubric are three types of documents:

  1. the correspondence and other papers of those people who corresponded with Darwin--all of it relating directly to manuscript letters calendared above;
  2. autograph documents from Darwin's own papers or from others, but relating directly to Darwin and not connected to any of the manuscript letters calendared above; and
  3. manuscript correspondence to and from other members of the Darwin family besides Charles Darwin.

There are seven items of the first type. All of these pertain to the case of the inheritance of an injury in a goose, as related to Darwin by Reuben A. Blair in the correspondence with him calendared above. The documents are: 1) a photograph of the deformed goose; 2) a letter from Blair concerning the goose and printed in the Sedalia Democrat; 3) a letter from William Henry Flower to Blair; 4) the report by Flower and his assistant, Dr. Larson, on the wings of the affected geese; 5) a letter from Blair to an unnamed correspondent; and 6) letters exchanged between Blair and Spencer Fullerton Baird of the Smithsonian Institution.

There are twenty items of the second type. These documents are: 1) five leaves from the manuscript of the Origin of Species; 2) a signed page from the manuscript of the Descent of Man; 3) a signed page from some other Darwin manuscript (discusses Catasetum); 4) a printed petition for the endowment of research, issued by J. Norman Lockyer and C. E. Appleton, and signed by Darwin; 5) the final page of the petition for a pension for Alfred Russel Wallace, signed by twelve persons, including Darwin; 6) sketches of Darwin, his wife, grandson, and dog, by Albert Goodwin; 7) documents pertaining to Darwin's funeral in Westminster Abbey (eleven items); 8) inscription from the Carroll # 372 statue of Darwin at Oxford University; 9) a discussion of Darwin's B: D25.176 religion by H. Buxton Forman; and 10) a pass to the Zoological Gardens, issued to James Gough by Darwin.

There are 44 items of the third type, which is too many to list individually here. Members of the Darwin family involved in this correspondence are: Emma Wedgwood Darwin (two letters, correspondence with Mrs. Georgiana Rosetta Smyth Flower and with John Maurice Herbert); Francis Darwin (39 letters, correspondence with Leo Abram Errera, George John Romanes, Thomas Roscoe Rede Stebbing, and Otto Zacharias); and George Howard Darwin (three letters, correspondence with F. W. Surman and Otto Zacharias).

Photocopies of manuscript items

The Library has 26 documents pertaining to Darwin, the originals of which are located elsewhere; only photographically-reproduced paper copies of the documents are at the APS. These fall into two categories: photocopies of manuscript correspondence with Darwin; and photocopies of Darwin-related documents from the papers of Darwin correspondents. In the first category, there are copies of correspondence with the College of Physicians of Philadelphia (one letter), Ignatius Donnelly (two letters), Hugo de Vries (one letter), Benjamin Dann Walsh (eighteen letters), and Jeffries Wyman (two letters). In the second category, there is a photocopy of a letter from Frank J. Mead, editor of the Minneapolis Evening Times, to Ignatius Donnelly, concerning Darwinism and Christianity, and a photocopy of a portion of Donnelly's diary which mentions Darwin.

Microfilms of manuscript items

The Library has nine sets of microfilms of Darwin materials which are on deposit at various institutions all over the world. These films contain the following: 1) correspondence in possession of Down House, Kent (one reel); 2) correspondence in the Robert Stecher Collection at the Cleveland Medical Library Association (one reel); 3) correspondence in the New York Botanical Garden (one reel); letters to Auguste H. Forel, from originals in the Medicinhistorisches Institut, University of Switzerland, and in University of Basel Library (sixteen frames); 4) letters to Bernhard Studer and to A. von Morlot (seven items); 5) letters to J. Moulinie, A. Dohrn, Karl Christoph Vogt, Pictet, and de la Rive, from originals in the Bibliotheque Publique et Universitaire de Geneve (25 letters); 6) notebooks written during the voyage of the Beagle, from Down House, Kent (eighteen notebooks, one reel); 7) diary and correspondence written during the voyage of the Beagle, from Down House, Kent (one reel); and 9) chronology and bibliography of Darwin's life, compiled by Sir Gavin de Beer, containing an incomplete list of all of Darwin's correspondence (two reels).

Photographs and prints

The Library has approximately twelve different photographs and prints of Darwin and of Down House. Some of the best of these are used as illustrations in this calendar.

Books

The APS Library has about 4700 copies of various editions of Darwin's works in the Library, plus a fair collection of some of the rarer and/or more significant editions of the works of his correspondents, colleagues, and contemporary naturalists and biologists.

In 2007, James W. Valentine donated his collection of approximately 4,500 volumes of the printed works of Charles Darwin. This comprehensive collection of Darwin material provides an original copy of virtually every edition and variation of all of Darwin's books and publications in nearly all of the major (and many minor) languages of the world.

The collection contains most of the first published appearances of writings by Darwin, including many of his serial publications, and provides an opportunity to research the history of translations, successive editions, introductory essays, images, and many other aspects of the transference of Darwin's theories. Additionally, the collection contains a number of Darwin-related titles and popularized editions of his work, including children's books.

Chief among the important items in this collection are the first printing, complete, of the Narrative of the HMS Beagle; the first serial publications of Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace's On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection; numerous editions, including the first four, of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection; and a fine representative selection of scientific journals with articles by Darwin, beginning with ones early in his career.

With the acquisition of this collection, the APS Library is now one of the few repositories in the world to own all 25 British first editions of Darwin's works.

Prior to 2007, the APS Library held 150 works by Darwin. Space does not permit a full listing of these 150 works, but it is possible to give some indication of the collection by referring to the number assigned to each edition held by the Library in the standard bibliography of Darwin's works (R. B. Freeman, The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist [London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1965]). The "Freeman numbers" of the Library's holdings are given below, without comment.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 16, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 95, 99, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 142, 205, 207, 208, 210, 219, 220, 231, 231n, 232, 234, 246, 247, 250, 255, 269, 281, 283, 292, 297, 298, 303, 305, 308, 309, 311, 314, 315, 319, 332, 333, 334, 343, 344, 345, 346, 349, 359, 361, 362, 364, 365, 366, 367, 369, 370, 371, 173, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 380, 381, 383, 396, 405, 406, 407, 409, 411, 416, 425, 426, 432, 445, 447, 452, 454, 458, 461, 464, 468, 471, 473, 476, 477, 492, 503, 507, 508, 512, 513, 517, 530, 541.

In addition to these editions, the Library has at least 26 editions of Darwin's works not listed in Freeman.

Subject card catalogs

For a great many years, the Library has maintained subject card catalogs on Darwinism. These catalogs list any published work among the Library's holdings which mentions or discusses Darwin and/or Darwinism. They provide an unparalleled source for study of the influence of Darwin upon society and upon Western thought. There is one card catalog for books, containing approximately 2,800 entries, and another for journal articles, containing approximately 1,000 entries.

An effort has been made to make this appendix as complete as possible, but as the Library is constantly adding to its Darwin holdings, the careful scholar is warned that this compendium will be out of date in a short time.

Other Darwin Letters in the Greater Philadelphia Area

It is expected that this calendar will render unnecessary many visits to Philadelphia by Darwin scholars which would have been mandatory otherwise. While this is a beneficial result of the publication of this book, it is not without its harmful side effects. The worst of these would have been that the many miscellaneous Darwin materials in other institutions in the Philadelphia area might be neglected; this appendix is designed to prevent this by listing the results of a search by mail for other manuscript Darwin letters in select institutions in the greater Philadelphia area.

To conduct the search, a form letter was sent to the 31 institutions in the area judged by the editor to be the most likely to possess Darwin letters. Thirty institutions replied; they are listed below, and the name of the person responding is given for each institution.

  • Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (Martha T. Pilling, Library Assistant)
  • Bryn Mawr College Library (James Tanis, Head Librarian)
  • Bucknell University (George M. Jenks, Librarian, Ellen Clarke Bertrand Library)
  • College of Physicians of Philadelphia (Ellen G. Gartrell, Assistant Curator, Historical)
  • Dickenson College (Danna Spitzform, Assistant to the Curator, Special Collections, Boyd Lee Spahr Library)
  • Drexel University (Michael Halperin, Archives and Special Collection)
  • Eleutherian Mills Historical Library (Betty-Bright P. Low, Research and Reference Librarian)
  • Franklin and Marshall College (Frances L. Hopkins, Reference Librarian, Fackenthal Library)
  • The Franklin Institute (Stephanie A. Morris, Associate Archivist)
  • Free Library of Philadelphia (Howell J. Heaney, Rare Book Librarian)
  • Hahnemann Medical College Library (Barbara Williams, Acting Librarian)
  • Haverford College Library (Edwin B. Bronner, Librarian)
  • Historical Society of Delaware (Gladys M. Coghlan)
  • Jefferson Medical College Library (Robert T. Lentz, Librarian)
  • Lafayette College (Ronald E. Robbins, Reference Librarian, David Bishop Skillman Library)
  • Lehigh University (James D. Mack, Director of University Libraries, Linderman Library)
  • Library Company of Philadelphia (Edwin Wolf, II, Librarian)
  • Pennsylvania State University (Dorrie Evans, Rare Books and Special Collections, Fred Lewis Pattee Library)
  • Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science Library (Elizabeth W. J. Chase, Librarian)
  • Princeton University Library (Mardel Pacheco, Assistant to Curator of Manuscripts)
  • Philip H. and A. S. W. Rosenbach Foundation Museum and Library (Clive E. Driver, Director)
  • Saint Joseph's College (Josephine Savaro, Head Librarian, Drexel Library)
  • Swarthmore College (Judith Pullam, Administrative Assistant, Thomas E. and Jeanette L. McCabe Library)
  • Temple University (Thomas M. Whitehead, Head, Special Collections Department, Samuel Paley Library)
  • University of Delaware Libraries (Stuart Dick, Special Collections, Hugh M. Morris Library)
  • University of Pennsylvania Libraries (Neda Westlake, Rare Book Collection)
  • Ursinus College (Calvin D. Yost, Jr., Librarian, Myrin Library)
  • Villanova University (Mary A. Dorrian, Readers Service, Falvey Memorial Library)
  • Wagner Free Institute of Science (Robert Chambers, Director)
  • and Widener College (Lee C. Brown, Librarian, Wolfgram Memorial Library)

The editor is grateful for the cooperation of these institutions and individuals.

Twenty-four letters of Charles Darwin were produced by the search. They are listed below, in chronological order.

All letters are listed with the permission of their owners, for which permission the editor is grateful.

Missing Title
  1. 1838 January 23 Sunday, to John Stevens Henslow; Al, S by init.; 4p.; courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  2. 1843 July 19th, to Ernest Dieffenbach; ALS; 2p.; courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  3. 1853 Jan. 10th, to Albany Hancock; ALS; 4p.; courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  4. ?1854 Nov. 20th, to John Stevens Henslow; ALS; 2p.; courtesy of the Princeton University Library.
  5. 1860 March. 4th, to Joseph Leidy; ALS; 4p.; courtesy of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (see their Collection 1). See calendar entry for this letter (number 202), page 69, above.
  6. 1860 May 8., to the Secretary of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (see their Collection 330).
  7. 1862 April 25th, to Heinrich Georg Bronn; ALS; 6p.; courtesy of Lehigh University.
  8. 1871 July 1, to?; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  9. 1872 Oct. 10th, to Alpheus Hyatt; ALS; 4p.; courtesy of the Princeton University Library (see the Hyatt and Mayer Correspondence).
  10. 1873 Feb 19, to William M. Canby; LS; 3p.; William M. Canby Correspondence, Society of Natural History of Delaware Archives, on deposit at the Historical Society of Delaware.
  11. 1873 May 7, to William M. Canby; LS; 2p.; William M. Canby Correspondence, Society of Natural History of Delaware Archives, on deposit at the Historical Society of Delaware.
  12. 1874 May 11, to Thomas Lauder Brunton; LS; 4p.; courtesy of the Princeton University Library.
  13. 1874 June 30., to?; LS; 2p.; courtesy of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia.
  14. 1875 Oct. 30th, to Messrs. Smith & Elder; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of Lehigh University.
  15. 1876 Aug. 21st, to Messrs. Smith & Elder; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of Lehigh University.
  16. 1876 Nov. 20th, to?; LS; 2p.; original in private possession of Dr. Seymour Adelman, c/o James Tanis, Head Librarian, Bryn Mawr College Library.
  17. 1877 March 7., to Messrs. Smith & Elder; LS; 4p.; courtesy of Lehigh University.
  18. 1877 June 6th, to?; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of Haverford College Library (Charles Roberts Autograph Letters Collection).
  19. 1880 Nov. 5, to?; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
  20. 1882 Feb 22, to?; LS; 4p.; courtesy of Princeton University Library (privately owned; from the private library of William H. Scheide, Princeton, New Jersey; no connection with Princeton University Library).
  21. n.y. April 6th., to?; ALS; 3p.; courtesy of Lehigh University.
  22. n.y. May 7, to?; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of Philip Schwartz, M.D., Medical Research Director, Warren State Hospital, Warren, Pennsylvania (privately owned by Dr. Schwartz).
  23. n.y. Oct 2d., to?; ALS; 1p.; courtesy of Lehigh University.
  24. n.y. Oct 14th, to "Madam"; ALS; 2p.; courtesy of Lehigh University.

Bibliography

Burkhardt, Frederick, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 1985-). Currently 12 vols. See The Darwin Correspondence Project (http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Departments/Darwin/pubns.html).

Descriptive Abbreviations

Descriptive abbreviations always indicate three things: the type of document being calendared; whether or not the document is in the hand of the author of the document; and the presence or absence of the author's signature. Sometimes they also give additional information, such as indication that the signature is in the form of initials only. These abbreviations are more-or-less standardized among archivists, and they are discussed elsewhere in considerable detail, so only a brief explanation of them is provided below. Those unfamiliar with such abbreviations may consult the more extended discussion published elsewhere for details.

As used in this calendar, descriptive abbreviations consist of a combination of one or more basic abbreviations (usually each basic abbreviation is a single letter) into a composite abbreviation which fully describes the document being calendared. The basic abbreviations used are the following:

These basic forms can be combined to form composite abbreviations which describe the item being calendared. It would be foolish to list all the possible permutations of the basic forms here, especially since the many possible composite abbreviations can be suggested well by a few examples, such as the following: "ALS" indicates a holograph letter signed by the author; "LS" indicates a letter signed by the author but written in the hand of an amanuensis; "AN on p.c., S by init." indicates a holograph note written on a postal card and initialed, but not signed in full, by the author. The other possible combinations should follow logically from these examples, especially if readers keep in mind the following rule of thumb: assume that the author or composer of the item had nothing to do with the actual writing of the item unless indicated otherwise.

Missing Title
AAutograph; the defitem is written in the hand of the author.
add.Address; the address of the recipient has been provided.
by init.By initials; the signature consists only of the author's initials.
DDocument; the defitem is a writing of some sort, but is not a letter or a note, and it is in reasonably final form.
end.Endorsement; a brief note written on the defitem by the recipient.
LLetter; the defitem is a written communication of some length.
NNote; the defitem is a very short written communcation.
p.c.Postal card; the defitem has been written upon a standard postal card.
SSigned; the defitem has been signed by its author.
sketchSketch; part of the defitem is a drawing in the hand of the author.
TTyped; the defitem has been typed rather than written.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations of periodical titles not listed below may be found in the World List of Scientific Periodicals, 1900-1960, fourth edition. Abbreviations of titles not found in the World List were derived by the editor by using the system of abbreviation described in the World List; the resultant abbreviated titles are listed below. This rather unorthodox approach to abbreviating periodicals in an American publication (i.e. using an English source for abbreviations rather than, say, the Union List of Serials) was employed because the World List, unlike other sources, includes many of the more obscure titles cited by Darwin, and also because the World List abbreviations seem to the author to be the most systematic, consistent, and understandable of any yet devised.

With exceptions noted below, Darwin titles are shortened to the forms used as headings in Part 2 of R.B. Freeman, The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist, [first edition] (London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1965). For each Darwin work cited, the short title and the year of publication only are given, except in cases in which more than one issue of that title appear in the given year; in such cases, the number of the issue used, as found in the Freeman Handlist, is also provided. In places where only the short title and the year appear, and Freeman indicates that more than one issue of that title appeared in that year, the reader may assume that what is said applies to all of these issues or variants.

Common abbreviations, such as "univ." for "university", are omitted, of course.

Missing Title
AAASAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science.
Abstr. Pap. Communicated R. Soc. Lond.Abstracts of Papers Communicated to the Royal Society of London (usually considered to be volumes five and six of the Proceedings, 1843 to 1854).
APSAmerican Philosophical Society, Held at Philadelphia, for Promoting Useful Knowledge.
B.A.A.S.British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Barlow, ed., AutobiographyCharles Darwin, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882, with Original Omissions Restored, edited with appendix and notes by... Nora Barlow [Freeman 371] (London: Collins, 1958).
Brit. for. med.-chir. Rev.British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review.
CDCharles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882.
Can. NaturalistCanadian Naturalist and Quarterly Journal of Science, with Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Montreal.
corr.correspondent.
DABDictionary of American Biography.
Darwin, Coral ReefsThe Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Being the First Part of the Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle... (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1842).
Darwin, Fossil BalanidaeCharles Darwin, A Monograph on the Fossil Balanidae and Verrucidae of Great Britain [Freeman 105, v. 2] (London: Palaeontographical Society, 1854).
Darwin, Fossil LepadidaeCharles Darwin, A Monograph on the Fossil Lepadidae, or, Pedunculated Cirripedes of Great Britain [Freeman 105, v. 1] (London: Palaeontographical Society, 1851).
Darwin, Origin (year)Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, edition and issue determined by year of publication and, if necessary, by Freeman number.
Darwin, Recent BalanidaeCharles Darwin, A Monograph on the Sub-class Cirripedia, with Figures of All the Species: The Balanidae, (or Sessile Cirripedes); The Verrucidae, etc., etc., etc. [Freeman 103, v. 2] (London: The Ray Society, 1854).
Darwin, Recent LepadidaeCharles Darwin, A Monograph on the Sub-class Cirripedia, with Figures of All the Species: The Lepadidae; or, Pedunculated Cirripedes [Freeman 103, v. 1] (London: The Ray Society, 1851).
Darwin, South AmericaCharles Darwin, Geological Observations on South America, Being the Third Part of the Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle... (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1846).
Darwin, Volcanic IslandsCharles Darwin, Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands, Visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Together with Some Brief Notices on the Geology of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope, Being the Second Part of the Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle... (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1844).
Darwin and HenslowNora Barlow, ed., Darwin and Henslow: The Growth of an Idea. Letters, 1831-1860 (London: Bentham-Moxon Trust, John Murray, 1967).
DNBDictionary of National Biography.
DSBDictionary of Scientific Biography.
Edinb. J. nat. geogrl Sci.Edinburgh Journal of Natural and Geographical Science.
Edinb. new phil. J.Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal.
Edinb. Rev.Edinburgh Review.
Emma DarwinH. E. Litchfield, ed., Emma Darwin, Wife of Charles Darwin: A Century of Family Letters, 2v., privately printed [Freeman 359] (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1904).
FGSFellow of the Geological Society of London.
FLSFellow of the Linnean Society, London.
Fortn. Rev.Fortnightly Review.
FRCPFellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London.
FreemanR. B. Freeman, The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist (London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1965).
FRSFellow of the Royal Society of London.
FRSEFellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
FZSFellow of the Zoological Society of London.
Handlist of Darwin PapersHandlist of Darwin Papers at the University Library Cambridge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960).
iss.issue.
J. R. geogrl Soc. Lond.Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, London.
LaroussePierre Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIXe SiC(cle....
Life and LettersFrancis Darwin, ed., The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter, 3v. [Either Freeman 346 (first edition, 1887) or Freeman 349 (seventh thousand revised, 1888)] (London: John Murray, 1887 or 1888). A simple Life and Letters citation, therefore, indicates that the citation is correct for either of the two editions listed above; compare this with the next entry below.
Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888)Francis Darwin, ed., The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Including an Autobiographical Chapter, seventh thousand revised, 3v. [Freeman 349] (London: John Murray, 1888). A short-title citation of this type indicates a discrepancy in the pagination for the cited material between the first and the revised editions of the Life and Letters; the pages cited apply to the revised edition, while the same material can usually be found in the first edition a few pages later.
Life of Lyell[K. M. H.] Lyell, ed., Life, Letters, and Journals of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 2v. (London: John Murray, 1881).
Life of Romanes[Ethel Duncan] Romanes, ed., The Life and Letters of George John Romanes (London, New York, and Bombay: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896).
Lyell: The Years to 1841Leonard G. Wilson, Charles Lyell, The Years to 1841: The Revolution in Geology (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972).
Mag. nat. Hist.Magazine of Natural History (ultimately merged with Annals of Natural History to become Annals and Magazine of Natural History).
MEBFrederic Boase, Modern English Biography.
More LettersFrancis Darwin, and A. C. Seward, eds., More Letters of Charles Darwin: A Record of His Work in a Series of Hitherto Unpublished Letters, 2v. [Freeman 359] (London: John Murray, 1903).
MRCSMember of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
Nat. Hist. Rev.Natural History Review: A Quarterly Journal of Biological Science.
N. Br. Rev.North British Review.
Peckham, Variorum OriginMorse Peckham, ed., The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1959).
pmk.postmark.
PoggendorffJ. C. Poggendorff, ed., Biographisch -- Literarisches HandwC6rterbuch zur Geschichte der Exacten Wissenschaften.
Proc. geol. Soc. Lond.Proceedings of the Geological Society of London (preceded the Quarterly Journal).
Proc. nat. Hist. Soc. Dubl.Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Dublin.
PTCMaterial added by the compiler, P. Thomas Carroll.
Q. Rev.Quarterly Review.
Sat. Rev.Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art.
Silliman's J.American Journal of Science (known popularly as Silliman's Journal of Science).
Stauffer, ed., CD's Nat. SelectionRobert C. Stauffer, ed., Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, Being the Second Part of His Big Species Book Written from 1856 to 1858 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1975).
Trans. geol. Soc. Lond.Transactions of the Geological Society of London.
Vorzimmer, Reprint CataloguePeter J. Vorzimmer, comp., A Catalogue of the Darwin Reprint Collection at the Botany School Library, Cambridge (Cambridge: unpublished mimeograph, 1963).
wmk.watermark.

Footnotes

Footnotes

1 This is no place for a systematic review of the literature, but here are some examples: on the origins of Darwin's ideas, see recent articles by Barbara G. Beddall, Sandra Herbert, and Joel S. Schwartz in the Journal of the History of Biology, and Camille Limoges, La sélection naturelle: C tude sur la premiére constitution d'un concept (1837-1859) (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1970); on Darwin's method, see Michael T. Ghiselin, The Triumph of the Darwinian Method (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1969), and Stephen Jay Gould, "Darwin's `Big Book'," Science, N.Y., 188 (1975): 824-26; on the dissemination and early reception of Darwin's ideas, see Thomas F. Glick, ed., The Comparative Reception of Darwinism (Austin, Texas: Univ. of Texas Press, 1974), and David L. Hull, Darwin and His Critics: The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973); on the ultimate acceptance of Darwinism, see William B. Provine, The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1971); on the enlightenment of modern scientists, besides the numerous examples in population genetics, see Paul Ekman, ed., Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review (New York: Academic Press, 1973).

2 Some recent published transcriptions of Darwin's manuscripts include, in chronological order of publication: Barlow, ed., Autobiography; Darwin and Henslow; Howard E. Gruber, Darwin on Man: A Psychological Study of Scientific Creativity, Together with Darwin's Early and Unpublished Notebooks, transcribed and annotated by Paul H. Barrett (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1974); and Stauffer, ed., CD's Nat. Selection. This list is hardly exhaustive. See note 16 for recent printings of Darwin's letters.

3 Thomas Jefferson to Robert Walsh, April 5, 1823, as quoted in The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Julian P. Boyd, et. al. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1950-), I, xi.

4 Nora Barlow, ed., Autobiography.

5 Darwin to Lyell, Sept. 12, [1860], APS; see below, p. 85. (This and other examples of Darwin's letters used in the introduction are selected from unpublished portions of letters now in the American Philosophical Society; they illustrate the wealth of material edited out of previously published versions of Darwin's letters.) The passage on Ammonites which is being corrected is in Darwin, Origin (1859 or 1860), 321-22; according to Peckham, Variorum Origin, 531-32, lines 78-83, Darwin never brought his published claim regarding Ammonites into agreement with the admissions made to Lyell in this letter.

6 For example, in a letter to Lyell dated November 18, 1849, and printed in More Letters, II, 130-31, letter 486, Darwin wrote that "without most distinct evidence I will never admit that a dike joins on rectangularly to a stream of lava." Sixteen days later, in a letter dated December 4, he retreated somewhat from this position: "I remember in my last letter talking very big about dikes never being connected directly (i.e. rectangularly) with lava-streams; but it is clear that such occur frequently at the Sandwich Is[lan]ds without any cones." Although he continues by claiming that the situation at the Sandwich Islands [i.e. Hawaii] is "a rare exceptional case", Darwin clearly is amending his earlier claim. The December 4 letter has not been published before. See below, pp. 32-34.

7 Darwin to Lyell, December 4, [1860], APS, see below, pp. 89-90.

8 Just after the Origin was published, during the period when reviews of the book began to appear, Darwin told Asa Gray, "I have made up my mind to be well abused; but I think it of importance that my notions sh[oul]d be read by intelligent men, accustomed to scientific argument though not naturalists. It may seem absurd, but I think such men will drag after them those naturalists, who have too firmly fixed in their heads that a species is an entity." (Darwin to Asa Gray, December 21, [1859], Gray Herbarium, Harvard University; printed in Life and Letters II, 244-45; text above from manuscript letter.) In this passage, Darwin implied that his evolutionary "notions" were revolutionary in nature, at least among naturalists, and that he expected his supporters to come from outside the community of naturalists. How important a role he foresaw for these supporters is revealed four months later in his remark to Lyell that "the non-comittal [sic] men do not always most help a science." (Darwin to Lyell, April 27/28, [1860], APS, see below, p. 76.) Darwin reiterates this view and identifies some of his supporters in May when he writes to Lyell: "I can very plainly see, as I lately told [Joseph Dalton] Hooker, that my Book would have been & [would] be a mere flash in the pan, were it not for you, Hooker & a few others." (Darwin to Lyell, May 18, [1860], APS, see below, p. 78.) A month later-ironically on the eve of the historic Oxford meeting of the B.A.A.S. at which the Origin was debated so hotly-Darwin despaired of the rapid conversion of naturalists through the intercession of supporters, arguing instead that "time alone will bring naturalists round, when they find that they can explain many facts on such views as mine, & cannot on view of creation." (Darwin to Lyell, [June] 25, [1860], APS, see below, p. 82.) It is almost as if Darwin's practice of population thinking, so well-used on plant and animal species, was being applied to scientific communities; social historians and sociologists of science may find this of some interest, as might some philosophers of science. The foregoing is not meant, of course, to delineate the recent historiography of the social side of Darwin studies; for a stimulating marxist treatment of some aspects of this, see Robert Young, "The Historiographic and Ideological Contexts of the Nineteenth-Century Debate on Man's Place in Nature," in MikulC![scaron] Teich and Robert Young, eds., Changing Perspectives in the History of Science: Essays in Honour of Joseph Needham (London: Heinemann, 1973), 344-438, esp. 361-88.

9 In a confidence to Lyell in 1860, Darwin revealed his views on the role of priority in science, exposing in the process why he apparently never felt completely comfortable publishing simultaneously with Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858. Regarding a reference to Darwin by Asa Gray in one of the later's works, Darwin wrote: "he put my name before [that of Edward] Forbes on Glacial distribution: & I told him in answer that I had written out the notion 3 or 4 years before Forbes, but that I had no sort of claim to notice on this head, as he published first, & that in the Origin I shd. of course take no notice of this." (Darwin to Lyell, [February] 12, [1860], APS, see below, p. 71.) This gives some indication of Darwin's scrupulous professional ethics. On cirripedes, Darwin's expectations regarding the support he would receive for his radical discoveries were far more limited than were his expectations for his work on the origin of species. When Albany Hancock informed Darwin that he believed in Darwin's discovery of complemental males, Darwin replied that he had "greatly feared tha no one would believe in them; and now I know that [Richard] Owen, [James Dwight] Dana, and yourself are believers, I am most heartily content." (Darwin to Hancock, January 10, [1853], as printed in John Hancock, [ed.], "Letters from C. Darwin, Esq., to A. Hancock, Esq.," Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., 8, pt. 2 [1886]: 250-78, at 269; original at Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.)

10 Darwin to Lyell, August 9, [1838], APS, see below, p. 4. Although Darwin probably was not anticipating it here, FitzRoy committed suicide in 1865.

11 Darwin to Lyell, July 30, [1860], APS, see below, p. 83.)

12 In 1860, for example, he wrote Lyell: "I have nothing to say, as I have seen no one (except indeed [Joseph Dalton] Hooker for an hour or two at Kew) for an age." (Darwin to Lyell, July 30, [1860], APS, see below, p. 83.) This letter implies that the content of Darwin's meetings with colleagues forms much of the meat of his letters. Still, Darwin exaggerates in his claim that, when he has seen no one, he has nothing to say.

13 For example, we can tell from the letters that Darwin met Lyell in London on February 6, 1845. (Darwin to Lyell, Saturday, [February 8, 1845], APS, see below, pp. 16-17.) Unfortunately, this type of information is sometimes incorrect, either because Darwin would announce a date for a trip to London and then be too ill to travel on the appointed day, which occurred regularly, or because Darwin got his dates mixed up, which occurred very occasionally.

14 On his daughter's illness, see letters to Lyell during summer of 1860 (Darwin to Lyell, May 18, [1860], et seq., APS; see below, p. 78 ff). See especially: Darwin to Lyell, July 30, [1860], APS, see below, p. 83; and ibid., August 11, [1860], APS, see below, pp. 83-84. The first chapter of Darwin's book on insectivorous plants begins: "During the summer of 1860, I was surprised by finding how large a number of insects were caught by the leaves of the common sun-dew (Drosera rotundifolia) on a heath in Sussex. I had heard that insects were thus caught, but knew nothing further on the subject." (Darwin, Insectivorous Plants [1875], 1.)

15 On the addition to Down House, see: Darwin to [William] Marshall, September 19, 1876, APS, see below, p. 173, ibid., September 29, [1876], APS, see below, pp. 173-74; and ibid., November 22, [1876], APS, see below, p. 174. On the purchase of an enema, see Darwin to?, November 8, [1871-1875], APS, see below, p. 149.

16 A great many Darwin letters appear in the three volumes of Life and Letters the two volumes of More Letters, and the two volumes of Emma Darwin. A few of the many locations in which Darwin correspondence has appeared recently are, in chronological order: Gavin de Beer, "Further Unpublished Letters of Charles Darwin," Ann. Sci., 14 (1958): 83-115; idem, ed., "Some Unpublished Letters of Charles Darwin," Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond., 14 (1959); 12-66; Robert M. Stecher, "The Darwin-Innes Letters: The Correspondence of an Evolutionist with His Vicar, 1848-1884," Ann. Sci., 17 (1961): 201-58; Darwin and Henslow; Gavin de Beer, ed., "The Darwin Letters at Shrewsbury School," Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond., 23 (1968): 68-85; Robert M. Stecher, "The Darwin-Bates Letters: Correspondence between Two Nineteenth-Century Travellers and Naturalists," Ann. Sci., 25 (1969): 1-47, 95-125; Paul H. Barrett and Alain F. Corcos, "A Letter from Alexander Humboldt to Charles Darwin," J. Hist. Med., 27 (1972): 159-72; Barbara G. Beddall, " `Notes for Mr. Darwin': Letters to Charles Darwin from Edward Blyth at Calcutta: A Study in the Process of Discovery," Journal of the History of Biology, 6 (1973): 69-95; Thaddeus J. Trenn, "Charles Darwin, Fossil Cirripedes, and Robert Fitch: Presenting Sixteen Hitherto Unpublished Darwin Letters of 1849 to 1851," Proc. Am. phil. Soc., 118 (1974): 471-91; and Lewis S. Feuer, "Is the `Darwin-Marx Correspondence' Authentic?" Ann. Sci., 32 (1975): 1-12. For a reasonably complete, but by no means exhaustive, bibliography of Darwin letters published somewhat earlier, see Gavin de Beer, ed., "Some Unpublished Letters of Charles Darwin," op. cit., this note, 60-62 and 66.

17Life and Letters I, iii.

18More Letters, I, viii.

19Emma Darwin, I, vii. The count of 66 letters is from the privately printed edition, published in 1904; other editions are probably slightly different.

20Life and Letters I, iv.

21More Letters, I, ix.

22Emma Darwin, I, ix. Italics added.

23 See, for example, the statement of the method of dating used by Francis Darwin and Seward (More Letters, I, x). For an example of an improperly dated letter, see Darwin to Asa Gray, April 4, [1858]; this letter is dated "1859" in the first edition of Life and Letters ([1887], II, 154-55), but it is deleted from later editions, probably because Francis Darwin realized that it was improperly dated.

24 See note 16, above.

25 The usual reason for a poor transcription is the inability of the transcriber to read Darwin's handwriting, but still another reason is that thorough editorial standards are usually not employed for the transcription of the small number of letters usually included in these articles. A simple but important example is the use of parentheses instead of brackets around the editorially-added word "Cryptophialus" in the printed text of a letter to Albany Hancock, December 25, [1849], as printed in John Hancock, [ed.], "Letters from C. Darwin, Esq., to A. Hancock, Esq.," Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., 8 (1886): 250-78, at p. 258; original at APS, see below, p. 34. The unsuspecting scholar without access to the original letter might conclude from the printed text that by 1849 Darwin had identified his Arthrobalanus specimen as a Cryptophialus; this Darwin had not done-and in fact probably did not do until 1853-and realization of this is central to an understanding of Darwin's cirripede work (Thaddeus J. Trenn, "Charles Darwin, Fossil Cirripedes, and Robert Fitch: Presenting Sixteen Hitherto Unpublished Darwin Letters of 1849 to 1851," op. cit., note 16, passim, esp. 472-73 and 472n.

26 In some cases, a trip to Philadelphia might be avoided entirely by the acquisition of photocopies of letters of interest by mail-a practice which the Society wishes to encourage.

27 This unfortunate circumstance results from Darwin's habit of destroying letters received; this practice was not discontinued until 1862, and even after that date Darwin did not save all of his letters. Apparently he did not think of letters in the way Jefferson did when he wrote the passage quoted earlier. (Life and Letters I, v.)

28 Darwin meant that he respected Lyell's scientific and professional judgment above that of all others. See Life and Letters II, 119.

29 See particularly Darwin to Herbert, June 2, 1833, APS, see below, p. 2. The passage in this letter which discusses carnations and peaches shows Darwin's exposure to such subjects at an early age, and indicates that Darwin probably also discussed such topics while at Cambridge.

30 "A Guide to Practical Calendaring," American Archivist, 11 (1948): 123-40, at 127.

31 Frank Freidel, ed., Harvard Guide to American History, rev. ed., 2v. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1974), I, 23.

32More Letters, I, x.

33 To the best of the editor's knowledge, this regularity in the Darwin addresses was first discussed and employed for dating purposes by Gavin de Beer; see de Beer, "Some Unpublished Letters of Charles Darwin," op. cit., note 16, 13-14. As de Beer points out, many of the printed versions of the letters give the simple address of "Down", thereby obscuring the variant headings.

34 The editors state this explicitly in More Letters, I, x.

35 The For the sake of argument, traditional forms are enumerated in: Morris L. Radoff, "A Guide to Practical Calendaring," op. cit., note 30; and idem, "A Practical Guide to Calendaring," American Archivist, 11 (1948): 203-22.

Some might also object to the method of production (i.e. photo offset of a carefully-proofed typescript, rather than typeset), but this was necessary to keep the cost per copy down to a level reasonable enough so that scholars could afford personal copies of the calendar.

36 Although it is somewhat out of fashion to give the dimensions -- the argument against inclusion being that, given the disparities of different types of handwriting, size is a poor indicator of length of text -- measurements are given in this calendar because of two special factors: 1) most of the letters in the calendar are in Darwin's hand, so there is an uncommonly good relationship between dimensions and length of text; and 2) the dimensions of Darwin's stationery in some cases can be used to corroborate a determination of a date for an undated letter. For example, a claim that an undated letter on stationery measuring eight by five inches was written in, say, 1860, will be corroborated if other Darwin letters known to have been written around this same date also are written on stationery of the same size. This is by no means a hard and fast rule, however; Darwin apparently reverted to leftover scraps and remainders of old stationery on occasion.

37 Radoff, "A Guide to Practical Calendaring," op. cit., note 30, 134.

38 An example of an editorial addition is the "(forwarded to)" in the address for Herbert in Darwin to Herbert, June, 1832, pp. 1-2 below. An example of a dubious reading is the "(S?)" in the address for Herbert in Darwin to Herbert, [September 13, 1828], p. 1 below. An example of material appearing in parentheses in the original is Lyell's "(105)" in his endorsement of Darwin to Lyell, [December (?19), 1837], p. 4 below.

39 Such marks by Francis Darwin are usually readily distinguishable because they often are written in a distinctive purple ink. Francis Darwin refers to these marks himself in a letter to Léo Abram Errera when he says: "Please excuse the numbers of reference with which I have marked the letters [from Charles Darwin to Errera, which Errera lent to Francis for use in the Life and Letters]." (F. Darwin to Errera, [October 25, 1882]. APS; see appendix below.)

40 In addition, despite the many errors and other indications of hurriedness in Darwin's letters, the many corrections in the letters indicate that the meticulous Darwin paid reasonably close attention to details of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and the like. A good illustration of this trait appears in a letter to Lyell in which Darwin tells the geologist that he had misspelled "Van Diemen's Land [i.e. Tasmania]" in a manuscript (Darwin to Lyell, [August 2, 1845], APS, calendar listing below, pp. 17-18; this part of the letter is not brought out in the calendar entry.)

Acknowledgements

Despite indications to the contrary on the title page, this calendar was by no means the work of one or even two persons; a great many acknowledgements -- too many, in fact, for all of them to be explicit here, and too deeply felt by the editor for adequate expression in words -- are in order.

Above all else, of course, this calendar would not have been possible had it not been for the prodigious efforts of Charles Darwin himself, and so this book is his. By poring over his letters, I believe, I have come to know him fairly intimately, and I can assure my readers that, in this case at least, the old adage about familiarity breeding contempt is inapplicable. I know that this admission bodes ill for my retention of a critical historical perspective, but it would be a worse sin for me to feign objectivity. Besides, if my readers study these letters as I have, I think they will agree in all fairness that we should all be grateful that such a wonderful man as Darwin was once among us, however briefly and reclusively.

I am equally grateful to Darwin's great-grandson, Mr. George P. Darwin, for permission to produce this calendar and to quote extensively from the letters, regardless of the intimacy of their contents; this graciousness demonstrates that devotion to rigorous scholarship is as much the Darwin hallmark today as it was a century ago.

Financial support for the preparation of this calendar was provided by a generous gift to the American Philosophical Society by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

The commodious facilities of the Library of the American Philosophical Society are a scholar's delight; I am grateful to the Society for the privilege of using them. Each of my colleagues on the Library staff has given generously of his or her time and expertise to the production of this work. Those who have contributed directly to the final manuscript were Helen Black, who conscientiously typed both my handwritten transcriptions of the letters and the manuscript of the front matter, and B. Dodelin, who prepared the photographic prints for the illustrations. Everyone else, each in his or her own way, not only added to this work but also made my stay at the Library pleasurable. I regret that there is not enough space to name them individually.

Many other individuals aided this project. I am grateful to Dr. Frederick Burkhardt, President Emeritus of the American Council of Learned Societies, for writing the foreword. Special thanks go to Dr. Sydney Smith, Lecturer in Zoology, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge University, and to Mr. Peter Gautrey, Cambridge University Library; with astonishing skill and resourcefulness they helped to date and otherwise identify the most intransigent letters in the collection. Similarly, Dr. Thaddeus J. Trenn, Department of the History of Science, University of Regensburg, helped considerably in the identification of letters from Darwin's cirripede period; in addition, as I discuss in the Introduction, Dr. Trenn has been my collaborator in the attempt to make sense of the many variant Down House addresses in the headings of Darwin's letters. Frederick Burkhardt has helped with the identification and arrangement of some of the letters. Professor Malcolm J. Kottler, Department of Ecology and Behavioral Biology, University of Minnesota, shared with me all of his determinations of the dates and the instances of publication of the Darwin-Romanes letters. Dr. Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., Librarian of the American Philosophical Society, not only supervised the project but also arranged for the publication of the work. In addition to the aid provided to me as part of their regular duties, Mr. Carl F. Miller, Assistant Manuscripts Librarian, and Mr. Murphy D. Smith, Associate Librarian, American Philosophical Society Library, were especially helpful in deciphering the more exotic examples of Darwin's difficult handwriting. The latter also offered many useful suggestions concerning format of entries. Whitfield J. Bell, Jr., Jeffrey L. Sturchio, and Frederick Burkhardt provided criticisms of early drafts of the front matter; Frederick Burkhardt also helped to proofread the calendar entries. Mr. Michael Glazier, President of Scholarly Resources, Inc., has been a generous and patient publisher. Robert F. Bud, Department of the History and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania, helped to investigate British copyrights of the illustrations. Professor Leonard G. Wilson, Department of the History of Medicine, University of Minnesota, helped to publicize the calendar among Darwin scholars.

The following individuals aided in transcribing, dating, locating, and/or annotating one or more letters: Marianne Abel, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; John Angell, Free Library of Philadelphia; Sir Hedley Atkins, M.D., Down House; Suzanne W. Brown, Chicago Academy of Sciences; Colin Burton, Baird & Tatlock (London) Ltd.; Dr. Ralph Colp, Jr.; Professor Joseph Ewan, Department of Biology, Tulane University; Ellen G. Gartrell, Assistant Curator, Historical Collections, College of Physicians of Philadelphia; Sheila K. Hart, Harvard College Library; F. A. Milligan, Hereford and Worcester County [England] Libraries; Professor James A. Rogers, Department of History, Claremont Men's College; Jeffrey L. Sturchio, Department of the History and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania; Margaret Teransky, Free Library of Philadelphia; Philip Titheradge, Down House; and Professor David B. Wilson, Department of History, University of Oklahoma. My colleague and friend Roy Goodman here in the Library is unparalleled as a reference librarian.

In the course of my research, I have enjoyed the facilities of and/or received the competent assistance of the staffs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Burndy Library, the Chicago Academy of Sciences, the Harvey S. Firestone Library of Princeton University, the Free Library of Philadelphia, the Harvard College Library, the Hereford and Worcester County [England] Libraries, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and the Charles Patterson Van Pelt Library of the University of Pennsylvania. I am also grateful to all those persons and institutions mentioned in the second appendix for making its compilation possible. A copy of the Darwin letter to Gray which I quote in the introduction was provided by the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University, which has the original. Those who have graciously given permission for reproduction of one or another of the illustrations are acknowledged where the figures appear.

Preparation of this calendar has consumed much of my time and attention over the last two years. Accordingly, I should like to thank the faculty, the staff, and my fellow graduate students in the Department of the History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania for tolerating my reduced visibility around the Department. Similarly, my wife Nan, my late father, and my mother have suffered me cheerfully whenever the excesses of my enthusiasm for Darwin and the history of science have overflowed into my family life.

Many others, too numerous to mention, have aided the compilation of this volume in some way. Despite all this help, endless factual and interpretive errors, of which I am painfully aware and for which I am solely responsible, undoubtedly remain. I hope that scholars will both forgive me for these and report them to the Library for the benefit of future students of Darwin.

P. T. C.

Naval History Note

The Darwin Papers contain at least one item which may be of interest to naval historians:

Darwin, Charles. Letter to Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. 1836 October - 1836 November. Wishes to converse concerning Wilkes' "long...voyage." 1 page. (B D25.192).

African American History Note

One of the most important natural historians in nineteenth-century Britain, Charles Darwin provided the first compelling mechanism to account for organismal evolutionary change. In at least two letters in the Darwin collection, the naturalist reflects upon the nature of race. In a letter dated 8 October [1845], Darwin questions whether there is a connection between race and susceptibility to different types of lice. In a letter dated 25 October [1859], Darwin dispels other scientists' claims that there are several species of man.

Early American History Note

This manuscript collection falls outside the geographic scope of the Early American guide (British North America and the United States before 1840). It may be of interest to scholars interested in global history, international relations, imperialism, or the U.S. in the world.

Indexing Terms


Personal Name(s)

  • Bowerbank, James Scott, 1797-1877
  • Buckland, William, 1784-1856
  • Busk, George, 1807-1886
  • Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882
  • Eyton, Thomas Campbell, 1809-1880
  • Flower , William Henry, 1831-1899
  • Forbes, David, 1828-1876
  • Foster, M., Sir (Michael), 1836-1907
  • Gray, Asa, 1810-1888
  • Gray, John Edward, 1800-1875
  • Gulick, John Thomas, 1832-1923
  • Günther, Albert C. L. G. (Albert Carl Ludwig Gotthilf), 1830-1914
  • Hancock, Albany, 1806-1873
  • Henslow, J. S. (John Stevens), 1796-1861
  • Herbert, John Maurice, 1808-1882
  • Hooker, Joseph Dalton, Sir, 1817-1911
  • Horner, Leonard, 1785-1864
  • Humboldt, Alexander von, 1769-1859
  • Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895
  • Lankester, E. Ray, Sir (Edwin Ray), 1847-1929
  • Leidy, Joseph, 1823-1891
  • Lubbock, J. W. (John William), 1803-1865
  • Lyell, Charles, Sir, 1797-1875
  • Milne-Edwards, H. (Henri), 1800-1885
  • Murchison, Roderick Impey, Sir, 1792-1871
  • Ogle, William, 1827-1912
  • Oliver, Daniel, 1830-1916
  • Owen, Richard, 1804-1892
  • Phillips, John, 1800-1874
  • Quatrefages, A. de (Armand de), 1810-1892
  • Ramsay, A. C. (Andrew Crombie), 1814-1891
  • Romanes, George John, 1848-1894
  • Sclater, Philip Lutley, 1829-1913
  • Thwaites, George Henry Kendrick, 1811-1882
  • Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1823-1913
  • Walsh, B. D. (Benjamin Dann), 1808-1869
  • Wyman, Jeffries, 1864-

Subject(s)

  • Adaptation (Biology)
  • Beyond Early America
  • Biology, genetics, eugenics
  • Coral reefs and islands
  • Evolution (Biology)
  • Evolution -- Religious aspects
  • Genetics
  • Geology -- Great Britain -- 19th century
  • Heredity
  • Natural history -- Great Britain -- 19th century
  • Natural selection
  • Naturalists -- England
  • Race, race relations, racism
  • Religion and science -- 1860-1899
  • Transmutation of animals
  • Variation (Biology)


Detailed Inventory

Calendar of Letters
  
1. To [John Maurice] HERBERT; [Osmaston, near Derby]
[1828 Sept. 13] Saturday Evening [pmk. Se 14/ 1828]ALS; 9x7.5 4p., add. [(S?) Herbert Esqr/ Post Office/ Barmouth/ N. Wales]B D25.H

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters, 172-73. p. 173, line 23, change "Yates" to "Yate". At end of letter is: "How is Buz & Bossy [sic]. am afraid you yourself must be grown terribly bumptious: Direct to Shrewsbury: if there is any thing you want I can send it for you to Barmouth. Such as gloves &c &c &c".

General physical description: ALS; 9x7.5 4p., add. [(S?) Herbert Esqr/ Post Office/ Barmouth/ N. Wales]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Printed letter has erroneous date of Sept. 14, which was a Sunday.

2. To G [i.e. John Maurice] HERBERT; [pmk. Shrewsbury]
[1828 October 3] Friday [pmk. Oc 4/ 1828; wmk. 1824]ALS; 9 x7.25 4p., add. [G. Herbert Esqr./ Court Calmore/ Welch Pool]B D25.H

Obliged for "labours in the science [of entomology]"; saw [?Thomas] Butler who told of Herbert in Wales; Herbert's courage cooled since CD left Barmouth; chiding letter from [Charles Thomas] Whitley, answered humbly by CD, received mere "acknowledgement of my extreme candour" and another charge of idleness; supposes Herbert enjoys Montgomeryshire and delights "all the little dear female hearts"; CD enjoys successful Music Meeting in Derbyshire, also good shooting, "Entomological pursuits", and the "Miss Foxes1 are very pleasant girls"; Herbert can give CD beetles & butterflies, which Butler says Herbert has, when Herbert is in Shrewsbury; CD "shall go up [?to Cambridge] early," but not by 10th; Butler goes next Tues.; P.S.: Find more beetles; get lady with "strong imagination" to procure beetle with "face so very dreadful"; forgets Herbert's Christian name, christens him "G" [see above].

General physical description: ALS; 9 x7.25 4p., add. [G. Herbert Esqr./ Court Calmore/ Welch Pool]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The Misses Fox were the sisters of William Darwin Fox, CD's second cousin; the Music Meeting was held at the Fox residence. See "Darwin's Journal," 6.

3. To Cha[rle]s WHITLEY; 17 Spring Gardens, London
[1831 September 9] Friday Evening [pmk. 10 SE 1831; wmk. 1830]ALS; 9 x7.5 4p., add. [Chas. Whitley Esqr./ Post Office/ Barmouth/ N. Wales], end.B D25.210

Printed in facsimile: A Letter of Charles Darwin about Preparations for the Voyage of the Beagle, 1831 (Philadelphia: Friends of the Library, American Philosophical Society, 1971).

General physical description: ALS; 9 x7.5 4p., add. [Chas. Whitley Esqr./ Post Office/ Barmouth/ N. Wales], end.

4. To J[ohn] M[aurice] HERBERT; Botofogo Bay, Rio de Janero [sic]
1832 June [pmk. (SE?) 30/ 1832; wmk. 1830]ALS; 11 x8 3/4; 4p., add. [J. M. Herbert Esqr./ Fellow of St. Johns Coll:/ Cambridge; (forwarded to) (W?) Maddy Esqr/ Moreton/ Near Hereford]B D25.H

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 238-40. p. 239, line 32, after "contained", insert: "Tell [Charles Thomas] Whitley that I find my life on blue water...very pleasant,...an excellent time for reading; so quiet & comfortable, that you are not tempted to be idle." p. 240, line 2, after "reason...", insert: A short or stupid letter would end correspondence between some, "but old gentleman, you might as well try to cut your tailor as me"; letter from Herbert brings to CD "a thousand pleasant thoughts"; CD can picture Herbert "in the two extreme cases, of the dead March to Dolgelley & the bogtrotting Match with [?William] Selwyn." At end of letter is: P.S. "I have directed to you in a curious manner for fear of mistakes."

General physical description: ALS; 11 x8 3/4; 4p., add. [J. M. Herbert Esqr./ Fellow of St. Johns Coll:/ Cambridge; (forwarded to) (W?) Maddy Esqr/ Moreton/ Near Hereford]

5. To J[ohn] M[aurice] HERBERT; Maldonado, Rio Plata
1833 June 2d. [pmk. Oc 2/ 1833; wmk. 1828]ALS; 9 3/4 x7 3/4; 4p., add. [J. M. Herbert Esqr/ Fellow of St John's Coll:/ Cambridge; (forwarded to) Lower Garthmyl/ Welshpool]B D25.H

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 246-48. At end of letter is: please write again and remember CD to friends, including [Charles Thomas] Whitley; "Read [Francis Bond] Head's gallop1 if you want an accurate account of this country." On first page of letter, written sideways, is: Has Herbert heard from F[?rederick] Watkins, [Jonathan Henry Lovett] Cameron or Matthews[?]; CD wrote to former many months ago, but no answer; address in future to be Valparaiso. On second and third pages of letter, written sideways, and perhaps not in CD's hand, is: "I have just met with the following quotation in the `Sacred History of the World' taken from the Hereford!! Journal, November 1824.2 `Carnations have been engrafted on Fennel & for the first two or three years the flowers will be green: Likewise Peaches on a Mulberry, in which case the fruit will have a purple dye to the stone.' Were you the original & ingenious experimentalist? I think I have heard you argue that White Lies do no harm.-- Here are green Carnations & purple Peaches brought foreward [sic] to show the beneficence of Providence.-- When such evidence is proved false who will not become a Sceptic.-- Reflect--, if the author, what awful consequences may have been produced.--"

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x7 3/4; 4p., add. [J. M. Herbert Esqr/ Fellow of St John's Coll:/ Cambridge; (forwarded to) Lower Garthmyl/ Welshpool]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Sir Francis Bond Head, Rough Notes Taken during Some Rapid Journeys across the Pampas and among the Andes (London: n.p., 1826). 2. See: Sharon Turner, The Sacred History of the World, as Displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the Deluge..., 3v. (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1832-1837), I, 111 and 111n; letter from "Ethelbert" in Hereford Journal..., November 24, 1824; and Richard Bradley, A General Treatise of Husbandry and Gardening..., 2v. (London: T. Woodward and J. Peale, 1726), II, 301. F. A. Milligan, Sydney Smith, and David Wilson have assisted me with this information.

6. To Lieut[enant Charles] WILKES; 43 Grt. Marlborough St
[1836 October-November]ALS; 7.5 x4.5 1p. and add. [Lieut: Wilkes/ Long's/ Bond Street.--]B D25.192

Is going into country for few weeks on Thursday; wishes to converse concerning Wilkes's "long...voyage"; unless Wilkes writes to contrary, CD "will call at Long's on Wednesday" between noon and 1 p.m.

General physical description: ALS; 7.5 x4.5 1p. and add. [Lieut: Wilkes/ Long's/ Bond Street.--]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD did not return from the voyage of the Beagle until October 2, 1836 ("Darwin's Journal," 7). Wilkes was only in England from August to November, 1836 (Doris Esch Borthwick, "Outfitting the United States Exploring Expedition: Lieutenant Charles Wilkes' European Assignment, August-November, 1836," Proc. Am. phil. Soc., 109 [1965]: 159-72). The Great Marlborough Street address given by CD is that of his brother's flat, at which CD visited and roomed occasionally until leaving Cambridge and taking his own rooms at number 36 down the street on March 13, 1837 (Life and Letters I, 277; Darwin and Henslow, 118 and 118n).

7. To the Master & Fellows [of] Caius College; no location
[ca. 1836-1837]AL in third person; 4.5 x3 3/4; 1p. and add. [The Master & Fellows/ Caius College]B P212

"Mr Darwin presents his compliments to the Master & Fellows of Caius Coll. and is extremely sorry he is prevented by a previous engagement the honor [sic] of dining with them on Thursday.--"

General physical description: AL in third person; 4.5 x3 3/4; 1p. and add. [The Master & Fellows/ Caius College]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Date determined by Sydney Smith, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge. The handwriting of this note appears to be in the hand of the young Darwin, and since this note shows no sign of being mailed--indeed seems to have been hand-delivered--it seems reasonable to conclude that CD was in Cambridge at the time it was written. This occurred in late 1836 and early 1837, right after CD returned to England from the Beagle voyage.

8. To Mr. [?Frederick or William] SHOBERL; [36 Great Marlborough St.]
[1837 late September]ALS; 7 x4.5 3p., add. [Mr Shoberl/ Marlborough Sqr] (partially mutilated)B D25.80

Obliged for document which CD "had full right to demand", even if unnecessary; sorry for inconvenience; will send completed MS. with woodcuts before night; will write to printer about "where to send the slips"; [Henry] Colburn will see revise corrected; shall go to Shrewsbury on Monday; gives printing details; thanks Shoberl and Colburn for aid on "this my first publication."1

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 3p., add. [Mr Shoberl/ Marlborough Sqr] (partially mutilated)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD's "first publication" was his Journal of Researches [Freeman 4] (1839), the only Darwin work published by Colburn. Date for this letter derives from date CD finished the MS. of this work and when he left for Shrewsbury, shortly thereafter; see "Darwin's Journal," 7-8.

9. To Cha[rle]s LYELL; no location
[1837 December (?19); end. Decr. 1837; pmk. DE 20/ 1837]ALS; 9 x7.5 4p., add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St.], end. [(105) Mr. Darwin on Coral islands thinly scattered over what area--Decr. 1837]B D25.L

Does not know latitude limits of true coral islands in Pacific, but Bermuda an exception to general rule; discusses and describes coral islands and archipelagoes; "People's ideas of the Pacific are most false."; describes and sketches the "Corallian Sea" proposed by [Matthew] Flinders; thanks for books, but cannot read them for nearly a week, since still reading [Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonce] E[lie] de B[eaumont]; P.S. Tuesday night, longitudinal boundaries of Pacific coral cannot be given satisfactorily, since Dangerous or Low Archipelago and Corallian Sea are separated by "great volcanic band".

General physical description: ALS; 9 x7.5 4p., add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St.], end. [(105) Mr. Darwin on Coral islands thinly scattered over what area--Decr. 1837]

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:170061

Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882.
Area of ocean showing the limits of coral islands
[1837 December (?19); end. Decr. 1837; pmk. DE 20/ 1837]1 map, 23.5 x 18.4 cm (size of the letter)

Small sketch with no detail on the above letter.

10. To [Charles] LYELL; 36 Grt. Marlbro' St.
[1838] Aug. 9th. [end. 9 August 1838]ALS; 9 x7.5 11p. and end. [(1) Mr Darwin on Elements & Glen Roy/ 9 August 1838]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and omissions: Life and Letters I, 291-95. p. 292, line 14, change "...." to "[John] Phillips will not surely go on saying that the metamorphic schists are disintegrated granite re-deposited."; p. 292, line 16, change "-----" to "Phillips"; p. 292, line 28, insert: CD visited Wednesday night, two days after Lyell left, thinking Lyell would come to London after Crag expedition; almost wrote from Shrewsbury; p. 294, line 19, change "-----'s" to "[Rev. Frederick William] Hope's"; p. 295, line 5, change "-----" to "Jones"; p. 295, line 13, insert: CD wants daytime barometer readings made at Leith on July 5, published by Brewster; also wants altitude of Lochs Tay, Dochart, Tyndrum, and Tulla;1 p. 295, insert: "P.S. I have seen [Robert] Fitzroy, who has bought your book.2 He looked rather black at the preface...but then came smooth again. I never cease wondering at his character,...full of good...traits but spoiled by such an unlucky temper.-- Some part of... his brain wants mending...."

General physical description: ALS; 9 x7.5 11p. and end. [(1) Mr Darwin on Elements & Glen Roy/ 9 August 1838]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Lyell apparently complied; see Darwin, "Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy,..." Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 129 (1839), 54. 2. Lyell, Elements of Geology (London: John Murray, 1838). The preface declares that the publication of Darwin's Journal of Researches [Freeman 4] (1839) has been delayed, "to the great regret of the scientific world," by the failure of Fitz Roy to complete the companion volumes to it.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:170067

11. To Charles LYELL; no location
[1838] September 13th Friday Night [end. 1838; pmk. SP15/ 1833]ALS; 12 3/4 x8; 4p., add. [Charles Lyell Esqr Junr./ Kinnordy/ Kerrimuir/ North Britain], end. [Darwin 1838 on tortuosity of parallel bands of Elevation & subsidence--/ (2)]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 295-98. p. 296, line 2, insert: discussion concerning "unfortunate letter" of Governor [Henry] Prescott, a lost letter of CD, an "official document", an apparently abused frank from Lord [Spencer Joshua Alwyne Compton] Northampton, and a proposal to the Council of the Royal Society of London; p. 296, line 4, after "begin about.", insert: thanks for holiday invitation, but CD pledged to visit uncle and home for fortnight at end of October,1 and "till then I must not give myself even a days holidays."; p. 297, line 22, change "block" to "Polar"; p. 297, line 24, insert: "Sir D[avid?] B[rewster?]...communicated some information so useful, that I have written to him again."; gives details on "Winters Bark", parrots, geographical distribution in South America and in Falkland Islands, Port Famine; sent Lyell's letter to "Dr. Richardson at Portsmouth"; unhappy that Lyell says he will be away until end of November, hopes "something will bring you back before then."; p. 298, line 4, insert derogatory remarks about Babbage and his calculator; p. 298, line 6, insert: regarding marsupials, CD saw only abstract of [Henry Marie Ducrotay de] Blainville's paper;2 [Richard] Owen a better authority than Blainville, who is superficial; Owen says internal process in Stonesfield Jaws is confined to marsupial mammals3 and "talks of [Ornithorhynchus, the duckbill] leading off into the reptiles...[therefore] some reptiles formerly might have appreached nearer to the Mammalian type, than...existing ones now do."; Elements [of Geology, Lyell's new book] must be selling well, requires "hard reading" and thus does not shirk its subject, as do two of [John Frederick William] Herschel's treatises; [Edward] Charlesworth is annoyed because Lyell did not quote him more; Charlesworth is to be pitied for many reasons; Zoological Society is giving up Associate Secretary's place; [John] Gould's case of Water-wagtails does not hold.

General physical description: ALS; 12 3/4 x8; 4p., add. [Charles Lyell Esqr Junr./ Kinnordy/ Kerrimuir/ North Britain], end. [Darwin 1838 on tortuosity of parallel bands of Elevation & subsidence--/ (2)]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD became engaged during this "pledged" holiday; see "Darwin's Journal," 8. 2. Probably either "Doutes sur le Prétendu Didelphe Fossile de Stonesfield," C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris, 7 (1838), 402-18, or "Nouveaux Doutes sur le Prétendu Didelphis de Stonesfield," ibid., 727-36 and 749-51. 3. See Richard Owen, "Observations on the Fossils Representing the Thylacotherium Prevostii, Valenciennes,..." Trans. geol. Soc. Lond., 6 (1842), 47-65; for fuller account, see idem, A History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds (London: John Van Voorst, 1846), 29-57.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:170145

12. To Cha[rle]s LYELL; Shrewsbury
[1838 November] 13th [i.e. 12th] Monday [end. Novr. 1838; pmk. NO 13/ 1838; wmk. 1834]ALS; 9 x7.25 3p. and add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St./ Bloomsbury], end. [Mr Darwin/ Novr. 1838]B D25.L1

Printed in full, with minor changes: Emma Darwin, I, 413-14.

General physical description: ALS; 9 x7.25 3p. and add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St./ Bloomsbury], end. [Mr Darwin/ Novr. 1838]

13. To The Secretary of the American Philosophical Society, [Franklin BACHE]; Geological Society of London/ Somerset House
1838 Decr. 20th [end. March 1, 1839, wmk. 1836]Printed L, filled in in ms. (not CD's hand), S by CD; 15 x9; 1p. and add. [The Secretary of the American Philosophical Society], end. [A.P.S.] Stated Meeting/ March 1, 1839, Read]A.P.S. ARCHIVES

Routine thanks for Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, volume 1, numbers 1 through 3; signed by CD as Secretary of the Geological Society of London.

General physical description: Printed L, filled in in ms. (not CD's hand), S by CD; 15 x9; 1p. and add. [The Secretary of the American Philosophical Society], end. [A.P.S.] Stated Meeting/ March 1, 1839, Read]

14. To [Richard] OWEN; no location
[1838]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.B D25.201

"I leave you the remaining proofs of yr. descript[ion] of Toxodon and a revise of first part2...read quickly over my part. I hope there are no errata left....inform me whether you will want a second revise of your first part....I have made...remarks hap-hazard.... Have you looked at [Alcide Dessalines] D'Orbigny's travels?3 If not,...you misunderstood...what I mentioned...[so] I have written it [correctly] below...."; P.S. sends duplicate proof for Owen to keep.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The Toxodon portion of the first part of the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle was published in early 1838. See: "Darwin's Journal," 8; and Freeman, p. 12. 2. See "Toxodon Platensis" in Darwin, Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, Pt. I: Fossil Mammalia, by Richard Owen ([1838]-1843), 16-35. 3. Orbigny, Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale..., 9v. (Paris: Strasbourg, 1835-47).

15. To Cha[rle]s LYELL; no location
[1839 January; end. Jan. 1839]ALS; 7.5 x4.5 7p. and add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St.], end. [1a./ Darwin Jan. 1839/ Glen Roy]B D25

Sends Glen Roy paper,1 which is legible but "ugly from my corrections"; hopes it will not be shortened, as "there is scarcely a sentence, that I have not considered whether I could strike it out, without injuring the...argument"; Lyell may keep paper to read if desired; returns books; last letter of Mr Blackadder [of Glamis] not worth mentioning; made note of information about decaying shells; regrets not having seen "Mr [Charles] Maclaren's capital chapters on alluvium" before writing the appendix, as he upsets CD's "argument of...fixed position of the boulders when drifted, but...confirms...origin of the scratches & grooves."; Maclaren's remarks on boulder positions erroneous, based on "misapprehension, that icebergs drop their cargoes out at sea", which CD's appendix claims is the exception to the rule; ought to have map and will soon have drawing to publish with Glen Roy paper; wishes to discuss "small amount of Alluvial action in Lochaber: occurring since "the sea retired.-- No one point interested me more...."

General physical description: ALS; 7.5 x4.5 7p. and add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St.], end. [1a./ Darwin Jan. 1839/ Glen Roy]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Darwin, "Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy,..." Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 129 (1839), 39-81. Published version has map and drawing; note on decaying shells is on pp. 63-64.

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16. To The Secretary of the American Philos[ophical] Soc[iety], [Franklin BACHE]; Geological Society of London, Somerset House
1839 May 23rdPrinted L, filled in in ms. (not in CD's hand), S by CD; 11.5 x9.25 1p.A.P.S. ARCHIVES

Routine thanks for Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, volume 1, number 6; signed by CD as Secretary of the Geological Society of London

General physical description: Printed L, filled in in ms. (not in CD's hand), S by CD; 11.5 x9.25 1p.

17. To Tho[ma]s [Campbell] EYTON; 12 Upper Gower St
[1839 November 30] Saturday Evening [pmk. NO 30/ 1839]ALS; 9.25 x7.5 4p., add. [Thos. Eyton Esqr/ Donnerville House/ Wellington/ Shropshire]B EY83

Thanks for agreeing to examine birds mentioned;1 birds will go to railroad this evening; they are as follows; 388 [and] 707, Tinochorus -----?, habits described in Journal of Researches, p. 110; 630, Synallaxis maluroides, "is it in structure a Certhia?"; 650, Serpophaga albocorunata Gould, a genus allied to Tyrannula; 721, Furnarius cunicularius, habits described as those of Casarita in Journal of Researches, p. 112; 722, Opetiorhynchus vulgaris; 728, Uppucerthia, interesting to dissect this and two previous, as they are altogether unlike European forms; 1037, Pteroptochos albicollis; 1043, Phytotoma rara, "a most curious finch"; 1050, Trochilus gigas, habits in Journal of Researches, p. 331, [Edward] Blyth has notion about humming birds having unique internal structure2; 1157, Pteroptochos Tarnii Gray, habits of this and P. albicollis, above, in Journal of Researches, pp. 329 and 352, worthy of close examination; 1309, common North American rice bird [Dolichonyx oryzivorus, the bobolink]; and two birds without tickets, believed to be Opetiorhynci; read on habits before examining; send account of these specimens in month or five weeks; publication date of next number of "Bird Part" of Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle is uncertain; thanks for offer of Gallinaceous birds for dissection.

General physical description: ALS; 9.25 x7.5 4p., add. [Thos. Eyton Esqr/ Donnerville House/ Wellington/ Shropshire]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Eyton, "Appendix," in Darwin, Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, Pt. III: Birds, by John Gould ([1838]-1843), 147-56. For CD's description of the habits of these birds, see Darwin, Journal of Researches [Freeman 4] (1839), pages as indicated above.  2. Blyth, "Outlines of a New Arrangement of Insessorial Birds," Mag. nat. Hist., 2 (1838), 256-68 and 314-19, esp. 258 and 262.

18. To [the publishing firm, Henry Colburn]; 12 Upper Gower St
[1839] Thursday [?end. 1839]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p., end.? [1839]1B D25.64

Capt. [Robert] FitzRoy thinks it desirable and does not object "to my appending an advertisement of the works, connected with the Beagle's Voyage," to the Journal of Researches; ask [Henry] Colburn for approval; thanks for yesterday's note, but CD plans to "append a fly page [giving]...notice of my works, to be bound up at end or beginning of the volume.-- I believe there are sufficient [notices] now printed...at Mr Smith, Elder..."; how late can CD send these "so as not to delay the binding...."

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p., end.? [1839]1

Other Descriptive Information: 1. A date of "1839" is written at the head of the first page of the letter in ink similar to that used by CD, but it does not appear to be in CD's hand. Even if added later and not an endorsement by the recipient, this year appears correct, as the letter discusses Darwin's Journal of Researches [Freeman 4] (1839), the only Darwin work published by Colburn.

19. To [John Maurice] HERBERT; Maer Hall/ Newcastle Stafford
[1839-1842]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p.B D25.H

Please send note, giving "date &c &c of the event"; Herbert could tell CD nothing when they last met; "We shall remain in the country (at Shrewsbury & here) for some weeks longer."; CD recovering slowly, but not yet well enough for work; "...good wishes & renewed congratulations...."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Darwin visited first Maer, then Shrewsbury, for "some weeks" during 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, and 1844. Given the watermark of this letter, and CD's unwellness during the visit, I am inclined toward the earlier of these years, and have thus eliminated 1844. To fix the exact year, one would have to identify and date Herbert's "event", probably either his marriage or his ordination. "Darwin's Journal," 9-11.

20. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; 12 Upper Gower St
[1840 January 6]AL, S by init.; 7 x4.5 4p.B EY83

Ill, headache daily for week; delighted at Eyton's progress,2 finds results curious; thanks for undertaking task; "I cannot say when the next (& last) number of Birds will appear", perhaps March 1 or two or three months later; appreciates Eyton's offer to produce engravings of specimens, but "I am anxious to spend the government grant in the best way for science, &...I have already given...too much...to the birds & Mammalia"; Eyton must decide with this in mind; Eyton may keep specimens or give them to College of Surgeons; CD has "become a Father... [as of] last Friday week: it is a little Prince"

General physical description: AL, S by init.; 7 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD's first child was William Erasmus Darwin, born December 27, 1839, a Friday; see "Darwin's Journal," 9. 2. See letter to Eyton dated November 30, 1839, calendared above. The last number of the birds part of Darwin's Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle ([1838]-1843) was published in March 1841; it included Eyton's appendix, sans engravings. See: Freeman, p. 13; and Eyton, "Appendix," in Darwin, Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, Pt. III: Birds, by John Gould ([1838]-1843), 147-56.

21. To Cha[rle]s LYELL; no location
[1840 February (19?)] Wednesday morn. [end. Feb. 1840; pmk. FE (19?)/ 1840; wmk. 1839]AL, S by init.; 7 3/4 x5; 6p. and env., add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St/ Bloomsbury], end. [Mr Darwin Feb. 1840/ Coral reefs in open area/ no deeper than 20 fathoms (106)]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes. Life and Letters I, 301. line, 14, change "toughish" to "longish". At end of letter is: the following new points will appear in Darwin, Coral Reefs; CD's belief that coral reefs at greater depths than 20 fathoms in open oceans do not exist (see Journal of Researches [Freeman 4], p. 558) contradicts [Christian Gottfried] Ehrenberg's claim of Red Sea coral beds at 25 fathoms; still, CD's argument that there must have been subsidence in large areas scattered with reefs, originally based on point about coral only at shallow depths, stands anyhow, since areas in which every island is low and formed of coral are immense; CD will use modified system of classifying reefs, namely, lagoon islands or atolls, " `encircling reefs' ", fringing reefs, and irregular reefs; modification of conclusion (see Journal of Researches [Freeman 4], p. 567) "will chiefly consist in speaking rather less positively & using the words `alternate areas' more frequently than `parallel bands' "; will not discuss distribution of organic forms in Pacific (see Journal of Researches [Freeman 4], p. 568); will come on Saturday, if well.

General physical description: AL, S by init.; 7 3/4 x5; 6p. and env., add. [Chas. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St/ Bloomsbury], end. [Mr Darwin Feb. 1840/ Coral reefs in open area/ no deeper than 20 fathoms (106)]

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22. To [John] PHILLIPS; no location
[ca. 1840] [end. Nov. 40; wmk. 1838]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 1p. and add. [Prof. Phillips/ St. Mary's Lodge/ York], end. [Darwin/ Nov. 40]B D25.123 no. 7

Encloses copy of paper on earthquakes;1 has grown older and wiser since he wrote it, so sets "less value on theoretical reasoning in geology"; still thinks there is weight in argument respecting "the necessary slow elevation of mountain chains, which have protuberant axis of Plutonic rock"; welcomes Phillips's comments.

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 1p. and add. [Prof. Phillips/ St. Mary's Lodge/ York], end. [Darwin/ Nov. 40]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Perhaps the manuscript of Darwin, "Observations of Proofs of Recent Elevation on the Coast of Chili [sic],..."Proc. geol. Soc., 2 (1848): 446-49.

23. To [Charles] LYELL; no location
[1841 March 9;?end. 9th March 1841; wmk. 1839]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p.,?end. [9th March 1841]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 173-74 (letter 517). p. 173, line 2, add: "Your objection to objection against upheaval, in favour of glaciers (as explaining Glen Roy) about elevation (you will understand what I mean) is quite new to me and seems very sound."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p.,?end. [9th March 1841]

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24. To Charles LYELL; Shrewsbury
[1841 July] 6th Tuesday [end. june 1841; pmk. JY 6/ 1841]ALS; 9 x7.5 7p. and add. [Charles Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St./ Bloomsbury Sqre/ London], end. [Mr Darwin on Coral Islands/ Belizes & Honduras; (107)DarwinJune 1841/ Coral reefs at Belize/ & Africa covered by mud]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 193-94 (letter 532). p. 194, line 20, add: discusses neutral tint for uncertain reefs [on CD's plate 3 in Coral Reefs]; concerning Red Sea, if [Christian Gottfried] Ehrenberg is correct, then Captain [Sir Fairfax] Moresby's accounts and charts indicate that "the true reefs...are more fringes to singularly formed land";1 Ehrenberg, Moresby, and others will all agree if one assumes "that ancient barrier & encircling reefs, formed by subsidence, have... been uplifted &...worn down...& are now...fringed by...reefs"; this view too hypothetical for publication by CD; West Indies reefs are also obscure; "the symmetry of reefs seems greatly disturbed every where except in open ocean, or near open ordinary coast-lines". At end of letter is: Bermuda is similar to Bahamas--formed by elevation of ordinary land, with windward edges solidified by growth of some coral; health better, but will ail for years, and since " `race is for the strong' ", CD "must be content to admire the strides others make in Science.... I shall just crawl on with my S[outh] American work & be as easy as I can."; probably will return on 15 or 16, wants to see Lyell before he departs [to America].

General physical description: ALS; 9 x7.5 7p. and add. [Charles Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St./ Bloomsbury Sqre/ London], end. [Mr Darwin on Coral Islands/ Belizes & Honduras; (107)DarwinJune 1841/ Coral reefs at Belize/ & Africa covered by mud]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See also letter from Darwin to Lyell, February (19?), 1840, above. Ehrenberg's account is probably his Ueber die Natur und Bildung der Coralleninseln und Corrallenbänke in Rothen Meere (Berlin: n.p., 1834).

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25. To [Charles] LYELL; no location
[1841] FridayALS; 8 x6.5 8p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 148-50 (letter 499). p. 150, line 2, add: "I wish you had in your mind's eye the quantity of solid rock removed on this beach."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x6.5 8p.

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26. To C[harles] LYELL; no location
[1841; wmk. 1839]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr], end. [Vide p. 268 Agassiz/ on perched rocks of the Alps/ in contradistinction to those of Jura??]B D25.L

Gives dimensions and elevation of Chiloe Island and relationship to Cordillera; gives composition and geology of Chiloe; "In mentioning blocks on Chiloe put granite first, because I know more certainly that syenite came from Cordillera...."; blocks are strewed on shores of islets and in narrow creeks on coast, where there must have been channels, which after elevation correspond with those of [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz in valleys of Jura; see forthcoming paper;1 no fossils with boulder formations, but on them; doubts "perched rocks" on Jura; perched rocks, if on pinnacles, would be "fearful argument for Agassiz's sheet of ice."; Agassiz seems to consider angularity of Jura fragments a difficulty on ordinary moraine or glacier action; make no changes in published explanations, even though "your view is very probable"; "my talk with R[obert] Brown after that with you has knocked me up...."; [crossed out] "I have brought my mind to neglect all negative evidence, especially absence of shells-- Who would have anticipated [Sir Roderick Impey] Murchison's few shells in center of England."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr], end. [Vide p. 268 Agassiz/ on perched rocks of the Alps/ in contradistinction to those of Jura??]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Darwin, "On the Distribution of the Erratic Boulders and on the Contemporaneous Unstratified Deposits of South America," Proc. geol. Soc. Lond., 3 (1838-1842), 425-30; and Trans. geol. Soc. Lond., 6 (1842), 415-32.

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27. To [Charles] LYELL; no location
[1841]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Cannot help regarding subsidence; did Jura have present form when terrestrial animals were embedded?; if not, subsidence may have been small; all areas (forests, mountainsides, and sea-channels) need not have been cold when ice floated; "I don't look at bridge of ice, (or the subsidence, or the absence of shells, for I think I out-Lyell Lyell)" as difficulty; glacier expert [Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz] is best evidence, says that Jura erratics "are totally distinct" from those in Alpine valleys; idea of sea of ice carrying rocks in all directions from a small central point is "monstrous"; hopes there are no perched rocks on Jura; did Agassiz find caldron under existing Alpine glaciers?; caldrons are "most inexplicable part of case under every hypothesis"; agrees regarding the arguing of both sides of issue; can give no reasons for supposing Pentlands to be dry shortly before "elevation during ice time."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.

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28. To C[harles] LYELL; [Bromley (from pmk.)]
[1842 October 5-7; end. Octr. 7. 1842; pmk. OC 7/ 1842]ALS; 8 x5; 10p. (first leaf missing) and fragment of env., add. [C. Lyell Esqr./ Kinnordy/ Kerriemuir/ N. Britain], end. [(illegible number--PTC)/ Mr Darwin on/ Corals./ Octr. 7. 1842.]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 150-51 (letter 500). Before printed portion, add: Suspects some West Indian and Indian corals are same species; "But corals alter their habit so greatly according to where they grow, that the subject, will, I fear, for a long time be involved in great obscurity."; mentions genus Millepora; Crescent Island in Low Archipelago; difficulty of dead reefs not great; such exist, especially in Chagos group, according to Capt. [Sir Fairfax] Moresby; would admit difficulty if reefs as plentiful in tropical seas as vegetation on tropical land; perhaps an increase of small crustaceae in sea or actiniae on shore robs a reef of food, thereby killing it; "...as we see that the presence of reefs is not universal, we ought to expect to find that those same causes, which determine their absence ab origine in some place[s], should have destroyed them in others--"; reefs perish first to leeward side of island; goes to [Geological Society of London] Council meeting tomorrow; Friday morning [October 7] has returned from 2.5-hour meeting; discussed candidates for position of curator and librarian; [?William Charles Linnaeus] Martin of Zoological Society judged best; discussed [Edward] Charlesworth's accusations of unfairness against his candidature, considered but rejected a plan to deny his accusations publicly; Charlesworth challenged [Rev. William] Buckland, Lyell, and [Sir Richard] Owen to argue the "whole old question [of the Crag controversy] before the meeting!"; "...it is not the wise who rule the unwise in this world, but the active rule the inactive and verily Charlesworth is...active....";1 second part of sixth volume of Trans. geol. Soc. Lond. was approved; last Friday, had long talk with [William] Lonsdale, who was cheerful for first time in his life because of [Wollaston Fund] gift, which he will use on coral work--"a noble return" on the gift. p. 151, line 9, change "the sheep" to "two sheep". At end of letter is: excuse length of letter; CD's wife, baby [Mary Eleanor Darwin] "going on fairly well" following birth, son William stronger [?after illness].

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 10p. (first leaf missing) and fragment of env., add. [C. Lyell Esqr./ Kinnordy/ Kerriemuir/ N. Britain], end. [(illegible number--PTC)/ Mr Darwin on/ Corals./ Octr. 7. 1842.]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. For more on the topics discussed at this Council meeting, see Horace B. Woodward, The History of the Geological Society of London (London: Geological Society, 1907), 148. On Charlesworth's challenge concerning the Crag question, see Lyell: The Years to 1841, chapter 14, passim.

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29. To [William Hallowes] MILLER; Down (type 1)
[ca. 1842] Sunday [wmk. 1840]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.156

After two-three year interval, is preparing geological notes;1 some blanks in MS where description of mineral specimens, sent to Miller, should be; has searched specimens returned by Miller and cannot find these; first missing specimen, according to notebook, is " `378 (yellow) a prism of 79.5, not yet ascertained'...in which the cells are half filled up horizontally"; since not yet ascertained, CD presumes Miller has it; other missing specimens, "240 & 246 (white)", were deposited with Miller, are "what [Adam] Sedgwick would...call `beastly rocks' ", and "form an entire island, though...a small one"; reply soon; has been ill; "I have left London & bought this place [Down House] & I find the change very agreeable."; those interested in welfare of Geological Society of London should attend special general meeting on December 3.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This appears to refer to the manuscript of Darwin, Volcanic Islands (1844); according to "Darwin's Journal", 10, CD began to revise Syms Covington's manuscript for this book on October 14, 1842, which is the reason for the date for this letter as given above.

30. To [Charles LYELL]; no location
[1842]AL, S by init.; 8 x6.5 5p.B D25L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 195-197 (letter 533). p. 196, line 31, questionable word is definitely "thickness", and italicize and underline "may".

General physical description: AL, S by init.; 8 x6.5 5p.

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31. To [?William Jackson] HOOKER; Down House/ Orpington Kent
1843 June 25L or copy of L; 8 3/4 x6 3/4; 1p.B D25.29

Thanks for information; has sent notes on Volcanic Islands,1 which please return after reading so CD can rewrite and correct them; has been very busy "since I came here [Down House]"; suits him at new place; is determined "to show the people the gift of mankind in regards penmanship of an unusual kind...."

General physical description: L or copy of L; 8 3/4 x6 3/4; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Undoubtedly the MS of Darwin, Volcanic Islands (1844).

32. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1843 September] Friday [end. Sept. 1843; wmk. 1841]ALS; 7 x4.5 (black border); 8p., end. [(6) Darwin on Kemp/ Sept. 1843/ germinatn of fossil seeds]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 244 (letter 577). At beginning of letter is: does not know if Lyell is still in Kinnordy; has not been to London for awhile because of wife's advanced pregnancy; at British Association meeting [in Cork the preceding August], geological department was poor, but zoological better than usual; has had "sanguine letters from [George Robert] Waterhouse", who was grateful for Lyell's aid; if Waterhouse is hired, he will "enjoy his seven shillings a day from the British Museum, as much as most men would ten times the sum..."; "forlorn" letter from [William] Lonsdale, concerning "very fine series of Touraine corals"; [Edward] Forbes lent Lonsdale his recent Mediterranean species; Lonsdale's only identification as yet with recent species is with "a curious, undescribed Escharina from Dartmouth harbour!" line 15, change "a vivification" to "the revivification". line 22, add: began working a MS in October, has "cut away & shortened at a good rate"; two years ago, thought MS was fit for publication; Lonsdale will describe "corallines from a (mountain limestone?) series from Van Dieman's Land". At end of letter is: greetings to Lyell family.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 (black border); 8p., end. [(6) Darwin on Kemp/ Sept. 1843/ germinatn of fossil seeds]

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33. To B.D. Walsh
[1843 December 16] Saturday [end. Decr. 1843; pmk. DE 16/ 1843; wmk. 1842]ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St/ Bloomsbury Square/ London], end. [Darwin 99a/ Tosca or Pampean mud/ not diluvium. Sections/ of it--/ Decr. 1843.], sketchesB D25.L

Has consulted notes, finds "that the proposition that the Tosca was a diluvial mud is monstrous", since it "is distinctly stratified in some parts"; Tosca "not the last deposit"; gives illustrations, with sketches of sections, from Uruguay River and Banda Oriental; "there appears to be an older & newer tosca"; upper tosca, with exceptions, is similar "over wide spaces"; implies a disagreement over this point with [Alcide Dessalines] D'Orbigny, gives example of Rio Negro to illustrate D'Orbigny's error; finds "that the comglomerate of pumice in sandstone in the Patagonian Tertiary is apocryphal."

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St/ Bloomsbury Square/ London], end. [Darwin 99a/ Tosca or Pampean mud/ not diluvium. Sections/ of it--/ Decr. 1843.], sketches

34. To?; Down (type 2)
[ca. 1843-1846 or 1855-1861]ALS; 8 x5; 1p.B D25.115

Returns Greenland Catalogue with thanks; is ashamed to have forgotten to return it sooner.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used.

35. To [Henry DENNY]2; Down (type 2)
[ca. 1843-1846 or 1855-1861]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.73

Thanks for note; corr. is "at perfect liberty to mention Mr. Martial's story";3 Martial was a ship's surgeon, but worthless and slightly educated; "perhaps, however, in some respects his story is less likely from this cause to have been invented.-- I myself do not think our supposed knowledge of having come from one stock ought to enter into any scientific reasoning"; Eastern and Western Europeans have different species of intestinal worms; cannot now search for specimens, but will do so later if requested; Pediculi perish on wild animals during passage to England, and a slight fever or broken wrist with no fever can cause evacuation of intestinal worms, which shows that slight changes in constitution affect parasites.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used. 2. Written on original letter by CD's son was Denny's name. 3. See Darwin, Descent of Man (1871), I, 219.

36. To?; Down (type 2)
[ca. 1843-1846 or 1855-1861]ANS; 8 x5; 1p.B D25.22

Sends short and interesting addition to be tacked on to end of [?Thomas Henry] Farrer's paper, if corr. prints it.

General physical description: ANS; 8 x5; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used.

37. To [Henry DENNY]; Down (type 1)
[?1844]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.B D25.72

Would like to help Denny; collected some lice, but part of collection was lost and CD has been prevented from going over his zoological collection by ill health and desire to finish geological works; will go over collection soon and will then save lice for Denny; [George Robert] Waterhouse can help identify CD's ticketed specimens for Denny.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD sorted his collections in mid-1844, after finishing his Volcanic Islands (1844); see "Darwin's Journal," 10-11.

38. To [Leonard] HORNER; Down (type 1)
1844 Aug 29th [end. 29 Aug 44; wmk. 1842]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 7p. and end. [C. Darwin/ 29 Aug 44]B D25.L1

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 115-17 (letter 480). p. 116, line 15, questionable word is definitely "relieved". p. 116, line 25, change "unfilled" to "upfilled". At end of letter is: Emma [Wedgwood Darwin] will give instructions for travel to Down.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 7p. and end. [C. Darwin/ 29 Aug 44]

39. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 1)
[1844 September] Sunday [end. Sept. 1844; wmk. 1842]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 7p. and fragment of env., add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St/ Bloomsbury Square/ London], end. [Sept. 1844/ Darwin/ Patagonia/ rising gragually--/ Mastodon/ D'Orbigny/ sudden upthrust of/ Patagonia controverted], sketchB D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 117-20 (letter 481). p. 119, line 22, change "Pampas [debacle?]" to "Pampaean debacle [i.e. Pompeian earthquake]". p. 120, line 17, add: regards to Lyell's wife and had hoped to have seen Horners at Down.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 7p. and fragment of env., add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St/ Bloomsbury Square/ London], end. [Sept. 1844/ Darwin/ Patagonia/ rising gragually--/ Mastodon/ D'Orbigny/ sudden upthrust of/ Patagonia controverted], sketch

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40. To?; Down (type 1)
[?1845] Jan 26th [wmk. 1844]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 6p.B D25.126

Ill; extract, sent by corr., is fullest account CD has seen, refers to island called Pouynipete or Seniavane [i.e. Seniavine or Senyavin]; this is same island as is mentioned in Darwin, Coral Reefs (1842), pp. 127 and 168; describes how he can claim this; description sent by corr. apparently refers to a high island, a significant fact for CD, but "Every one knows how greedily a theorist pounces on a fact, highly favourable to his views," thus CD wished to believe in this fact; nevertheless, CD skeptical of it; writer spoke of granite blocks, but CD thinks island is volcanic; moreover, CD "heard (perhaps...unjustly) very indifferent accounts of Dr. Lloghtsky's moral character; agrees that the case is neither fully established in fact nor fully fabricated; "I have very little doubt that hereafter, the existence of former wide tracts of land, since buried in the ocean by subsidence, will turn out the chief means of the migrations & passage of animals, plants & man, from one part of the world to another", gives examples to demonstrate this; apologies for length of letter, thanks for prompt answer, compliments to "Miss Smith".

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 6p.

41. To E[dward] W[illiam] BRAYLEY; Down, Kent
1845 Feb. 7th [wmk. 1844]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p. and add. [E. W. Brayley Esqr]B D25.253

Letter of recommendation. Brayley apparently applying for a lectureship in geology; praises Brayley's "remarkable powers in acquiring scientific knowledge of varied kinds, &...your extensive reading."

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p. and add. [E. W. Brayley Esqr]

42. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1845 February 8] Saturday [end. 1845; pmk. FE 8/ 1845; wmk. 1842]ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St./ Bloomsbury Sqr/ London], end. [Darwin (9) 1845/ Dorbigny on S. Amer/ican shells common] to Europe, Silur-/ian & Cretaceous/ 1st. & 2d. p. of letter]B D25.L

[Alcide Dessalines] d'Orbigny describes ten Silurian fossils from eastern Bolivian Cordillera as similar to European species, does same for seven Devonian fossils and 23 Carboniferous fossils, although two of the latter, viz. Natica antisinensis [i.e. antisiensis] &Spirifer Roissyi, are not new species; five of the cretaceous fossils, says D'Orbigny, are common to Paris Basin;1 forgot, when with Lyell on Thursday, to ask Lyell to speak again to [John] Murray about CD's Journal of Researches [Freeman 7 or 8] (1845); since their meeting, saw [Hugh] Cuming about South American fossils and "their range with respect to my Tertiary species"; only series Cuming has not examined and wishes to examine are about 90 shells from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego; wishes to have this done for several reasons; discusses arrangements to do so; "I fear you will think this so much trouble, that you will wish I had never given you my collection."

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 16 Hart St./ Bloomsbury Sqr/ London], end. [Darwin (9) 1845/ Dorbigny on S. Amer/ican shells common] to Europe, Silur-/ian & Cretaceous/ 1st. & 2d. p. of letter]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Letter explicitly refers to Orbigny, Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale..., v.3, pt. 3: Geologie (Paris: Strasbourg, 1842), 226, 230 [sic; should be 233], and 239.

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43. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1845 July] Saturday [wmk. 1845]ALS; 10 x8; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters I, 337-39. p. 338, line 16, change "the first" to "this first". p. 338, last line, add: remembrances to Lyell's wife; CD's wife remains "wearismme". At end of letter is: remembrances to Lyell family at Kinnordy.

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 4p.

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44. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1845 August 2] (Saturday) [end. 1845 and in another place Augt. 1. 1845; wmk. 1842]ALS; 10 x8; 9p. and end. [(4) 1845/ C. Darwin/ Criticisms on/ Lyells Travels in/ U.S &c/ (4)] and [Darwin/ Augt. 1. 1845]B D25.L

Printed: Life and Letters I, 339-41. At end of letter is: remarks on eight particular passages in Lyell's new book,1 as follows: v. 1, p. 81, on resemblance of corals, shells, & insects and on analogy of Arctic and Antarctic fauna; v. 1, p. 138, on extinct species of Fulgur and Gnathodon; v. 1, p. 150, on breathing as source of carbonic acid; v. 1, p. 181, on means of water-erosion on seam of carbon; v. 2, p. 37, on Fuegians using a hollowed tree; v. 2, p. 54, on wood or fruits floating on sea; v. 2, p. 65, on buffaloes killed while rushing to drink; v. 2, p. 189, on parallels between present Arctic and Lyell's Carboniferous floras, in terms of extent of distribution; "Might you not...bring more prominently forward the absurdity of arguing from one quarter of the globe, without knowing what was going on in other parts...."; CD's wife and baby [George Howard Darwin] are well; further family details; "P.S. Have you any of my volumes of Lamarck??"

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 9p. and end. [(4) 1845/ C. Darwin/ Criticisms on/ Lyells Travels in/ U.S &c/ (4)] and [Darwin/ Augt. 1. 1845]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Lyell, Travels in North America..., 2v. (London: John Murray, 1845).

45. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1845] Aug. 25th.-- [wmk. 1842]AL (incomplete); 10 x8; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 341-42. p. 341, line 3, add: "Please read this before you go" to America on September 4; concerning radiation of snow, CD opposes "the colour-doctrine.-- I find from [?John] Leslie (in [Andrew] Ure1), the radiating...power of Lamp-black being called 100, and gold, silver, copper being 12; Writing paper is 98, plumbago 75 and ice is 85. From [William Charles] Wells,2 it appears, that when swan-down...exposed to open sky falls 16°; grass falls 15°; & snow falls between 12° & 13°: gravel & flag-stone...are inferior to grass, but how much is not said."; Dr. [Patrick] Wilson gives similar data; concludes that snow-covered land "radiates its heat, but little less than the most favourable land." p. 342, line 12, add: multiple and single creations probably discussed in latest Kosmos, since H. [?Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt] discussed this with [Joseph Dalton] Hooker "& Humbolt [sic] is a multiple man."; hopes Lyell's next excursion will be to Sicily, to study evidence for and to refute craters of elevation theory. p. 342, line 21, add: will miss visiting Lyells while they are away. p. 342, line 22, add: will send third part of Darwin, Journal of Researches [Freeman 7, pt. 3] (1845) on Monday.

General physical description: AL (incomplete); 10 x8; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This work might be Ure, A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines (London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longmans, 1839), although I could not pinpoint the precise passage to which CD refers. 2. CD refers to Wells, An Essay on Dew... (London: Taylor and Hessey, 1814), esp. 43-50. See also Richard Harrison Shryock, "The Strange Case of Wells' Theory of Natural Selection (1813)...," in M. F. Ashley Montagu, ed., Studies and Essays in the History of Science and Learning... in Homage to George Sarton... (New York: Henry Schuman, [1946]), 195-209.

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46. To Charles LYELL; Shrewsbury
[1845] October 8th.-- [pmk. OC 8/ 1845; wmk. 1842]ALS; 9 x7.5 4p., add. [Charles Lyell Esqr/ Post Office/ Boston/ United States], end. [Mr Darwin/ Queries about negroes]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 343-45. At beginning of letter is: has not written because has "seen hardly anyone & done little"; "...it has been asserted that on the negroes born in N[orth]. America, the lice are larger & of a blacker colour, than the dommon species; & that the European lice will not live on negroes."; has heard analogous story about men of Sandwich Islands; asks Lyell to check this and to send specimens of lice from blacks to [Henry] Denny; [Edward] Long's History of Jamaica [London: T. Lowndes, 1774] states that mulattos cross sterile; asks Lyell for comparative information on crosxes of "Indians & Europeans & Negroes & Europeans". p. 344, line 14, change "our scientific" to "non-scientific". p. 344, line 17, missing name is [William John] Broderip.

General physical description: ALS; 9 x7.5 4p., add. [Charles Lyell Esqr/ Post Office/ Boston/ United States], end. [Mr Darwin/ Queries about negroes]

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47. To [?Isaac ANDERSON-HENRY]; Shrewsbury
[1845-1848]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.B D25.188

Is visiting his father; thanks for offer to experiment on hybrids; please record "all faots, such as the number of plants you experimentise on, their names &c &c.--"; "Negative facts (Ie failures) are as important to know as successes.--"; will acknowledge source of all results published; sends copy of Darwin, Journal of Researches [Freeman 8] (1845), which "is I hope somewhat improved, from the 1st [edition] that was published."

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The second edition of the Journal of Researches was published--or printed, at least--in 1845; CD's father died in 1848. These set the endpoints for the date. Anderson-Henry was chosen as correspondent merely because this letter was pubchased in a lot with another letter to Anderson-Henry and apparently was glued in a scrapbook along with the other letter at one time.

48. To [Richard] OWEN; Down (type 2)
[1846 May 12] TuesdayALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.B D25.181

Wishes to see Owen on Thursday morning concerning Mammifers of the Plata; if Owen cannot see CD then, send note to "7 Park St Grosvenor Sqr"; has begun reading Owen on British fossils [i.e. A History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds (London: John Van Voorst, 1846)].

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Date determined by Sydney Smith, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge University.

49. To Charles LYELL; Shrewsbury
[1846 August 8] Saturday [end. Augt. 10--1846--; pmk. AU 8/ 1846; wmk. 1842]ALS; 10 x8; 4p., add. [Charles Lyell Esqr. Junr.--/ Kinnordy/ Kirriemuir/ Scotland], end. [(11)/ C. Darwin/ Augt. 10--1846--/ on his work on/ volcanos/ on hybrids]B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 222-24 (letter 557). At end of this portion is: pleased that Lyell will read Darwin, Volcanic Islands (1844); cost 18 months work, but few have read it; "now [that Lyell is reading it] I shall feel whatever little (& little it is) there is confirmatory...will work its effect...."; wishes he could say same for Darwin, South America (1846), but cannot; wanted to discuss with Lyell the foliation of metamorphic schists, the absence of recent conchiferous deposits, and the deposit of tertiary formations during subsidence; has corrected two-thirds of South America and hopes to publish during August; returns to Down on Tuesday; family ill; sends regards; must do proofreading. Next portion printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 327, lines 3-7. At end of this portion is: regards to wife.

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 4p., add. [Charles Lyell Esqr. Junr.--/ Kinnordy/ Kirriemuir/ Scotland], end. [(11)/ C. Darwin/ Augt. 10--1846--/ on his work on/ volcanos/ on hybrids]

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50. To C[harles] LYELL; no location
[1846 October 3; end. 1846; pmk. OC 3/ 1846; wmk. 1842]ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11. Harley St/ Cavendish Sqr/ London], end. [(10) Darwin on Ramsays/ paper on Denuda/tion/ 1846--]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 120-22 (letter 482). p. 121, line 23, change "foundations" to "formation"/.

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11. Harley St/ Cavendish Sqr/ London], end. [(10) Darwin on Ramsays/ paper on Denuda/tion/ 1846--]

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51. To [Smith, Elder, and Company]; 7. Park St./ Grosvenor Sqr
[1846 October 19] Monday night [end. Oct 20, 1846]ALS; 7 x4.5 3p. and end. [C. Darwin by/ Park St./ Oct 20, 1846]B D25.128

Has received his copy of Darwin, South America (1846); "coloured Plate [i.e. Plate I]" has "its back to all the letter press; it is almost impossible to refer to it" this way; "a stupid trick"; orders corr. to cut out all plates that are bound and make them front the letterpress; likes looks of volume; has not seen any advertisements yet.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 3p. and end. [C. Darwin by/ Park St./ Oct 20, 1846]

52. To [Andrew Crombie RAMSAY]; Down (type 3)
[?1846]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 11p.B D25.174

Ill for week; thanks for letter; glad Ramsay values parts of book [Darwin, South America (1846)]; concerning "traces of Terraces", a "hobby-horse" of CD, did not see signs of such terraces on recent visit to Snowdonia in North Wales; even recent paper2 on Scandinavian drift by [Roderick Impey] Murchison errs by "speaking of...successive terraces as the direct effects of so many elevations [rather than as] the indirect effect of an elevation, & the direct effect of the sea's destroying power...."; does not know whether old Tertiary beds of South America were submerged until recent layers set down, but certain they were slowly uplifted, with low parts long submerged; "I think this absence of any considerable recent fossiliferous deposits on both E. & W. coasts, the most remarkable thing I observed" in South America; see page 135 of Darwin, South America (1846); this subject "helps to explain the breaks in Geological chronology & has disabused my mind of a prejudice that durable fossiliferous formations are in most places now accumulating."; thinks "ejected volcanic crystals of glassy feldspar are always broken.--"; found Murchison's thin Silurian lavastreams near Stiper Stones to be injected; for measurements of thin streams, see Darwin, Volcanic Islands (1844), 103 and 109; Ramsay working at interesting site, [?Edward] Forbes gave information on it; where lavas are vesicular and decomposed, has seen "most marvellous transitions into sedimentary beds", partly caused by compression and movement of once-solid lava; impossible to say "where lava ended & tuff began, though neither [were] in the lease metamorphosed."; suspects some metamorphosis; doubts alleged high erosive power of gravel on underlying rocks beneath a sea of any depth; apologies for long letter; directs letter to Charing Cross, since Ramsay probably back from Bala [Wales].

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 11p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year based on publication date of Darwin, South America (1846). 2. Murchison, "On the Superficial Detritus of Sweden,..." Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 2 (1846), pt. 1: 349-81.

53. To [Leonard] HORNER; Down (type 3)
[1846] MondayALS; 7 x4.5 4p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.257

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 174-75 (letter 518). Also printed in Katherine M[urray Horner] Lyell, ed. Memoir of Leonard Horner...Consisting of Letters to His Family and from Some of His Friends, ed. by his daughter..., 2v. (London: Women's Printing Soc., Ltd., 1890), II, 103.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 4p. (enclosure wanting)

54. To [(?William) HUTTON]1; Down (type 2) (black border)
[?1846]ALS; 7 x4.5 1p.B D25.14

Thanks for loan of Horticultural Journal; has read Dr. [William] Herbert's paper2 "with interest"; will return journal to Athenaeum Club; joins wife in regards to "Mrs. Hutton" and family.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD refers to Jl R. hort. Soc. (see Stauffer, ed., CD's Nat. Selection, index entries under William Herbert); first volume published in 1846, thereby setting lower endpoint for date. Articles by Herbert appeared in volumes 1 (1846) and 2 (1847), but in no later volumes. Corr. seems to be William Hutton, because John Lindley was a close friend and colleague of this Hutton and was also a leading figure in the Horticultural Society of London at this time; moreover, William Hutton was a geologist with an interest in botany and fossils, which suggests both that CD knew him and that he would be interested in horticultural matters. William Hutton died in 1860, thereby setting upper endpoint for date. He was on the island of Malta from 1846 to 1857 (see DNB, 28, 363), leaving only 1846 and 1857-1860 as possible dates for letter. Black border indicates death in Darwin family; only deaths during these years were CD's mother-in-law in 1846 (see Emma Darwin, II, 89) and CD's son and his eldest sister in 1858 (see "Darwin's Journal," 14 and 14n). Earlier year chosen because style of handwriting and ink used (a lighter brown than usual) match style and ink of 1846 letters better than style and ink of 1858 letters. 2. Probably "Local Habitation and Wants of Plants," Jl R. hort. Soc., 1 (1846): 44-49.

55. To W[illiam] B[enjamin] CARPENTER; Down (type 3)
[ca. 1846-1855]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.157

Sorry to have broken engagement, but was unwell; is "most anxious" to have Carpenter's advice; would make special trip [to London] to see him and to order microscope; Carpenter's note convinced CD to get [a microscope] and "I groan to think over the 3 or 4 months [until delivery of the microscope]"; discusses details of possible meeting times.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used.

56. To?; Down (type 3)
[ca. 1846-1855]ALS; 7 x4.5 3p.B D25.21

Enclosed probably longer than corr. wished, but "a page in Annals swallows up much M.S."; has marked a page for extraction, "without which [page] my remark w[oul]d be unintelligible"; note "expresses my most honest conviction after careful perusal...", despite its laudatory tone; gives permission to alter but not to shorten; offers to proofread galley, "as my style is often very faulty."

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used.

57. To C[harles] LYELL; no location
[1847 January 20; end. Jany/47; pmk. JA 20/ 1847; wmk. 1846]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11. Harley St/London],end. [(112)/ Darwin -- Jany/47/ Structure of Gneiss]B D25.L

To show that CD not "overrash in generalising my conclusion", copies passage from Darwin, South America (1846), page 167, which begins on line 6 and ends on line 14 of that page, concerning cleavage and foliation.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11. Harley St/London],end. [(112)/ Darwin -- Jany/47/ Structure of Gneiss]

58. To [Charles] LYELL; Down
[1847 January 24] SundayALS; 7.25 x4.5 5p.B D25.L1

Concerning reefs of Tahiti. Supposes "reef under water" to be dead semi-submerged rock separating living reef from "the islets, which Dr Gould calls the Barrier."; Tahiti less perfectly encircled by reefs than other islands of its group, but considers it encircled because of [James] Cook's chart,1 which has been verified by the French; see page 152 of Darwin, Coral Reefs (1842); reef is much broken where ships enter; Americans unaware of submerged and probably dead part of reef described in Nautical Magazine for 1836;2 this is the least perfect part, according to Cook; did not color it in plate without consideration; [Joseph Dalton] Hooker visiting Down, working at paper on coal plants3 and conversing with CD; Hooker admires [Charles James Fox] Bunbury's papers.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 5p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Perhaps the chart reproduced as Chart V in R. A. Skelton, ed., The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery: Charts & Views Drawn by Cook..., printed for the Hakluyt Society (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1955). 2. W. Forbes, "Description of the Reefs on the North-east Coast of Tahiti,..." Nautical Magazine, 5 (1836): 264. 3. Hooker, "On the Vegetation of the Carboniferous Period,..." Mem. geol. Surv. U. K., 2 (1848): 387-430.

59. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1847 March 7] Sunday [end. March 7. 1847; pmk. MR 8/ 1847]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11 Harley St/London],end. [(12) Darwin/ March 7. 1847/ R. Chambers on Paralell/ Roads of Glen Roy]B D25.L

Thanks for copy of seventh ed. of Principles of Geology... (London: John Murray, 1847) with "much new...to refer to"; wants list of new parts. as promised, since CD too busy to read in toto; [?Charles] Stokes has lent CD volumes 1-30 of Annls. Sci. nat.; has been ill; sorry to have missed Lyell while in London; Robert Chambers gave CD a sketch of [David] Milne[-Home]'s views on Glen Roy,1 and CD has reread his own paper2 and is "now, that I have heard what is to be said, not even staggered."3; Chambers did not read CD's paper with care and did not look at CD's colored map,4 so "the new shelf...had not been searched for,..."; was "quite chicken-hearted" at Geological Society of London until Lyell reassured him; Darwin, South America (1846) has had "enormous sale" of 100 copies; CD's father better, but "much changed bodily" in last six months.

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11 Harley St/London],end. [(12) Darwin/ March 7. 1847/ R. Chambers on Paralell/ Roads of Glen Roy]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Milne, "On the Parallel Roads of Lochaber,..." Trans. R. Soc. Edinb., 16 (1849): 395-418. See also: Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., 2 (1844-1850); 124-25 and 132-33; and Edinb. new phil. J., 43 (1847): 339-64. 2. Darwin, "Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy,..." Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 129 (1839): 39-81. 3. See Paul H. Barrett, "Darwin's `Gigantic Blunder'," Journal of Geological Education, January 1973; 19-28. 4. Darwin, op. cit. (note 2), Plate I.

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60. To C[harles] LYELL; Down
[1847 June] Wednesday [end. June 1847]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr], end. [C. Darwin/ June 1847/ On Dr.Morton's/ paper on/ Hybridity/ (13)]B D25.L

Returns [William] Whewell correspondence, likes Lyell's bold reply;1 returns [volume 3 of] Silliman's J. containing [Samuel George] Morton's article;2 glad to have seen latter, but thinks it "a merely tabulated compilation from [Edward] Griffith's Cuvier";3 Morton's worst fault is failure to consult primary sources; gives examples of this concerning dubious hybrids, refers to [Coenraad Jacob] Temminck; "What a capital Journal Silliman's is; there is always something of interest in it."

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr], end. [C. Darwin/ June 1847/ On Dr.Morton's/ paper on/ Hybridity/ (13)]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See I. Todhunter, William Whewell..., 2v. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1876), I, 161. 2. Morton, "Hybridity in Animals, Considered in Reference to the Question of the Unity of the Human Species," 39-50 and 203-12. 3. Georges L. C. F. D. de Cuvier, The Animal Kingdom..., with additional descriptions...by Edward Griffith..., 16 v. (London: Geo. B. Whittaker, 1827-1835).

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61. To [Mrs. M. A. T. WHITBY]; Down (type 3)
[1847]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p.B D25.102

Information on silkworm provided by Whitby "last year at Southampton"; in moths raised from silkworms kept in captivity, are the wings crippled and is flight impossible; is this especially true in France and Italy; if so, are males and females equally flightless; presumes case similar to domestic ducks; has Whitby tried "two experiments on hereditariness" which CD suggested, viz., first, whether black-eyebrowed caterpillar produces black or dark-eyed caterpillar young; and second, if fat caterpillars called Frales produce moths and, if so, whether moth offspring are "likewise fat & silkless."; needs results, "for in a work which I intend some few years hence to publish on variation, there will be hardly any facts in the insect world."; are there differences in habits in different caterpillar breeds.2

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD and Whitby met at the September, 1846, meeting of the British Association, held at Southampton; see Whitby, "On the Cultivation of Silk in England," Rep. Br. Ass. Advmt Sci., 16 (1846), pt. 2: 87-88. 2. See Darwin, Variation under Domestication [Freeman 233] (1868), I, 302-03.

62. To?; Down (type 3)
[?1847] Sept 7th [wmk. 1847]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.265

Some years ago, took his collection of Mollusca in spirits to [?George Brettingham] Sowerby [?the elder]; more interesting forms, including many cirripedes, were then sent to [Richard] Owen; describes physical features of specimen bottles, asks corr. to look for them; "it is most mortifying...to have lost my own Cirripedia, now that I am at work on them."; will be in London in October, will call on corr. "at the [?Royal] College [?of Surgeons] and look over corr.'s cirripede collections; offers corr. a first-stage Scalpellum larva without striation.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

63. To C[harles] LYELL [sic];1 no location
[1847 October 4] Monday Morning [end. Oct. 1847; pmk. OC 4/ 1847]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr--/ 11. Harley St/ London], end. [Darwin (110)/ Oct. 1847/ Glen Roy/ Glacier Theory]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 187088 (letter 523). At beginning of letter is: Obliged for barnacles; the one marked "Bergen" is the right one, but its locality is unknown; it is not a Conia; will keep shells, including new one, until review of them is finished; thank husband for note; "what an awful joke...if we had all subscribed for a horrid calf's head?"; will be "grievous" if Coal Saurian proves to be a fish; "I will hope still that [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz's positive assertions may be disproved by bones, as well as footsteps.--"

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [C. Lyell Esqr--/ 11. Harley St/ London], end. [Darwin (110)/ Oct. 1847/ Glen Roy/ Glacier Theory]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. While letter is addressed to Charles Lyell, the salutation greets his wife, Mary Elizabeth Horner Lyell.

64. To [Charles] LYELL; no location
[1847 October 11] MondayALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p. and 1p. enc.B D25.L

Encloses measurements representing results of comparison of Lochaber and Galashiels Terraces, the latter measured by [William] Kemp; results "wonderful", show similar elevations for terraces in two locations; believes measurements of [?Alan] Stevenson and [Robert] Chambers are correct, those of [John] Macculloch are wrong; told Chambers that Lyell and CD both thought ice-lake theory worth considering, Chambers replied that this was dream; [Charles] Maclaren did not insert abstract of [David] Milne[-Home]'s paper1 into Scotsman and thus will not insert CD's letter;2 [Robert] Jameson will insert it in Philosophical Journal, but CD has written Jameson "to beg him to destroy it."; will return [Casterordes?] paper with [Hugh] Miller's [?book];3 Down House full of relatives.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p. and 1p. enc.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On the Parallel Roads of Lochaber,..." Trans. R. Soc. Edinb., 16 (1849); 395-418; Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., 2 (1844-1850); 124-25 and 132-33; Edinb. new phil. J., 43 (1847): 339-64. 2. Printed at the end of Paul H. Barrett, "Darwin's `Gigantic Blunder'," Journal of Geological Education, January 1973: 19-28. 3. First Impressions of England and Its People (London: J. Johnstone?, 1847); see More Letters, II, 188.

65. To [Charles] LYELL; no location
[1847 (?ca. October)]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 328n. At end of letter is: delighted by letter2 from [Bernhard] Studer to [James David] Forbes showing that layers in gneiss have nothing to do with stratification in Alps; this agrees with Darwin, South America (1846); tell [Leonard] Horner of this, as Horner wished to know what things were in the book; enjoyed Lyell's visit to Down; regards to wife.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Lyell visited Down in October, 1847; see Life and Letters I, 360. 2. "Remarks on the Geological Relations of the Gneiss of the Alps," Edinb. new phil. J., 42 (1846-1847): 186-87.

66. To [Henri] MILNE-EDWARDS; Down (type 3)
1847 Nov. 18th [pmk. 20NO20/ 1847; wmk. 1846]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p and add. [A Monsieur/ M. Milne Edwards/ Membre de l'Institut/ et Professeur a l'ecole Centrale des Arts/ Paris]B D25.20

Has, he believes, the male, the female, and the larvae (in different states) of a "singular Lernaea like animal, which is parasitic on Balanus"; these are identified erroneously as the male of the Balanus and as a new genus of isopodous Crustacean parasitic on this male Balanus by [Harry (not Henry, as is printed with article) D. S.] Goodsir in ["On the Sexes, Organs of Reproduction, and Mode of Development, of the Cirripeds,..."] Edinb. new phil. J., 35 (1843): 88; offers specimens of these to Milne-Edwards, "to whose publications, I have long owed much pleasure & instruction"; could send them through Baillieu the Bookseller.

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p and add. [A Monsieur/ M. Milne Edwards/ Membre de l'Institut/ et Professeur a l'ecole Centrale des Arts/ Paris]

67. To [?Robert] HUTTON; Down (type 3)
[1847-1848]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.B D25.245

Thanks to Hutton and friend for help in obtaining introduction to Lady E[mily Georgiana Bagot] Finch[-Hatton, Countess of Winchilsea and Nottingham], but right after seeing Hutton at Geological Society of London, CD heard from his father that an old friend could provide introduction; regards to Hutton family.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Watermark is lower endpoint; death of CD's father in 1848 is upper.

68. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[ca. 1847-1849] Wednesday 8thCopy of L; 10 x8; 6p. and end. [Darwin/ Letter on Glen Roy/ Milne's paper]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 181-87 (letter 522). p. 184, line 14, pluralize "lake". Original of this letter is in Cambridge University Library; see Handlist of Darwin Papers, 13.

General physical description: Copy of L; 10 x8; 6p. and end. [Darwin/ Letter on Glen Roy/ Milne's paper]

69. To [George Robert] WATERHOUSE; Down (type 3)
[1847-1855] Sunday [wmk. 1847]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p. and end. [C. Darwin Esqr]B D25.211

Heard Wednesday at Museum that Waterhouse expected back soon; invites Waterhouse for dinner at Down on Saturday the twelfth, return to London Monday morning; [Charles and Mary] Lyell, [Edward] Forbes, [Andrew Crombie] Ramsay, and R[obert Hermann] Schomburgk are also invited; wants to hear "some news of your foreign trip."

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p. and end. [C. Darwin Esqr]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Upper endpoint set by type of Down address used.

70. To Lady [?Harriet Hotham] LUBBOCK; no location
[1847-1865] Wednesday Even/ Thursday mg. [wmk. 1847]ALS; 7 x4.5 1p.B D25.15

Do not worry about missing volume, covered with brown paper, with no title outside; it will turn up some day and will not be needed soon; has received husband's check and will send receipt with microscope, when complete.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Lady Harriet Hothem Lubbock's husband died in 1865; it is unlikely that this letter, with its 1847 watermark, refers to the wife of John Lubbock, first Baron Avebury.

71. To [John Edward] GRAY; no location
[ca. 1848 January]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.91

Regarding loan of the cirripede collection of the British Museum to CD. Enclosed request for collection in groups (pedunculated and sessile separate) is sent to Gray for approval; will correct if Gray disapproves; getting specimens in these two lots is best arrangement for CD; could divide sessile into two sub-groups if necessary; has not mentioned duration of loan for fear of being hampered.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p. (enclosure wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See next letter, below, for date.

72. To [John Edward] GRAY; Down (type 3)
[1848 February 6] Sunday [end. 8 Feb 1848; wmk. 1847]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 6p., end. [8 Feb 1848] (enclosure wanting)B D25.92

Received yesterday Gray's note with "good tidings of the great liberality of the Trustees. Now if I do not make a tolerably good monograph, it will be purely my own fault."; encloses thank-you note for Trustees; is not ready for specimens yet, will not be ready for species part for six weeks; will begin with pedunculated division; will consult Gray on size of first loan; sould appreciate names of as many specimens as possible, although this is troublesome; "Without your assistance I shd break down with the synomony [sic; synonymy]."; has all of Mr. Stutchbury [of Bristol]'s collection, which is partly named after British Museum; thanks for "conduct...most generous & handsome".

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 6p., end. [8 Feb 1848] (enclosure wanting)

73. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1848 June 16] Friday [end. 1848; pmk. JU 17/ 1848; wmk. 1847]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 8p. and env., add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11. Harley St/London],end. [(104) Darwin/ Chambers/ paralell/ roads/ 1848]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 362-63. At beginning of letter is: tells [Mary Elizabeth Horner] Lyell of relief felt by CD and wife over "wonderful escape" of Miss [?Ann] S[?usan] Horner, which CD heard about since seeing Lyell on Wednesday at Council [of Geological Society of London]; "[Leonard] Horner...had a horror of the sea & now it is...justified." p. 362, line 3, missing name is [William] "Buckland". At end of letter is: "If he [Robert Chambers] be, as I believe, the Author of the Vestiges [of the Natural History of Creation] this book [Ancient Sea Margins...] for poverty of intellect is a literary curiosity.-- I have written all this, as I believe it may save you reading the Book; it is to the best of my Belief, an honest account."; shall be in London before Lyell leaves [for Kinnordy]; wishes to visit Lyell then.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 8p. and env., add. [C. Lyell Esqr/ 11. Harley St/London],end. [(104) Darwin/ Chambers/ paralell/ roads/ 1848]

74. To [John Edward] GRAY; Down (type 3)
[1848 June] 28th [end. June 1848; wmk. 1847]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p., end. [June 1848]B D25.93

Will send [some work by Camillo] Ranzani on "Thursday (tomorrow)"; Ranzani work not much use; wants the Conchotrya and Brisnaeus (Brisneus?) [CD's query]; is working at Lithotrya; also wants [Octomeris?] to do when studying [Catophragmus?], especially if there is a specimen "adhering to its support, so that I could get out the dry animal."; apologies for this trouble; "In truth never will a mountain in labour have brought forth such a mouse as my book on the Cirripedia: it is ridiculous the time each species takes me."

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p., end. [June 1848]

75. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1848 June] Wednesday [wmk. 1847]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 363-64.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.

76. To [Henri] MILNE-EDWARDS; Down (type 3)
[1848] Sept. 1st [pmk. 2 SP 2/ 1848; wmk. 1847]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [A Monsieur/ M. Milne Edwards/ Academie Royl. des Sciences/ Paris]B D25.58

Milne-Edwards's kindness at Oxford [?B.A.A.S. meeting, June 1847] induces CD to ask favor; describes work on cirripedes, gives history of project, identifies collections at his disposal (Cuming, British Museum, etc.), describes methods used; will describe animals within shells as well as shells themselves; asks for help in obtaining loan of specimens, esp. "a single specimen of some of the species figured in the Voyage of the Astrolabe";1 especially wants genus Alepas; wants the following: Alepas fasciculatus of [Rene Primevere] Lesson; A. parasita of [Jean Rene Constant] Quoy and [Joseph Paul] Gaimard; A. tubulosa do.; Anatifa elongata do. (especially); A. pelagica [Anatife pelagien] do.; A. sessilis do.; A. tricolor do.; A. spinosa do. (especially) (Pollicipes); A. truncata (especially) (Lithotrya); A. sulcata; has found "a good deal new in the Anatomy"; values Milne-Edwards's work on the Crustacea;2 presumes Milne-Edwards does not care about parasite on Balanus, about which CD wrote [on November 18, 1847; see above].

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 3p. and add. [A Monsieur/ M. Milne Edwards/ Academie Royl. des Sciences/ Paris]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Jules Sébastien César Dumont D'Urville, Voyage de la Corvette l'Astrolabe, 15v. Zoologie, by Jean René Constant Quoy and Joseph Paul Gaimard, 4v. (Paris: J. Testu, 1830-1832). 2. Alcide Dessalines D'Orbigny, Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale..., 9v. Vol. 6, pt. 1: Crustaces, by Henri Milne-Edwards and Hippolyte Lucas (Paris: Strasbourg, 1843).

77. To J[ohn] W[illiam] LUBBOCK; no location (black border)2
[?late 1848]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.216

Thanks for permission to use schoolroom; Mr. Nash will come next Wednesday; has not received drawing; tell son that CD wants to hear about microscope, will see him for half hour [see letter to Lady Lubbock, (1847-1865) Wednesday evening/ Thursday morning, above]; ill; thanks for invitation to meet Mr. Adams and for paper on meteors.3

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See notes 2 and 3, below, for evidences for this date. 2. CD's father died on November 13, 1848. 3. Lubbock, "On Shooting Stars," Lond. Edinb. Dubl. Phil. Mag., 32 (1848): 81-88 and 170-72, and 35 (1849), 356-57; reprinted in Edinb. new phil. J., 44 (1848), 330-31.

78. To [Charles] LYELL; The Lodge Malvern (black border)
[1849 June] Friday [wmk. 1847]ALS; 8 3/4 x7.5 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 376-77. At end of letter is: delighted that Lyell to write new editions;1 glad to see Lyell's remarks on extermination and "the striking instance of the tree of [John] Bartram";2 returns home on 30th; ill, must remain idle to be fully cured by Dr. [James Manby Gully]; has bought horse for riding; will atend [B.A.A.S. meeting] at Birmingham [in September] if well; grieved to hear of Lyell family illnesses; sent copy of Darwin, Manual of Scientific Inquiry [Freeman 97] (1849), to Geological Society of London for Lyell; will return two of Lyell's pamphlets on same subject "sometime"; wanted to hear [Roderick Impey] Murchison on Jura-blocks;3 regards to [Leonard and Anne Lloyd] Horner; expects large sale for Lyell, A Second Visit to the United States..., 2v. (London: John Murray, 1849).

General physical description: ALS; 8 3/4 x7.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Principles of Geology, 8th ed. (London: John Murray, 1850); and Elements of Geology, 3rd ed. (London: John Murray, 1851). 2. See Lyell, A Second Visit to the United States..., 2v. (London: John Murray, 1849), I, 351. 3. "On the Distribution of the Superficial Detritus of the Alps, as Compared with that of Northern Europe," Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 6 (1850), 65-69.

79. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3) (black border)
[1849] July 3d. [wmk. 1848]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.L

Printed: More Letters, II, 225 (letter 559). At beginning of letter is: corrections to Lyell, A Second Visit to the United States..., 2v. (London: John Murray, 1849), as follows: v. 1, p. 349, megatherium only found as far south as 39 degrees by CD and not found at all by [Bartholomew James] Sulivan in southern Patagonia; misplaced or omitted words in second volume concerning diameter of a great equatorial telescope and in first volume concerning oxygen and anthracite; left copy of book by Lyell at Malvern with the Wedgwoods.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

80. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3) (black border)
[1849 September 2] Sunday [wmk. 1847]ALS; 8 3/4 x7.25 8p.B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 122-25 (letter 483). p. 124, line 5, pluralize "volume" and change "like" to "have liked". Next portion printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters I, 377-78. At beginning of this portion is: regards to Lyell's wife from CD's wife; CD's wife will attend [B.A.A.S. meeting in] Birmingham; two Darwin children ill. p. 377, line 13, add: "But yet I somehow liked him better than Ld Mahon [i.e. Philip Henry Stanhope]." p. 378, line 15, change "evolving" to "evoking". At end of letter is: regards to [Charles James Fox and Frances Joanna] Bunbury; sorry to hear that Lyell's father is weak.

General physical description: ALS; 8 3/4 x7.25 8p.

81. To G. RANSOME; Down (type 3) (black border)1
[?1849]ALS; 7 x4.25 1p.B D25.207

Is happy to promote Ransome's project; put down CD on subscription list for one pound sterling for the portrait of the bishop.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.25 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Down variant address used determines endpoints of 1846 and 1855. During this period, two deaths necessitated use of black border, viz. death of CD's father on November 13, 1848, and death of CD's daughter Anne on April 23, 1851. Dimensions and width of black border on this letter match those letters from October, 1849, but not of October, 1851.

82. To [Hugh CUMING]2; Down (type 3) (black border)
[?1849 ca. October]ALS; 7 x4.5 4p.B EY83

Has described and named all Cuming's specimens of Pedunculata; will return them at first meeting of Geological Society of London in early November [November 7]; has from Paris a Lithotrya from the Friendly Islands, suspects it is identical to Cuming's single specimen from the Philippines;3 will Cuming please lend the latter again for comparison, as well as any new pedunculate cirripedes freshly acquired; must review the genera again and write out generic descriptions of the Pedunculata; will then start sessile cirripedes; "I quite dread the genus Balanus."

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. There are three reasons for choosing this date: 1) CD finished the pedunculated cirripedes and commenced the sessile in April, 1850 (see "Darwin's Journal," 12); 2) the November 7, 1849, meeting of the Geological Society of London; and 3) the black-bordered stationery, in mourning for the death of CD's father in November, 1848. 2. This letter is bound in a letter-book amid other letters to Cuming. See also the next note. 3. CD refers to Lithotrya truncata; see Darwin, Recent Lepadidae, 366-67ff.

83. To [Charles] LYELL; no location (black border)
[1849 November?1] ThursdayALS; 8 3/4 x7.5 6p., sketchB D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 126-28 (letter 485). p. 126, line 9, sketch is missing. At end of letter is: will visit London on Wednesday [November 7; see previous letter, above], wants to see Lyell about Royal Medals [for the awarding of which CD voted on November 16 (More Letters, II, 131)].

General physical description: ALS; 8 3/4 x7.5 6p., sketch

84. To Charles LYELL; Down (black border)
[1849 November 18] Sunday [end. Nov. 1849; pmk. NO 20/ 1849]ALS; 8 3/4 x7.5 6p. and add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ Kinnordy/ Kerriemuir/ N. Britain], end. [C. Darwin Etna dikes./ Nov. 1849], sketches, and drawingB D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 128-31 (letter 486). p. 131, line 21, add: hopes Mrs. H[enry (i.e. Katherine Murray Horner)] Lyell is well.

General physical description: ALS; 8 3/4 x7.5 6p. and add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ Kinnordy/ Kerriemuir/ N. Britain], end. [C. Darwin Etna dikes./ Nov. 1849], sketches, and drawing

85. To [Charles] LYELL; Down. (black border)
[1849] Dec 4thALS; 8 3/4 x7.25 4p.B D25.L

Printed: Life and Letters I, 374-75. p. 375, line 12, after "to me.", add: "though really I think it some little reflection on him,, that he did find other & new points to observe." At end of letter is: is now reading volcanic part [of James Dwight Dana's book1] which is excellent and original; in last letter [above], claimed that dikes and lava streams never intersect, but now sees that they do so in Sandwich Islands [Hawaii], without cones; thinks this rare, but believes similar cases exist in Galapagos Islands, examples of which CD saw from a distance; Mt. Etna not like this; Dana believes that great Australian valleys are valleys of denudation, have been formed by "running fresh water", but CD unconvinced on latter point; Dana does not discuss craters of elevation; discusses lack of scoriae in Galapagos, abundance at Etna; will be in London on 19th [of December for meeting of Geological Society of London]; "My boasting has done me a deal of good."

General physical description: ALS; 8 3/4 x7.25 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, United States Exploring Expedition [Wilkes Expedition]. During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., 19v. Vol. X: Geology, by James Dwight Dana (Philadelphia: C. Sherman, 1849).

86. To [Isaac ANDERSON-HENRY]; Down (type 3)
[1849] Dec. 10th [end. 1849/ Decr. 10th]ALS; 7 x4.5 3p. and end. [1849/ Decr 10th/ C. Darwin]B D25.187

Was just thinking of Anderson-Henry; thanks for letter; surprised that Anderson-Henry could make so many experiments on Phloxes and mimuli, given that he was also busy with his "removal"; would be grateful for results on this "most curious & interesting subject"; improved health.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 3p. and end. [1849/ Decr 10th/ C. Darwin]

87. To Albany HANCOCK; Down (type 3)
[1849] Dec. 25th [end. 25th Decr. 1849/ pmk. DE27/ 1849; wmk. 1846]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 6p. and add. [Albany Hancock Esqr/ St. Mary's Terrace/ Newcastle/ upon Tyne], end. [25th Decr. 1849/ C. Darwin]B D25.30

Printed in full, with minor changes: "Letters from C. Darwin, Esq., to A. Hancock, Esq.," Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., 8 (1886); 256-58. p. 258, line 3, change "Asthrobalanus (=Cryptophialus)" to "Arthrobalanus".

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 6p. and add. [Albany Hancock Esqr/ St. Mary's Terrace/ Newcastle/ upon Tyne], end. [25th Decr. 1849/ C. Darwin]

88. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1849 December] Friday Even [wmk. 1846]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 225-26 (letter 560). At beginning of letter is: overflowing dikes on both sides of volcano is an exceptional case, cause of it "appears connected with liquidity or abdemce of much gaseous emissions"; Lyell should read [James Dwight Dana's] whole chapter1 on Hawaii and the summary on vulcanism in Pacific; other volcanic chapters "have little in them"; discusses Dana's evidence for many currents proceeding from fissures; would contradict [Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonce] E[lie] de B[eaumont] because Mt. Etna is scoriae-producing, and there must be cones when there is much scoriae; Dana gives woodcut of denudation crater; discusses Dana's estimates of inclinations of lava-streams; Dana's book would have been more valuable if he had not "compared his results with those of others"; differences in liquidity of lava are immense; other details on Dana's volcanic writings. p. 226, line 7, missing phrase is "far penetrating [the] country".

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. In United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, United States Exploring Expedition..., 19v. Vol. X: Geology, by James Dwight Dana (Philadelphia: C. Sherman, 1849).

89. To [Richard] OWEN; Down (type 3)
[?late 1849-early 1850]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.B D25.97

Wishes particularly to see a valve of a cirripede in [Frederick] Dixon's collection which is shown in figure 9 of Plate XXVIII [sic: XXVII]; also wishes specimens in figures 3 and 4 of Plate XIV.2

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD's original request to Owen on this subject is in a letter dated September 10, [1849] (Sir Gavin de Beer, "Further Unpublished Letters of Charles Darwin," Ann. Sci., 14 (1958), 102-03). CD finished working on the pedunculated cirripedes and commenced the sessile cirripedes in April, 1850 ("Darwin's Journal," 12). Owen never provided the specimens; see Darwin, Fossil Lepadidae, 22 and 37-38. 2. See Dixon, The Geology and Fossils...of Sussex (London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1850), Plates XIV and XXVII.

90. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1850 January 3] Thursday Evening [pmk.?JY 4/ 1850; wmk. 1846]ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 4p., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 11. Harley St/London],end. [Darwin/ Denudation Draters]B D25.L

Suggestions and comments on Lyell's paper on craters of denudation, read at meeting of Geological Society of London [on December 19, 1849];1 paper "will be a thorn in the side of [Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonce] E[lie] de B[eaumon]t"; Lyell overlooks CD's case of tuff-strata at Galapagos, viz. beds form narrow streams, hollow from setting of crust, so idea of uplifted horizontal strata absurd; Lyell should state subject at issue more clearly; considers St. Jago, Mauritius, and St. Helena, but not Palma, to be craters of denudation; [James David] Forbes's paper on Italian volcanoes2 has been referred to CD.

General physical description: ALS; 9 3/4 x8; 4p., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 11. Harley St/London],end. [Darwin/ Denudation Draters]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On Craters of Denudation,..." Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 6 (1850): 207-34. 2. "On the Volcanic Formations of the Alban Hills, near Rome," Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., 2 (1844-1850); 259-61.

91. To [James Scott BOWERBANK]2; Down (type 3)
[?1850 January 24]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 1p. and end. [Darwin C.]B D25.132

Thanks for Balani, which will be of use when doing fossil sessile cirripedes; "I got youn[g] Lubbock [i.e. John William, Baron Avebury] to join your [?Palaeontographical] Society".

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 1p. and end. [Darwin C.]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Lubbock joined the Palaeontographical Society in 1850. Month and day derived by Thaddeus J. Trenn from a letter at the New York Botanical Gardens. See also note 2, below. 2. Of all the persons who lent Balani to Darwin, only Bowerbank was closely connected enough to a society for CD to call it "your Society".

92. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1850 March 8] Friday [wmk. 1847]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 7p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 228-29 (letter 562). At end of letter is: regards to Lyell's wife; [Christian Leopold] Von Buch implies that there are no lower Cretaceous beds in the North, but some of [Johannes Japetus Smith] Steenstrup's cirripedes are marked "Grunsand [i.e. Greensand]" from "[Saliberg?] [?in Scania, the southernmost district of Sweden] Quedlingburg [?in Westphalia]" and CD believes they may be from Greensand, "or at least lower chalk"; are there lower Cretaceous beds in Scania or Denmark?

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 7p.

93. To [Albany HANCOCK]; Down (type 3)
[?1850] May 12th [wmk. 1846]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.34

Printed in full, with minor changes: "Letters from C. Darwin, Esq., to A. Hancock, Esq.," Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumb., 8 (1886): 259-60.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

94. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1850 June 8] SaturdayALS1; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.L

Concerning ripples in the sea-bottom, has only seen them to depth of six to ten feet, but see Darwin, Volcanic Islands (1844), page 134, where deeper observations are attributed to M. Sian;2 width of ripples related to depth; thanks for Theodore Parker, [?A Letter to the People of the United States Touching the Matter of Slavery (Boston: J. Monroe and Ce., 1848)]; glad Lyell approved of paper;3 "[Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz has sent me his Lake Superior Book [Lake Superior,... (Boston: Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, 1850)],--is not that an immense Honour!"

General physical description: ALS1; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. On the back of this letter is a one-page ANS from Emma Wedgwood Darwin to Mary Elizabeth Horner Lyell concerning tickets to see the new hippopotamus in the Zoological Gardens; also mentions that Darwins leave for Malvern on Tuesday [June 11, 1850] for a week's stay; mentions Mary Lyell's sister's health. 2. M. Sian, "On the Action of Waves at Great Depths," Edinb. new phil. J., 31 (1841): 245-46.  3. Probably "On British Fossil Lepadidae," Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 6 (1850): 439-40. Read June 5, 1850.

95. To Lady [Maria] HOOKER; Down (type 3)
[?1850]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p.B D25.43

Sorry that Sir William [Jackson Hooker] is ill; thanks for note and extract; had not heard of [Brian Houghton] Hodgson's "Physicogeographical memoir" [?"On the Physical Geography of the Himalayas," J. Asiat. Soc. Beng., 18 (1849): 761-88]; will send comments directly to Hodgson; delighted that "your son [Joseph Dalton Hooker] is enjoying the grand Sylhet Mountains."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. On the date of Sir William's illness, see Mea Allan, The Hookers of Kew, 1785-1911 (London: Michael Joseph, 1967), 188. On J. D. Hooker's visit to the Sylhet Mountains in late summer, 1850, see Leonard Huxley, Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 2v. (London: John Murray, 1918), I, 332.

96. To J[ames] S[cott] BOWERBANK; Down (type 3)
[?1850] Sept. 10th [pmk. SP 10/ 185ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 2p. and env., add. [J. S. Bowerbank Esqr/ 3. Highbury Grove/ London], [?end.] [Darwin (illegible word PTC)]B D25.40

Requests permission [of Palaeontographical Society] to have "four or five woodcuts" [see Darwin, Fossil Lepadidae, 9] drawn and engraved by [James de Carle] Sowerby; wants approval of plan to give species descriptions in both Latin and English, following S[earles Valentine] Wood; "how inconvenient to those who never (as I for one never do) bind their books [that the Palaeontographical Society binds its annual parts into a single volume for each year]."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 2p. and env., add. [J. S. Bowerbank Esqr/ 3. Highbury Grove/ London], [?end.] [Darwin (illegible word PTC)]

97. To [John William] LUBBOCK, [Baron Avebury]; Down (type 2)
[? 1850 November or December] 10thALS; 7 3/4 x5; 1p.B D25.26

Please send reference for paper on the metamorphosis of the Pycnogons, which CD believes Lubbock mentioned earlier, as CD wants to tell C[harles] S[pence] Bate about it; is "much knocked up with Mr. [James de Carle] Sowerby."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 1p.

98. To [the Ray Society]; Down (type 3)
[1850] Dec. 5th [wmk. 1850]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.13

Thanks for note; will confine himself [in Recent Lepadidae] to eight plates, with two of them colored; [George Brettingham] Sowerby [the younger] has only drawings, not engravings; please return "skeleton Plates, & the Drawings"; wishes to know when in 1851 will [Recent Lepadidae] appear, so he can schedule work on the eight plates after finishing proofs of [Darwin, Fossil Lepadidae] for Palaeontographical Society; is not "dilatory, though my health allows me to work but for a very short time daily."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

99. To [?James Scott BOWERBANK]; Down (type 3) (black border)1
[1851] July 7thALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.175

Please ask Council of Palaeontographical Society if, to save expense, the Ray Society may use the woodcut figure 1 in Darwin, Fossil Lepadidae, page [9], for use in Darwin, Recent Lepadidae, [facing page 3]; send woodcut to G. Snow [CD's agent in London].

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD's daughter, Anne Elizabeth Darwin, died on April 23, 1851.

100. To?; Down (type 3)
[1851] Dec. 19thALS; 5 x8; 1p.B D25.117

Thanks for note of 16th; Ray Society has already given CD 22 copies of Darwin, [Recent Lepadidae]; cannot complain; if corr. sees a copy for sale, tell CD its price.

General physical description: ALS; 5 x8; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Pasted to the back of this letter were four compliment cards, apparently unrelated to CD.

101. To G[eorge Crawford] HYNDMAN; Down (type 3) (black border)1
[?1852]ALS; 7 x4.5 1p.B D25.155

Thanks for sending larvae of Balanus; has seen them before; thinks them fine and useful specimens.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Type of Down address variant used sets endpoints of 1846 and 1855. Black border was employed only twice on April 16 during this period, in 1849 and probably in 1852. Black border on this particular letter is too narrow for 1849, as others of the same period have a much more prominent border. In addition, CD published on Balanidae in 1851, which explains why he should have received an unsolicited gift of Balanus specimens in 1852.

102. To [?Josephus Augustinus Hubertus de BOSQUET]; Down (type 3)
[?1852-1853] June 7th [wmk. 1850]ALS; 10 x8; 2p.B D25.70

What name does Bosquet give for Verruca [prisca], a drawing of the valves of which was included with Bosquet's letter of 7 April; does outline of the plate to which adductor muscle is attached in fixed scutum have the "almost angular outline" depicted, or is it broken; is basal point of the free or movable tergum as round as Bosquet depicts, or is it worn by attrition; presumes Bosquet's volume will soon be published.1

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Darwin, Fossil Balanidae, 43-44.

103. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1853] Feby. 15th [distinctive blue ink used]ALS; 7.25 x4.25 3p. and add. [Sir C. Lyell], end. [(98) Darwin/ Dodecendrie Monogynie]B D25.L1

Thanks for [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz, [?Lake Superior: Its Physical Character, Vegetation, and Animals.... (Boston: Gould, Kendall and Lincoln, 1850)], but returns it, as Agassiz already sent CD a copy;1 thanks for [unspecified] pamphlets of [?Andrew Leith] Adams, who "appears as heteredox [sic] as myself"; "I have just finished dissecting a curious cirripede [?Alcippe lampas], which is female & has successive cups of males attached to her: I found one with 12 males so fixed to her! These males I suspect are the most negative creatures in the world; they have no mouth, no stomach, no thorax, no limbs, no abdomen, they consist wholly of the male reproductive organs in an envelope."2

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.25 3p. and add. [Sir C. Lyell], end. [(98) Darwin/ Dodecendrie Monogynie]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, ed., Louis Agassiz: His Life and Correspondence, 2v. (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1886), II, 469-70. 2. See Darwin, Recent Balanidae, 556 and 562.

104. To [the Ray Society]; Down (type 3)
[1853] March 19th. [distinctive blue ink used]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p.B D25.209

MS of [Darwin, Recent Balanidae] will not be ready when expected; thought printing could occur at any time during 1853, not by a specific deadline; "vast delay" between printing and publication of [Darwin, Recent Lepadidas] led CD to think that there were no real deadlines; expected to have been finished early in 1853, but work has taken "far longer" than expected, and CD has been ill; has not been idle for a single day; 20 plates and corresponding MS are ready, but CD must obtain at least six more plates at his own expense and must dissect for six more weeks; must rest a few weeks before going to press; will not send MS until beginning of August; asks approval for one colored and two half-colored plates to be struck by [George Brettingham] Sowerby [the younger], at only a few shillings above cost of two colored plates; asks permission for a few woodcuts.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p.

105. To Charles LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1853] March 24th. [distinctive blue ink used; end. March 25,, 1853; pmk. MR25/ 53]ALS; 10 x8; 5p. (one an insert) and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 11. Harley St./ London], end. [C. Darwin/ March 25, 1853/ Dana as to volcanos/ being safety valves.]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 133-135 (letter 488). At end of letter is: has not received letter mentioned by Lyell; will be in London for next meeting of Geological Society of London [on April 6].

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 5p. (one an insert) and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 11. Harley St./ London], end. [C. Darwin/ March 25, 1853/ Dana as to volcanos/ being safety valves.]

106. To [Andrew Crombie] RAMSAY; Down (type 3)
[1853] Ap. 9th. [distinctive blue ink used]ALS; 8 x5; 5p.B D25.173

Interested in foliation and cleavage, pleased by Ramsay's remarks on [George Douglas Campbell, eighth] Duke of Argyll's paper;1 before he publishes his own paper,2 which was to have been read with Campbell's paper but which CD did not stay to hear, Ramsay should read Darwin, South America (1846), 162-68, esp. 167, on CD's theory that foliation can be determined in some cases by planes of deposition, just as foliation sometimes might supervene on cleavage and sometimes might not; Ramsay seems to have found instances of foliation determined by planes of deposition; has "fought many battles viva voce, with Sir C[harles] Lyell...on the subject...."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 5p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On the Granitic District of Inverary, Argyllshire," Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 9 (1853), 360-66. 2. "On the Physical Structure and Succession of Some of the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of North Wales and Part of Shropshire. With Notes on the Fossils by J. W. Salter," Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 9 (1853), 161-179. The paper was read on April 20, not April 6. Ramsay did as CD requested; see note on page 172.

107. To Charles LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1853] June 7th [end. June 1853; pmk. JU 9]ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ Commissioner to the/ Great Exhibition/ New York/ U.S.], end. [15/ C. Darwin/ June 1853/ Weald Denudation]B D25.L

Thanks for two pamphlets, one of them "most useful"; attended June 1 meeting of Geological Society of London, describes proceedings; mentions [Peter C.] Sutherland's paper on ice-action,1 [Joshua] Trimmer's paper;2 [Roderick Impey] Murchison forwarded catastrophic cause of flints, so CD advanced Lyell's theory of sub-glacial action; Sutherland "most strongly" confirmed Lyell's belief that stones on the beaches in [France and England? the arctic countries?] were angular; [William] Hopkins accepted CD's theory of straight course cut through irregular terrain by highly plastic iceberge; [Robert] Chamber's "interesting" paper on glaciation3 reproduces [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz's idea of hemispheric ice-sheet and "treats all Icebergians with the most supercilious contempt."; missed "battle royal" at [annual election meeting] of Royal Society of London, but Murchison and [Francis] Beaufort "gained the day", and [Edward Augustus] Inglefield was elected, exceeding by one the allowed number of admissions; wife is visiting a sister; leaves on July 1 for a month at Isle of Wight,4 after which CD will "go to press with my weariful cirripedes [Darwin, Recent Balanidae]."

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ Commissioner to the/ Great Exhibition/ New York/ U.S.], end. [15/ C. Darwin/ June 1853/ Weald Denudation]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On the Geological and Glacial Phaenomena of the Coasts of Davis' Strait and Baffin's Bay," Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 9 (1853), 296-312. The portion of the letter that comments on Sutherland is printed faithfully in Life and Letters I, 329, next to last paragraph. 2. "On the Southern Termination of the Erratic Tertiaries,..." Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 9 (1853), 282-86; and "On the Origin of the Soils which Cover the Chalk of Kent, Part 3," ibid., 286-96. 3. "On the Glacial Phenomena in Scotland and Some Parts of England," Edinb. new phil. J., 54 (1853), 229-82. 4. The Darwins left instead for Eastbourne, Brighton, and Hastings on July 14; see "Darwin's Journal," 13.

108. To Charles LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1854] Feb 18th. [pmk. FE19/ 1854]ALS; 10 x8; 4p., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ care of H. Murray Esqr/ British Consul/ Santa Cruz/ Teneriffe/ Canary Islands], end. [C. Darwin/ sent to Madeira/ steeper dip of lateral volcc. geoly. than of/ central beds]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters I, 390-92. p. 391, line 1, change "Searle[?]" to "Seale".1

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 4p., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ care of H. Murray Esqr/ British Consul/ Santa Cruz/ Teneriffe/ Canary Islands], end. [C. Darwin/ sent to Madeira/ steeper dip of lateral volcc. geoly. than of/ central beds]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Robert F. Seale, The Geognosy of the Island of St. Helena... (London: Ackermann & Co., 1834). Lyell mentions this book in his Elements of Geology, 2nd ed., 2v. (London: John Murray, 1841), II, 227.

109. To [John Stevens] HENSLOW; Down (type 3)
[1854] Nov. 17th. [wmk. 1853]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.127

Printed in full, with minor changes: Nora Barlow, ed., Darwin and Henslow: The Growth of an Idea (London: John Murray, 1967), 172 (letter 78).

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

110. To Charles LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1855] Jany 10th [end. Jany 11, 1855; pmk. JA 10/ 55; wmk. 1849]ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53 Harley St/London],end. [(19) Ch. Darwin/ foliation of gneiss/ Jany 11,/ 1855.]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 204-05 (letter 540). At end of letter is: has found [Daniel] Sharpe's paper ["On the Structure of Mont Blanc and Its Environs," Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 11 (1855); 11-26]; children are recovering; will take a house in London for four weeks.

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 3p. and add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53 Harley St/London],end. [(19) Ch. Darwin/ foliation of gneiss/ Jany 11,/ 1855.]

111. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 3)
[1855] Jan 14th [wmk. 1949]ALS; 10 x8; 4p. and sketchB D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 205-07 (letter 541). Sketch printed at end of printed letter.

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 4p. and sketch

112. To [Charles] LYELL; 27 York Place, Baker St1
[1855 January 21 or 28, or February 4 or 11] Sunday [wmk. 1853]ALS; 8 x5; 8p., sketchB D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 207-09 (letter 542). Sketch printed in middle of page 208. p. 209, line 10, add: "(Do read this P.S.)".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 8p., sketch

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The Darwins were at this address from January 18 to February 15; see "Darwin's Journal," 14.

113. To [Charles] LYELL; Down.
[1855] May 8thALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 153-54 (letter 502).

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

114. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 3)
[1855] Oct. 25thALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 3p.B EY83

Crayford is too far away for CD to know anything about "Mrs. Shaw"; glad Eyton is thinking of dogs, an "excellent continuation of your capital Pig-Skeleton researches";1 impressed by Eyton museum [see DNB, XVIII, 107]; family details; recalls hobby of beetle collecting as a youth.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Eyton, "Some Osteological Peculiarities in Different Skeletons of the Genus Sus,"Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 5 (1837): 23.

115. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1855] Nov 4thALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Returns two pamphlets1 by [John] Bachman; surprised at their poor quality and at Bachman's unsubstantiated assertions, but, as [William Henry] Fitton said of [William] Whewell, " `one must make allowance for him [sic] having sworn to what he believes in' "; "It is most useful to see what is said on all sides" and to read "out-of-the-way pamphlets of this nature"; has living pairs of seven or eight kinds of pigeon which shall be observed and then skeletonized; has begun "to cultivate varieties of plants & make hybrids, so that I have entered on my subject in earnest"; invites Lyells to Down to see pigeons; J[ohn William] Lubbock [first Baron Avebury] sent [Joseph Dalton] Hooker's New Zealand Flora2 with [Thomas Vernon] Wollaston; please care for these volumes and return them sometime.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Most likely these were: Continuation of the Review of `Nott and Gliddon's Types of Mankind' (Charleston: James, Williams & Gitsinger, 1855); and An Examination of the Characteristics of Genera and Species as Applicable to the Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race (Charleston: James, Williams & Gitsinger, 1855). See Br. Mus. Cat., IX, 704; see also Cat. scient. Pap., I, 145-46, and VI, 573. 2. The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery-Ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843..., Pt. II: Flora Novae-Zelandiae, 2v. (London: Lovell Reeve, 1853-1855).

116. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[1855] Dec. 3d.ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B EY83

Thanks for useful information; is "well in[to] my subject"; has several pigeons in water, plus many alive, and means to get domestic pigeons from all parts of world; delighted that Eyton is at dogs, which will help both CD and "Science"; offers to Eyton the head of a Chinese dog and, if it should die, the carcass of a young, very pure bred German Spitz dog.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

117. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[1855] Dec 9thALS; 8 x5; 4p.B EY83

Cannot find dog's head [see preceding letter, above]; thought Eyton had stopped skeletonizing, until Eyton told CD otherwise at [B.A.A.S.] meeting at Glascow [in September, 1855]; "I took to the nice work [skeletonizing of pigeons], first owing to my wish to see how much the young of Pigeons & Poultry differed from the old, & I have a collection in Brine of nestling Pigeons & chickens."; will not do more than give differences in skeletons of pigeons, poultry, covey birds, and rabbits; thanks for offer to lend pigeon skeletons (including "Almond Tumbler"); will not publish "for some years"; [William] Yarrell has done much bone work, has recently showed CD "a lot of breastbones"; CD's practice of buying curious pigeon carcasses from dealers could be used by Eyton for dogs; "A Mr [William Bernhard] Tegetmeier" will publish on skulls of Fowls,1 recently showed CD a collection and "gave me a small series."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On the Remarkable Peculiarities in the Skulls of the Feather-crested Variety of the Domestic Fowl, Known as the Polish," Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 24 (1856), 366-68. Read on November 25, 1856; specimens from Eyton's collection were exhibited at that meeting.

118. To [George Henry Kendrick THWAITES]; Down (type 2)
1855 Dec. 10ALS; 8 x5; 6p.B D25.TH

Hopes Thwaites remembers CD from B.A.A.S. meeting at Oxford [1847]; for years, has collected for, and is now preparing, a work on variation of species; wants observations on "any changes in any introduced or feral plants or animals", esp. domesticated pigeons, poultry, ducks, and rabbits; wants all kinds alive, skeletons when dead; is trying especially to get live pigeons from all over world; wants names of pigeon fanciers in Ceylon; wants native names and any remarkable habits of pigeon breeds long kept in Ceylon or imported from anywhere except England; pay a bird skinner ten or fifteen shillings to skin (leaving bones of legs and wings) any old birds of any fancier which happen to die naturally; wants skins of poultry (except silk or black-skinned) or of domestic Ceylonese ducks, if there be any; wants any well-known fancy breed of pigeon (esp. "semi-wild Dove-House Pigeon") if it has been kept in Ceylon for many generations; there are many such in India; apologies for imposition; solicitations over health; "our mutual friend J[oseph Dalton] Hooker" is well.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 6p.

119. Autographs of Members of "Philosophical Club of Royal Society"
1855 Decr. 20th [wmk. 1855]DS; approx. 13 x8; 2p.B P212

Signatures on one side, minutes of the meeting for this date in pencil on the other side, plus title of the document; CD has signed "Mr. Darwin"; all else is in the hands of others.

General physical description: DS; approx. 13 x8; 2p.

120. To [?Henry DENNY]; Down (type 2)
[ca. 1855-1861]ALS; 7 x4.5 4p.B D25.71

Thanks for answer to letter of 28 January; sorry corr. could not observe lice from domestic animals from distant lands; interested in aperea, had concluded that aperea was not progenitor of guinea pigs; does not know what corr. means by "stock-dove"; orders would probably be issued if corr. wrote to Council of Zoological Society, but corr. would have to visit the Gardens frequently to see that orders were carried out; still, corr. would get specimens this way; [Philip Lutley] Sclater would be interested in the birds.

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Type of Down address variant used was employed from 1843 to 1846 and from 1855 to 1861. CD did not know enough about pigeons in the earlier period to have written the highly technical treatment of the stock dove that is in this letter.

121. To [John Maurice] HERBERT; Down (type 2)
[?1856] Jan. 2d. [wmk. 1855]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.B D25.H

Thanks for book of poetry; "I shall keep to my dying day an unfading remembrance of the many pleasant hours (especially at Barmouth)1 which we have spent together"; is permanently ill, so cannot visit; other family details.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See: Life and Letters I, 165-66; and "Darwin's Journal," 6.

122. To [John] PHILLIPS; Down (type 2)
[?1856] Jan. 18thALS; 8 x5; 8p.B D25.123 no. 3

Recommends reading of the discussion on cleavage and foliation in chapter VI of Darwin, South America (1846); skim page 140, but concluding remarks are on page 162; see also pages 144, 147, 157, 159, and 163, concerning confused cleavages and irregular strikes of foliation at crosses of geological series; cleavage distinct from stratification; "rocks which have been liquified by heat, sometimes have their crystallized materials so arranged, as almost to deserve to be called foliated..."; see also example in CD's description of the Falkland Islands,1 pages 270-71; existence of grauwacke with clay-slates is perplexing, since clay-slate is apparently formed in deep and tranquil seas; could pressure which causes cleavage and movement along cleavage planes also break up rock, mingle varieties [of rocks] together "like fragments of ice in a glacier," and subsequently re-cement these fragments together; offers copies of the three volumes of Darwin, Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle.2

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 8p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On the Geology of the Falkland Islands," Q. Jl. geol. Soc. Lond., 2 (1846): 267-74. 2. See also John Phillips, "Report on Cleavage and Foliation in Rocks, and on the Theoretical Explanations of these Phaenomena--Part I," Rep. Br. Ass. Advmt Sci., 26 (1856): pt. 1, 369-96.

123. To [Walter] ELLIOT; Down (type 2)
1856 Jan. 23.ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.161

Reminds Elliot of their acquaintance at [the B.A.A.S. meeting of 1855 in] Glasgow; wants some items which they discussed then, viz. measurements of differences in proportions of tigers, and remarks on domestic Pigeons "(& Poultry?)" which are extracted from "some work in an Eastern language"; will consult Ayin Akbaree1 at the India House; is collecting domestic pigeons and poultry, wants Elliot to obtain a bird skinner to provide Indian skins of old, representative specimens of pigeons and poultry long bred in India, esp. tumblers and carriers; gives instructions for preparation of skins; apologies for imposition.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Abu al-Fadhl ibn Mubarak, al-Hindi, Ayeen Akbery; or, The Institutes of the Emperor Akber, 2v., trans. from the original Persian by Francis Gladwin (London: J. Sewell, etc., 1800), esp. I, 270. See also Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 205 and 205n.

124. To Mrs. [Katherine Murray Horner] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1856] Jan 26th [pmk. JA27/ 1856; wmk. 1855]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p. and env., add. [Mrs Lyell/ 14 Queens Road/ Gloucester Gate/ Regents Park/ London.]B D25.L1

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, I, 84-85 (letter 42). p. 85, line 11, illegible word is "rumour". At end of letter is: remembrances to husband, Colonel [Henry] Lyell.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p. and env., add. [Mrs Lyell/ 14 Queens Road/ Gloucester Gate/ Regents Park/ London.]

125. To [George Henry Kendrick THWAITES]; Down (type 2)
1856 March 8thALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.TH

Hopes Thwaites will publish his "facts on variation," esp. "particulars in regard to the species from different elevations, which show different degrees of capacity for cultivation at a new level"; [Joseph Dalton] Hooker has published a similar case with Himalaya rhododendrons;1 regarding distribution of alpine plants, is there anything new concerning comparison between vegetation at the greater heights in Ceylon and alpine vegetation in the Himalaya, Neilgherries [i.e. Nilgiris, in southern India], or other maountains; do introduced and recently naturalized plants vary much in Ceylon; "The course of my work makes me more & more sceptical on the eternal immutability of species; yet the difficulties on the other theory of common descent seems to me frightfully great. In my work, which I shall not publish for 2 or 3 or perhaps more years; it is my intention to give, as far as I can & that will be very imperfectly, all the arguments & facts on both sides of the case, stating which side seems to me to preponderate."; wants pigeon skins from Ceylon; prefers to work carefully at varieties of a few animals than to compile brief notices on all domestic breeds; "I have now all English breeds of Pigeons alive, & am carefully observing them, making skeletons & crossing them."; wants ducks, rabbits, and poultry; Dr. [Edward Frederick] Kelaert [i.e. Kelaart] will help with poultry; apologies for imposition, "when a beggar once begins to beg he never knows when to stop!"

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On the Climate and Vegetation of the Temperate and Cold Regions of East Nepal and the Sikkim Himalaya Mountains," Jl R. hort. Soc., 7 (1852): 69-131. See also Darwin, Origin (1859), 140.

126. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1856] April 21stALS; 6p. @ 8 x5, 2p. @ 3 1/4 x8; 8p., 3 sketchesB D25.L

Lyell's case of lava beds passing into vertical columns is most perplexing, but is a "very important & extraordinary fact," and, as Lyell states, is a strong argument against "upheavement" as a cause of an angle of, say, twelve degrees, since lava columns could not have been formed at an inclination and then shifted to the vertical; lava must still have been moving downward when shrinkage produced columns; ask [William] Hopkins on this; thinks Hopkins or [Edward] Forbes has published a sketch of this phenomenon; has seen lava columns; suspects a similar process in glaciers; Lyell's Madeira expedition [in late 1853] was interesting.

General physical description: ALS; 6p. @ 8 x5, 2p. @ 3 1/4 x8; 8p., 3 sketches

127. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1856] May 3d.ALS; 8 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 67-68. At beginning of letter is: thanks for letter; wishes Lyell had discussed further the lava columns [see previous letter, above]; has kept list of land shells, has made corrections, and is surprised by Lyell's knowledge; will borrow [Oswald] Heer, [?Ueber die Haus-Ameise Madeira's (Zürich: n.p., 1852)] while Lyell is abroad; Lyell's cases of transportal "beat all that I have ever heard...& if any body had put such cases hypothetically I shd have laughed at them"; Colymbetes [water beetle] flew on board Beagle 45 miles from land, which surprised [Thomas Vernon] Wollaston; Wollaston and others were at Down; "Wollaston strikes me as quite a first-rate man & very nice & pleasant into the bargain. It is really striking (but almost laughable to me) to notice the change in [Joseph Dalton] Hooker's & [Thomas Henry] Huxley's opinions on species during the last few years."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 6p.

128. To Dr. [Henry Ambrose] OLDFIELD; Down (type 2)
[1856] May 10th [end. Ansd. May 15.56; pmk. MY11/ 1856]ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and env., add. [Dr. Oldfield/ 8 Gloucester Gardens/ Gloucester Terrace/ Hyde Park/ London.--], end. [Ansd. May 15.56.]B D25.235

[William Sandys Wright] Waux referred CD to Oldfield because Oldfield once remarked that dogs represented in Assyrian drawings were like the Thibetan [i.e. Tibetan] dogs familiar to Oldfield in Nepaul [i.e. Nepal]; as CD is interested in ancient history of domesticated animals, does Oldfield think this resemblance close; describes resemblances and differences suspected; wants data on other breeds of dogs, poultry, fancy pigeons, and rabbits in Nepal; is collecting pigeons from all over world.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and env., add. [Dr. Oldfield/ 8 Gloucester Gardens/ Gloucester Terrace/ Hyde Park/ London.--], end. [Ansd. May 15.56.]

129. To [Samuel Pickworth WOODWARD]; Down (type 2)
[1856]ALS; 8 x5; 2p.B D25.140

Has just finished [Woodward's] book,2 has derived "much solid instruction & interest" from it; has written down some questions which he will ask in person when in London in about a fortnight.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Life and Letters II, 73. 2. A Manual of the Mollusca; or, Rudimentary Treatise of Recent and Fossil Shells (London: J. Weale, 1851-1856). Published in three parts, in 1851, 1853, and 1856; issued thereafter as a single volume.

130. To [William Darwin] FOX; Down (type 2)
[?1856] June 4thALS; 8 x5; 2p.1B D25.149

Thanks for "a Forking Cock, more like an ostrich than a simple fowl".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 2p.1

Other Descriptive Information: 1. On same sheet is a two-page letter from Mrs. Fox to her husband.

131. To [Charles] LYELL; Down
[1856 June] 16thALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 72. At end of letter is: "When you go abroad you are to lend me [?Philip Barker] Webb. & [Oswald] Heer, & can you add [Matthew Fontaine] Maury [the elder] ocean chart; [Samuel Pickworth] Woodward had it some time ago.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

132. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1856] Jun 25th. [end. 25 June. 1856]Partially ALS and partially LS; 13 x8.25 5p. and env., end. [(119)/ C. Darwin/ 25 June. 1856/ On reasons for doubting the/ Atlantis/ & continental extension theory/ in the Recent Period.]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 74-78. p. 76, line 4, questionable word is "Silla". p. 76, line 23, add "are" after "such". p. 77, line 4, change "Lowe" to "Low". p. 77, line 12, pluralize "formation".

General physical description: Partially ALS and partially LS; 13 x8.25 5p. and env., end. [(119)/ C. Darwin/ 25 June. 1856/ On reasons for doubting the/ Atlantis/ & continental extension theory/ in the Recent Period.]

133. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1856] July 5th [end. July 5, 1856]Partially ALS and partially LS; 13 x8.25 3p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ July 5, 1856/ Continental Extension./ Volcanos whether in/ areas of elevation or/ of subsidence.]B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 135-37 (letter 489). p. 135, line 12, questionable word is "extensions". p. 136, line 31, add: local volcanic subsidence caused by shrinking of great volcanic piles is supported by frequent coincidence of volcanic tertiary streams and lakes or fresh water beds. At end of this portion is: CD's vague ideas on this subject are worthless; CD's ideas are not dogmatic. Next portion printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 71. At end of this portion is: shall not attempt to write a history of the subject, but did mention Lyell's Principles [of Geology..., 3v. (London: John Murray, 1830-1833)]; will want Lyell to look over what CD will write about the Principles.

General physical description: Partially ALS and partially LS; 13 x8.25 3p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ July 5, 1856/ Continental Extension./ Volcanos whether in/ areas of elevation or/ of subsidence.]

134. To Charles LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1856] July 8th [end. July 8, 1856.]ALS; 8 x5; 8p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53. Harley St/ London.], end. [C. Darwin/ continental extensions/ July 8. 1856.]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 427-28 (letter 327). Small portion also printed in Life and Letters II, 78.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 8p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53. Harley St/ London.], end. [C. Darwin/ continental extensions/ July 8. 1856.]

135. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 3)
[?1856] Augt 21stALS; 8 x5; 4p.B EY83

Has been reading Eyton on pigs ["Some Osteological Peculiarities in Different Skeletons of the Genus Sus"],Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., [5 (1837): 23]; are offspring of cross between African and common pigs fertile; if Eyton does not know answer, ask Lord [Rowland] Hill; were Hill's African pigs domesticated; from where in Africa do they come; has pigeon skeletons for "every breed alive", but has not compared them yet; will need Eyton's help when he does; is compiling "Book on Variation" [i.e. Darwin, "Natural Selection"], but finds it slow work; family details.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

136. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[?1856 August] 27thALS; 8 x5; 2p.B EY83

Excuse this additional note; thinks Eyton has studied Herefordshire cattle;1 believes there are two strains of this breed that can be distinguished by color on face; are there other distinguishing characters besides color?

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Eyton, The Herd Book of Hereford Cattle, 2v. (London: Longman and Co., 1846-1853).

137. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[?1856] Aug. 31stALS; 8 x5; 10p.B EY83

Thanks for note and promise of more information on pigs; is collecting pig jaws to test [Johann Matthaus] Bechstein's assertion that number of incisors varies greatly in domestic pigs; can Eyton confirm this; approves of illustrations in Eyton's "Stud Book" [i.e. The Herd Book of Hereford Cattle; see previous letter, above], returns plates with thanks; after Writing, found source of his ideas, viz. Q. Rev., 1849, page 392, mentioning split in Herefordshire breed;1 would like to mention this in [Darwin, "Natural Selection"] as a rare instance of the documentation of the origin of "even a sub-breed of a sub-breed"; will also refer to Eyton; comments on Eyton's birds; will quote Eyton's case of geese;2 did Eyton breed the "grandchildren geese"; has been inquiring in India on same subject; one of most troublesome problems is distribution mechanism for species on distant islands; has tried resistance of seeds in sea water; check to see if dirt sticks to feet of birds;3 check possibility of seed dispersion through pellets thrown up by owls or hawks; send contents of stomachs of dace and other white fish eaten by birds, so that CD can sow seeds contained therein; if Eyton collects cat skeletons, C[harles] Lyell has an odd Persien carcass and CD knows of another odd specimen; "I have put your words, that you like hearing from old naturalist friends, to a severe test."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 10p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD here refers to an enonymous review of Henry Stephens, The Book of the Farm..., 2nd ed., 2v. (Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood and Sons, 1849), to be found in Q. Rev., 84 (1848-1849): 389-424. 2. Eyton, "Remarks on the Skeletons of the Common Tame Goose, the Chinese Goose, and the Hybrid between the Two," Mag. nat. Hist., 4 (1840): 90-92. 3. See Darwin, Origin (1859), 358-63ff; and Peckham, Variorum Origin, 575-79.

138. To [Josephus Augustinus Hubertus de BOSQUET, of Maestricht]; Down (type 3)
[1856]Portion of AL; 7 3/4 x5; 4p., and portion of ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 2p.B D25.28

Portion of AL is: thanks for letter; CD "astonished & delighted at your discovery of a Cretacean chthamalus", a curious, publishable discovery; usually does not believe in negative evidence, but deviated with sessile cirripedes (see Darwin, Fossil Lepadidae, 5), and now Bosquet's discovery proves CD wrong to deviate; cautions Bosquet against "ever presuming to say when a new group first...appeared"; on structure of recent chthamalus, see Darwin, Recent Balanidae, 39; see also page 172 on non-existence of extinct Chthamalinae; drawings sent by Bosquet are beautiful; has been "so hard at work for two years at other subjects that cirripedes are gone rather out of my head, which could never boast of a good memory"; compliments Bosquet's ability; Lithotrya specimen must exhibit serrations, important for burrowing, on upper scales of peduncle (see Darwin, Recent Balanidae [sic; Recent Lepadidae] plate VIII, figure 3d); thus tergal margin of scutum in Bosquet's figure 1 seems too simple for Lithotrya; thinks Bosquet's figure 2 is a carina. Portion of ALS is: skins could be sent through a bookseller; wants "one of your good Carriers (old Cock bird) skinned"; wants estimate of speed at which carriers fly long distances (e.g. 200-400 miles); hopes specimens arrive safely.

General physical description: Portion of AL; 7 3/4 x5; 4p., and portion of ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See More Letters, I, 97 (letter 51); also, CD stopped working on cirripedes in 1854, so he would be two years into another subject, as he claimed in this letter, in 1856.

139. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[1856]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B EY83

Does Eyton want a skin, with skull and limbs, of the standard type of country dog in West Africa, sent by Dr. [William Freeman] Daniell, who lives in Sierra Leone; if so, tell CD if skull has any peculiarities; after writing the "long troublesome letter" [see letter of August 31, 1856, above], CD decided to experiment on hawk pellets in Zoological Gardens; others are observing partridge feet; recently found eleven grains of earth on one bird; awaits word both on [Johann Batthaus] Bechstein's claim about incisors of pigs and on origin of Lord [Rowland] Hill's crossed African pig [see letters of August 21 and 31, 1856, above]; supposes Eyton discontinued cross of geese [see letter of August 31, 1856, above]; is using Eyton's papers.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD's experiments on hawks in the Zoological Gardens were conducted in October, 1856; see Life and Letters II, 86.

140. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2) (black border)1
[1856] Nov. 10thALS; 4p. @ 7.25 x4.5, 1p. @ 8 x5; 5p.B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 85. At beginning of this portion is: is answering Lady [Mary Elizabeth Horner] Lyell's note to Emma [Wedgwood Darwin, CD's wife], since writing is an exertion for the latter;2 sorry that Mrs. [Leonard] Horner [nee Lloyd] is ill; had planned on visiting Lyell in London, but shall not do so until January, owing to wife's condition; last week [November 6], CD's aunt, [Sarah Elizabeth] Wedgwood, died at Down; supposes Lyell's Madeira paper is ready. Second portion printed; with minor changes: More Letters, I, 97 (letter 51).

General physical description: ALS; 4p. @ 7.25 x4.5, 1p. @ 8 x5; 5p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Emma Darwin, II, 176-77, for death of Sarah Wedgwood. 2. See ibid., 178, for CD's wife's confinement.

141. To Lady [Harriet Hotham] LUBBOCK; Down.
[?1856 December 8] MondayALS; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.103

Thanks for offer of help, but CD's wife is "going on perfectly well", and as Etty [i.e. CD's daughter Henrietta] is ill and Miss Thorley [governess] is gone, CD's sons should stay at home; "We have now half-a-dozen Boys".1

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This is obviously a roundabout way of announcing the birth of the sixth son to CD's neighbor; December 8, 1856, was the first Monday after the sixth son's birth. See Emma Darwin, II, 178.

142. To [Thomas William St. Clair DAVIDSON]; Down (type 2)
[1856]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.237

Wants facts showing that "a variable species is or is not equally variable at all times & places"; thinks [Davidson's] "profound knowledge of Brachiopoda" should provide examples of such facts; has discussed this subject with the late E[dward] Forbes and with [Samuel Pickworth] Woodward.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Date for this letter determined by Sydney Smith, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge University.

143. To [Edgar Leopold LAYARD]; Down (type 2)
[ca. 1856-1860]ALS;28 x5; 6p.B D25.129

Thanks for letter; Layard's Madagascar expedition should yield odd domestic animals; are hybrid cats fertile;3 wants confirmation of [Martin Heinrich Carl] Licktenstein's [sic; Lichtenstein's] assertion4 that the domestic dog, similar to C[anis] mesomelas, which is kept by the natives is sometimes crossed profitably with wild species; do promiscuously-crossed mongrel dogs tend toward an ideal type; did Mr. Fry's feral pigeons from Ascension have black bars on wing and white rumps, or were they checkered like common dovecot pigeon; did Fry ever see a North African greyhound with short, curly tail, as pictured by ancients, but which CD doubts;5 wants specimens of pigeons, ducks, and poultry with "very slight differences"; such differences interest CD "greatly"; doubts that a general synopsis of seafowl exists, but shall check in London.

General physical description: ALS;28 x5; 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Layard left for South Africa in 1855; CD started using the Bromley address in late 1855, and 1856 was the first June in which he did so. CD published Variation under Domestication, containing material received most certainly in reply to this letter, in 1868; CD stopped using the written Bromley address in about April, 1861, meaning that June, 1860, was the last June in which this address was used. 2. Accompanying this letter are two scraps, one with "Charles Darwin/ Down, Kent/ March 19th, 1873.--" in CD's hand, the other with two or three illegible words, not in CD's hand. 3. See Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 44. 4. Lichtenstein, Travels in Southern Africa..., trans. from German by Anne Plumptre, 2v. (London: 1812-1815), II, 272. See also Darwin, op. cit., I, 25. 5. See Darwin, op. cit., I, 17-18, 44, 185f, and 238n.

144. To?; Down (type 2)
[?ca. 1857]ALS; 8 x5; 2p.B D25.45

Thanks for note; information corr. will obtain from [Marie Jean Pierre] Flourens will be valuable;2 has sent Darwin, Journal of Researches [?(1852)] through Williams and Norgate [booksellers]; work on variation will not be published for some years; "I have much to observe, & am keeping for this purpose all the varieties of Pigeons, Poultry, Ducks &c."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Date determined by Sydney Smith, St. Catharine's College, Cambridge University. 2. See, perhaps, Stauffer, ed., CD's Nat. Selection, 456 and 456n.

145. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1857] Feb. 11 [end. Feb. 13, 1857]ALS; 8 x5; 7p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ On instruction for Explo-/ring ship Novara./ Feb. 13. 1857]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 93-94. p. 94, lines 3/4, change "Cocos so near" to "[Cocos Is(land) mass?]". p. 94, line 11, change "one" to "n[orth]." p. 94, line 22, pluralize "Island" and change "has" to "have". At end of letter is: "I have just had Helix Pomatia quite alive & hearty after 20 days under sea-water; & this same individual about six-weeks ago had a [salt-water] bath of 7 days.1 P.S. I have really nothing to suggest to Mr. [David] Forbes.2 I am delighted to hear about the Coal Plant & Purbeck Fossils.3"

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 7p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ On instruction for Explo-/ring ship Novara./ Feb. 13. 1857]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Darwin, Origin (1859), 397. 2. Forbes invested in a South American mining company and toured South America from 1857 to 1860 in the company's behalf looking for nickel; Lyell probably asked CD for any advice he might have had for Forbes. 3. See Lyell, Principles of Geology..., 2v., 11th ed. (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1873), I, 159n.

146. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[?1857] June 9thALS; 8 x5; 3p.B EY83

Thanks for sheets that complete Eyton's catalogue; is astounded at Eyton's "superb collection"; fears Eyton was unable to check fertility of Lord [Rowland] Hill's African pigs [see letters of August 21 and October 5, 1856, above]; how goes the work on skeletons of dogs; presumes Eyton does not want skin of West African domestic dog [see letter of October 5, 1856, above]; if Eyton breeds horses, CD wants observations from him on coloring of colts; do convolutions in the trachea of males of a single species of bird ever vary much?

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

147. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Moor Park, Farnham, Surrey
[?1857 June]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B EY83

Thanks for letter and for reference on hybrid; line on growth of bones of birds is new and interesting; ill, but makes "steady progress in my Book on Variation of Species & on domestic varieties"; watch in Ireland or elsewhere for horses or ponies with bars on legs, as with zebra, or on shoulder and along back, as with ass.2

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The only two years in which CD both worked on his big book (i.e. Stauffer, ed., CD's Nat. Selection) and visited Moor Park on the twenty-sixth of the month were 1857 and 1858; see "Darwin's Journal," 14. I am guessing at June, 1857, because of the earlier letter to Eyton on June 9, 1857 (above), and because I believe this is the best candidate date for Eyton to have told CD about the growth of bones of birds. 2. See Darwin, Origin (1859), 163-67.

148. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[ca. 1857]ALS; 8 x5; 1p.B D25.47

Will send the West African dog skin in the evening; [William Freeman] Daniell assured CD that "it was a very characteristic specimen of the pure native dog of Sierra Leone".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See previous reference to this skin in CD to Eyton, June 9, [?1857], above.

149. To [J. Brodie] INNES; no location
[?1857] WednesdayALS; 4 3/4 x8; 1p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.179

Read the enclosed,1 pages 38 to 91; "[Karl Theodor Ernst] Von Siebold is about the most careful & profound naturalist in Europe."; found in the book facts such as those requested from Innes regarding bees.

General physical description: ALS; 4 3/4 x8; 1p. (enclosure wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Siebold, "True Parthogenesis in the Honey-Bee," in On a True Parthenogenesis in Moths and Bees; A Contribution to the History of Reproduction in Animals, tr. by William S. Dallas (London: J. Van Voorst, 1857), 38-91.

150. To [George Henry Kendrick THWAITES]; Down (type 2)
[1858] Feby. 7thALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.TH

Thanks for letter of December 28, with information on resistance of plants to Ceylonese climate and on acclimatization of plants to differing elevations; will quote Thwaites about several species having both alpine and lowland forms and about some having and some not having intermediate varieties;1 is it the lowland forms that have much smaller and more numerous flowers with longer, narrower, and less coriaceous leaves; disbelieves, as does [Joseph Dalton] Hooker, the idea that alpine forms have the character of "hariness [?i.e. hairiness]", so is glad that Thwaites does not mention this trait; "I was lately struck by a remark in U[nited] States Naturalist, namely that introduced or naturalised plants at first overrun the whole country, & then in some degree diminish in numbers.... I can see some likely causes of error in the...remark, & yet the fact in itself seems probable.";2 suggests the cultivation of alpine forms in the low country so as to abserve "changes in successive generations."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Darwin, Origin (1959), 140. 2. Ibid., 64-65.

151. To [Charles] LYELL; Moor Park, Farnham/ Surrey
[1858] Ap. 26th [end. April 25th/ 1858]ALS; 8 x5; 4p., end. [April 25th/ 1858]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 112-13.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p., end. [April 25th/ 1858]

152. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1858 June] 18thALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 116-17.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:237010/

153. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1858 June 25] Friday [end. received/ 29 June 1858/ 59: wmk. 1855]ALS; 8 x5; 8p., end. [received/ 29 June 1858/ 59]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 117-18. p. 117, line 5, add: "I shd. not have sent off your letter without further reflexion, for I am at present quite upset, but write now to get subject for time out of mind. But I confess it never did occur to me, as it ought, that [Alfred Russel] Wallace could have made any use of your letter." p. 117, line 12, underline "extremely" once and "now" twice. p. 117, line 21, add: "I do not in least believe that that [sic] he originated his views from anything which I wrote to him." p. 118, line 14, add: CD's baby has scarlet fever; Etty [i.e. Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield] is weak but recovering.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 8p., end. [received/ 29 June 1858/ 59]

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:237207/

154. To [Charles] LYELL; Down.
[1858 June] 26th [wmk. 1855]ALS; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 118-19. At end of letter is: Emma [Wedgwood Darwin] and CD thank Lady [Mary Elizabeth Horner] L[yell] for note; Etty [see previous letter, above] is weak; baby is feverish; three children in Down have died of scarlet fever.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:237254/

155. To Charles LYELL; King's Head Hotel/ Sandown/ Isle of Wight (black border)1
[1858] July 18th [end. July 18 1858; pmk. JY 18/ 58]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53 Harley St/ London/ W.], end. [C. Darwin/ July 18 1858/ My Etna paper & theory/ of craters of Elevatn./ C.D.'s work on Species at/ Linn. Socy.]B D25.L

First portion printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 137 (letter 490). Next portion printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 129-30.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53 Harley St/ London/ W.], end. [C. Darwin/ July 18 1858/ My Etna paper & theory/ of craters of Elevatn./ C.D.'s work on Species at/ Linn. Socy.]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD's son, Charles Waring Darwin, died on June 28, 1858; see "Darwin's Journal," 14.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:238390/

156. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Norfolk House/ Shanklin/ I. of Wight (black border)
[1858] Aug. 4thALS; 7 x4.5 4p.B EY83

Thanks for note and for reference; glad to hear of Eyton's two publications; thinks that on bird skeletons will be "laborious";1 just before leaving Down, CD arranged skeletons of pigeons preparatory to comparison; may consult Eyton on this; is "drawing up a long abstract [later to become Darwin, Origin (1859)] on my notions about Species & Varieties, to be read in parts before Linnean Soc[iet]y"; abstract will be published "late in the autumn"; "My bigger Book [i.e. Darwin, Natural Selection] will not be out for some two or three years."

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Eyton, A Catalogue of the Skeletons of Birds in His Possession (London: n.p., 1858).

157. To [John] PHILLIPS; Down (type 2) (black border)
[1858] Sept. 1 [wmk. 1858]ALS; 7 x4.5 3p.B D25.123

Has just heard that he (CD) is advertised for presidency of Zoological Section of the B.A.A.S.; must decline position for reasons of health; also, cannot attend [B.A.A.S. meeting] at Leeds [on September 22]; lost no time in informing Phillips of "this mistake".

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 3p.

158. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2) (black border)
[1858] Oct. 4th [wmk. 1858]ALS; 7 x4.5 7p.B EY83

Thanks for note; sorry to miss [B.A.A.S. meeting at] Leeds [on September 22]; Eyton's skeleton collection is "splendid"; sees that Eyton is publishing on oysters;1 will keep Eyton's letter with list of skeletons for future reference; is done with domestic pigeon skeletons and with a monograph on their history, variation, etc., totaling four or five pages, which CD would like to send to Eyton for criticism, along with the few bones which show any diversity; must learn names of some bones from [Hugh] Falconer; on advice of [Charles] Lyell and [Joseph Dalton] Hooker, is preparing abstract of conclusions [Darwin, Origin (1859)] "to be published as small book or read before Linn[ean] Society, & this will for some months stop my regular work. The work is too great for me, but if I live I will finish it: indeed three-fourths is done."; what colors of sire and dam will throw a dun colored horse; what is color, at birth, of colt which will turn into dun; did Eyton ever see an ass with double shoulder stripes on both shoulders; Col[onel] Ham[ilton Charles] Smith has heard of such.2

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 7p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Eyton, A History of the Oyster and the Oyster Fisheries (London: J. Van Voorst, 1858). 2. See: Darwin, Origin (1859), 163-67; and idem, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 55-64.

159. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2) (black border)
[?1858]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.B EY83

In muddy weather, does any dirt cling to the feet of the partridge pheasant or any other birds, especially waders; has some cases of such, but supposes it is rare; case concerns distribution of plants with small seeds; cut off any dirt-clogged feet and send them to CD.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Watermark provides lower endpoint for date. Upper endpoint of 1858 assumed because this topic is discussed in Darwin, Origin (1859), pages 362-63ff. which CD had finished proofing before October 11, 1859 (see "Darwin's Journal," 15). Year of 1858 chosen over 1857 because of black border on stationery.

160. To James EGAN; Down (type 2)
[1858] Nov. 8th. [pmk. NO 9/ 58]ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and env., add. [M. James Egan/ Hotel Queen of England/ Pesth/ Austria/ via Belgium.]B D25.212

Has seen Egan's article in Gardeners' Chronicle (edited by [John] Lindley, a friend of CD), and knows that Egan is a member of an agricultural society; do Hungarian horses frequently have a dark stripe down the spine, sometimes also a stripe (sometimes double) on the shoulders (as on the ass), and sometimes cross stripes on the legs; do such stripes occur frequently on the shoulders, on the front or on the hind legs, or on both; what color are horses with such stripes; are stripes plainer in the foal or in full-grown horse; in England, stripes are on duns, but CD unsure of the color of the parents of these duns.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and env., add. [M. James Egan/ Hotel Queen of England/ Pesth/ Austria/ via Belgium.]

161. To J[ames] EGAN; Down (type 2)
[1858] Nov. 25th [pmk. NO25/ 58]ALS; 8 x5; 3p. and env., add. [Mr. J. Egan/ Hotel Queen Victoria/ Pesth/ Austria]B D25.213

Thanks for prompt inquiries and reply concerning striped horses [see previous letter, above]; would appreciate any other information, esp. regarding the foal; [John] Lindley [editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle] would like to hear occasionally from Egan on Hungarian horticulture and on "the climate which produces the Tokay wine & fine Hungarian tobacco."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p. and env., add. [Mr. J. Egan/ Hotel Queen Victoria/ Pesth/ Austria]

162. To [Walter ELLIOT]; Down (type 2)
[1858] Decr. 12thALS; 8 x5; 4p., end. [Charles Darwin/ Abt Kabutar namah1/ & marks on Horses.]B D25.162

Thanks for note of October 28, for poultry paper, and for treatise on pigeons: treatise shows some specimens sont to CD by Elliot to be nearly a century old; treatise shows difference between an Oriental and a European mind; belated thanks for the [Kasoon?]2 fowls; all CD's fowls are in hands of "a very skilful man," [William Bernhard] Tegetmeier, for description, and shall be deposited in British Museum; glad Elliot is joining Linnean Society [elected January 20, 1859]; is willing to sign Elliot's membership certificate; has Elliot seen stripes on backs, shoulders, and legs of horses and on legs of donkeys; asks for specific details about horses with stripes.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p., end. [Charles Darwin/ Abt Kabutar namah1/ & marks on Horses.]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "Kabutar namah" is Hindustani for "pigeon reverence" or "pigeon salutation". 2. "Kaseen" may be CD's spelling of the Hindustani "kashin", which means "large" or "copious". See Duncan Forbes, A Dictionary, Hindustani and English..., new edition (London: Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1859).

163. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859] March 28th [wmk. 1857]ALS; 4p. and enc. @ 8 x5, 2p. @ 6.25 x3 3/4; 6p. and 1p. enc.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes; Life and Letters II, 151-52. Enclosure printed on page 152.

General physical description: ALS; 4p. and enc. @ 8 x5, 2p. @ 6.25 x3 3/4; 6p. and 1p. enc.

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/fedora/repository/graphics:721

164. To Ch[arles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859] March 30th [end. March 30/ 1859; pmk. MR31/ 59]ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and env., add. [Sir Ch. Lyell/ 53 Harley St/ London/ W.], end. [C. Darwin/ March 30/ Origin/ Of Species/ 1859]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions; Life and Letters II, 152-53. At end of letter is; Emma [Wedgwood Darwin] goes to London for two or three days on Friday [April 1] and will visit Lyells on Saturday morning.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and env., add. [Sir Ch. Lyell/ 53 Harley St/ London/ W.], end. [C. Darwin/ March 30/ Origin/ Of Species/ 1859]

165. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859] June 21stALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes; Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 159.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

166. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859 June]ALS; 8 x5; 2p.B D25.L1

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 125 (letter 77).

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This month and year were provided without explanation or justification with the printed version. The month might be a bit early in the year.

167. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859] Sept. 2d.ALS; 10 x8; 4p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised,1 1888), II, 163-65. p. 163, line 3, missing name is "Emma [Wedgwood Darwin]". At end of letter is: whole family is ill; when proofs are finished (14 or 20 days), will leave for two months of hydropathy and rest; regards to wife; "I have read some of [Joseph Dalton] Hooker's Introduction to Australian Flora,2 & he gives up species in grand style."; "I enclose P.S. of letter from [Alfred Russel] Wallace lately received."

General physical description: ALS; 10 x8; 4p. (enclosure wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The first portion of the letter is also omitted in the first edition. 2. The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of N.M. Discovery-Ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843..., Pt. III: Flora Tasmaniae, 2v. (London: Lovell Reeve, 1860), I, i-cxxviii. This "Introductory Essay" is dated "November, 4, 1859" on page cxxviii; it was reprinted separately in 1859, and portions of it appeared in some contemporary journals. In it, Hooker announced his acceptance of CD's theory of evolution by natural selection.

168. To Miss BUTLER; Down (type 2)
[1859]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.B D25.50

Hears that Butler is wandering about Scotland, so presumes she cannot go to Ilkley, but invites her anyway, since CD may not be able to take family; "It would be...terrible to go into that great place & not know a soul. But if you were there I should feel safe & home-like."; CD's book [Origin (1859)] is so nearly finished that he "shall be a free man at the end of this month"; thinks he will be in Ilkley for three or four weeks, followed by a week or so in Down and then a few weeks at Moor Park.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD's only visit to Ilkley occurred in 1859; see "Darwin's Journal," 15.

169. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859] Sept 20thALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 166-67. At end of letter is: ill; leaves for Ilkley on October 3 [sic; October 2], by which time CD will have finished the "last revises [of the proofs of Origin (1859)], index & all"; fears it is too late for the whale correction, but has written to inquire about it;1 "In Lecture to R[oyal] I[nstitution] [Richard] Owen showed that he believed in whale."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Darwin, Origin (1859), 303-04; cf. ibid. (1860), 304. Apparently Lyell's claim about a whale fossil in the greensand was incorrect, so CD had it removed.

170. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859] Sept. 25thALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 168-69. p. 168, line 1, add: "The sheet with the whale-case has been printed off." p. 169, line 15, change "Chapter VIII" to "Ch. XIII". At end of letter is: leaves for Ilkley on September 29, arriving October 1; remembrances to Lyell's wife.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.

171. To Charles LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859] Sept. 30th [end. Sept. 1859; pmk. SE23/ 59]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p. and fragment of env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ Shielhill/ Kirriemuir/ Scotland], end. [C. Darwin/ finding out what the problems/ were to be solved more/ difficult than solution/ Sept. 1859]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 169-71.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 7p. and fragment of env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ Shielhill/ Kirriemuir/ Scotland], end. [C. Darwin/ finding out what the problems/ were to be solved more/ difficult than solution/ Sept. 1859]

172. To [Charles] LYELL; Ilkley Wells House/ Otley, Yorkshire
[1859] Oct. 11thALS; 8.25 x6.5 22p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 208-15. p. 213, line 11, add: on primrose and cowslip, has whole case written out in eight to ten pages; evidence bears out CD's conclusions; had experimented on this, but illness stopped the work; suggests that [Charles James Fox] Bunbury perform experiments, gives instructions for same; "I am assured if you sow lots of Polyanthus seed (but then these ought to have been secured from cross, & if starved plants the better) & sown in poor soil, you will get sometimes primroses & [other times] cowslips." p. 214, line 30, underline twice the "per-" in "perverted".

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 22p.

173. To Charles LYELL; Wells Terrace/ Ilkley Otley/ Yorkshire
[1859] Oct. 20th [end. Oct. 20th 1859; pmk. OC20/ 59]ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 8p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ at C.J.F. Bunbury's Esqr/ Mildenhall[suffolk], end. [C. Darwin, Oct. 20th 1859/ "Creation." & archetypal creature/ Selection sufficient./ Droughts do not annihilate/ species.]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 173-75.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 8p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ at C.J.F. Bunbury's Esqr/ Mildenhall[suffolk], end. [C. Darwin, Oct. 20th 1859/ "Creation." & archetypal creature/ Selection sufficient./ Droughts do not annihilate/ species.]

174. To [Charles] LYELL; Wells Terrace/ Ilkley, Otley/ Yorkshire
[1859] Oct. 25thALS; 8.25 x6.5 8p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 176-77. At beginning of letter is: gives "very hypothetical" doctrine of [Peter Simon] Pallas as it applies to domestic dogs, viz. that present races of domestic dogs were produced by domestication of wolf in one country, of fox in another, etc., and by subsequent crossing; American dogs have descended from three or four "aboriginally distinct" species, and Europeans from several others; "We believe that all canine species have descended from one parent"; unclear whether all or only some differences in present breeds originated since domestication; importance of period of gestation has been exaggerated; races of man a great difficulty; does not believe Pallas's or [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz's claim that there are several species of man; [Sepoy] mutiny in India "stopped some important enquiries" about man; "I do not attribute much effect to climate &c."; some plants migrated through tropical lowlands during the glacial period; is lame; hopes H[enry] Holland will not review [Origin (1859)] in Q. Rev. because Holland "is so presumptuous & knows so little."

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 8p.

175. To [Charles] LYELL; Wells Terrace, Ilkley Otley Y[orkshire]
[1859 October] 31st MondayALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 127-28 (letter 80).

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p.

176. To [Charles] LYELL; Ilkley Wells./ Otley Yorkshire
[1859] Nov. 23dALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 228-30.

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p.

177. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Ilkley Wells House/ Otley, Yorkshire
[1859?November] 24thALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.B EY83

Thanks for note; CD's book [Origin (1859)] will "horrify & disgust" Eyton; "several high authorities" approved of CD's theories "far more... than I expected"; would like book to which Eyton refers; admires Eyton's zeal in going to Hythe to drill.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p.

178. To [Charles] LYELL; Ilkley Wells House/ Otley Yorkshire
[1859 November] 24th [wmk. 59?]ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p. and 1p. enc.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 233-34. The enclosure reads: "Erasmus [Darwin] says about my Book [Origin (1859)] `In fact the a priori reasoning is so entirely satisfactory to me, that if the facts wont fit in, why so much the worse for the facts is my feeling.'!" It is printed on page 233.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p. and 1p. enc.

179. To [Charles] LYELL; Ilkley Wells House/ Otley, Yorkshire
[1859 November] 25thALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 235-36. p. 235, line 3, add: has added a sentence on pheasants crossing;1 has discussed this fully in [Darwin, Natural Selection]; pheasant species mentioned by CD undoubtedly blend by crossing, but CD is unsure whether the crosses are "quite fertile" inter se; cannot say more on this or on mistaken instincts because MS is at Down; would tell of blunder regarding instinct of wood ant, but the story is too long.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Compare Darwin, Origin (1859), 253, to ibid. (1860), 253. Or see Peckham, Variorum Origin, 433; the added sentence is numbered "69.1:b".

180. To [Charles] LYELL; no location
[1859 November] 29thAL, S by init.' 3.5 x8.25 2p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.L1

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 136-37 (letter 91). At end of letter is: "About rattle-snake I meant to have added, suppose the bead at end of tail of Trigonocephalus not to be moulted at each exuviation & to grow bigger with each new skin."

General physical description: AL, S by init.' 3.5 x8.25 2p. (enclosure wanting)

181. To [Charles] LYELL; Ilkley Wells H[ouse] Otley Yorkshire
[1859] Dec. 2d.ALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p.B D25.L

Printed: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 236-37. p. 237, line 4, add: "I see he [John Crawford] does not even give me credit for knowing anything about the wild Columbidae allied to the Rock-pigeon!" p. 237, lines 9/10, change "several notes from ----" to "second note from [John] Phillips". p. 237, line 12, add: "Can he [Phillips] be staggered & have the fear of Oxford before his eyes." p. 237, line 12, change "X. says he" to "[Thomas Henry] Huxley says Phillips". At end of letter is: "I wish there was any chance of [Joseph] Prestwich being shaken; but I fear he is too much of a catastrophist."

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p.

182. To [Charles] LYELL; no location
[1859 December 3] SaturdayALS; 8.25 x6.5 2p.B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 129 (letter 81). line 3, add: "for he [Robert FitzRoy] wrote to me the other day on population of world not having increased, & in his Voyages there is the pebble theory.1" At end of this portion is: "What a mixture of conceit & folly, & the greatest newspaper in the world, inserts it!" Next portion printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 239.

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle..., 3v. Vol. II: Proceedings of the Second Expedition, 1831-1836 (London: Henry Colburn, 1839).

183. To [?Jean Louis Armand de QUATREFAGES de Bréau]1; Down (type 2)2
[1859] Dec. 5thALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.B D25.42

Thanks for letter of November 19; is "delighted that we agree" in part regarding "mutability of species"; will read [Quatrefages's] correspondence if published; C[harles] Lyell, [Joseph Dalton] Hooker, [William Benjamin] Carpenter, [Thomas Henry] Huxley, and others agree with CD's views; whole first edition [of Darwin, Origin (1859)], 1250 copies, was sold first day; publisher is now printing 3,000 more copies; [Anne-Louise Swanton] Belloc planned to translate Origin into French but found it too technical; knows [Quatrefages] is too busy to translate the book, but could he find a publisher, translator, or eminent naturalist to act as editor; will send copy of "2nd & corrected Edition" to any translator.

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Correspondent is clearly French; Quatrefages is the most likely candidate, since he is known to have written an early congratulation to CD for the publication of the Origin. See Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 234. 2. CD was actually in Ilkley; see "Darwin's Journal," 15.

184. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859 December 10] SaturdayALS; 8.25 x6.5 6p.B D25.L

Printed: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 239-40. At beginning of letter is: thanks for suggestions [for Origin (1860)]; could not include references on imperfection of geological record [chapter IX]; estimate of 100,000 years for Mississippi deposition is taken from an extract of [Laurent-Guillaume] De Kerninck [sic; de Koninck] or [Étienne-Jules-Adolphe Desmier de Saint-Simon, Vicomte] d'Archaic; will now be more assertive about estimate, since Lyell's estimate agrees;1 on richness of Purbeck beds, will add "for thickness of beds";2 "On Friday I had interview with Sir H[enry] Holland, & found him going immense way with us (ie all Birds from one)--good, as showing how wind blows."; thinks the bigger of Lyell's interesting celts might have been used by those Eskimos who did not have iron to cut holes in ice and to kill glacial elephant and rhinoceros. p. 239, line 1, change "interviews" to "interview", and missing name is "[Richard] Owen". p. 239, line 2, add: "but please repeat nothing. Under garb of great civility, he was inclined to be most bitter & sneering against me. Yet". p. 239, line 4, add: "He was quite savage & crimson at my having put his name with defenders of immutability. When I said that was my impression & that of others, for several had remarked to me, that he would be dead against me: he then spoke of his own position in science & that of all the naturalists in London, `with your [Thomas Henry] Huxleys', with a degree of arrogance I never saw approached." p. 240, line 9, add: "in most sneering tone". p. 240, line 23, add: "Lastly I thanked him him [sic] for Bear & Whale criticism, & said I had struck it out.-- `Oh have you, well I was more struck with this than any other passage; you little know of the remarkable & essential relationship between bears & whales.'...by Jove I believe he thinks a sort of Bear was the grandpapa of Whales!....3 We parted with high terms of consideration; which on reflexion I am almost sorry for. He is the most astounding creature I ever encountered."

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. For Lyell's estimate, see Lyell, A Second Visit to the United States of North America (London: John Murray, 1849), II, 248ff, esp. 250 and 250n. For Archaic's estimate, see Archaic, "Sur les formations dites pélagiques, et sur la profondeur à laquelle ont dû se déposer les couches de sédiment," Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., 14 (1842-1843); 517-25. For CD's passage, of. Origin (1859), 284, and ibid. (1860), 284; or see Peckham, Variorum Origin, 481-82, sentences 49 and 50. 2. Cf. Darwin, Origin (1859), 303, and ibid. (1860), 304; or see Peckham, Variorum Origin, 508, sentence 193. 3. Cf. Darwin, Origin (1859), 184, with ibid. (1860), 184; or see Peckham, Variorum Origin, 333, sentence 98.

185. To [William Henry SYKES]; Down (type 2)
[1859] Dec. 20th. [end. Ansd. 11/1./59]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p. and end. [C. Darwin, the Distinguished/ Naturalist, Ansd. 11/1./59]B D25.124

Recommends [Edward] Blyth for position as naturalist on the China Expedition.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p. and end. [C. Darwin, the Distinguished/ Naturalist, Ansd. 11/1./59]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Sykes apparently erred in his endorsement date; see letter to Lyell, December 29, 1859, below.

186. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859 December] 22dALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 245-46. p. 246, line 8, add: "What a marvellous geological Noah's ark that fossil tree in N. America was!"

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 4p.

187. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1859 December] 27th [end. Dec 27.1859; pmk. DE 27/ 59]AL (incomplete); 8.25 x6.5 4p. and env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C Darwin/ references to Clift &/ Lyell & Darwins journl. on/connexionof extinct & existing/ types in S. America./ Dec 27.1859]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, I, 133-34. (letter 87). At end of letter is: "I doubt whether [Joseph Dalton] Hooker will succeed (anyhow I tried & failed) in keeping parts of Tropics hot, whilst other parts...[incomplete portion ends here]"

General physical description: AL (incomplete); 8.25 x6.5 4p. and env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C Darwin/ references to Clift &/ Lyell & Darwins journl. on/connexionof extinct & existing/ types in S. America./ Dec 27.1859]

188. To [Charles] L[YELL]; Down.
[1859 December] 29th [wmk. 1859]AL, S by init.; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Encloses note about [Edward] Blyth, as requested; Lyell should write such a note; also wrote to Col. [William Henry] Sykes;1 suspects that [Thomas Henry] Huxley is author of article in the Times;2 has not read notice in Daily News; has received "civil note" from [Robert] Chambers, containing news of an abstract in Chambers's Journal;3 surprised (and said so to [Richard] Owen) at passage in Lyell's book; has not alluded to supposed British [Trias?] Mammal; believes not that mundane glacial period destroyed "all Tropical production," but that tropical and temperate forms mingled together on the plains during that period, as do [Joseph Dalton] Hooker's Himalayan forms; could give a Mexican example; "Anything on earth I can do in giving references &c &c will be a real pleasure...."; received letter from [James Dwight] Dana, who is "quite disable in his head" from overwork and is resting in Florence.4

General physical description: AL, S by init.; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See letter to Sykes, December 20, 1859, above. 2. Huxley's review of Darwin's Origin appeared in the London Times on December 26, 1859; see also Life and Letters II, 252-55. 3. [Chambers], "Charles Darwin on the Origin of Species," Chambers's Journal, 12 (July-December, 1859): 388-91. 4. See Daniel C. Gilman, The Life of James Dwight Dana (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1899), 177.

189. To [William Hallowes] MILLER; Down (type 2)
[?1859]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.178

Very kind of Miller to do work completely; at present, will only publish the general result; measurements at upper thick end of comb are "most trustworthy", since bees "economise every particle of wax" and thus skimp on border cells; is glad that CD not as wrong as feared, even if accuracy was a result of "mere chance"; CD's original rough measurements were made in middle of comb, but recent discouraging measurements were made on border.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This letter appears to follow letters 73 to 75 in More Letters, I, 121-124.

190. To [Charles] L[YELL]; Down.
[1860 January] 4thAL, S by init.; 8 x5; 2p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 260-61. p. 260, line 7, add: argument in review [of Darwin, Origin (1859)] in Saturday Review is confined to geology, but reviewer gives CD "some perfectly just & severe raps on Knuckles."1 p. 261, line 2, add: [John Gwyn] Jeffreys sent letter with "nonsense" about non-migration of sea-shells. At end of letter is: will send long letter from H[ewett] C[ottrell] Watson which CD has not read.

General physical description: AL, S by init.; 8 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See "Darwin's Origin of Species," Sat. Rev., 8 (1859): 775-76.

191. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Jan.10th [pmk. JA11/ 60]ALS; 8.25 x6.5 5p. and env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Mortality of/ children./ Man originally an/ hermaphrodite./ Blindgenusof/ insect with wide range/ Man & Spencer's/ Psychology.]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 264-66. At beginning of letter is: is answering Lyell point by point; "Parthenogenesis (p. 96) is nothing & I know not why I inserted it in list."1 p. 265, lines 6/7, remove parentheses around "only vaguely". p. 265, line 23, add: "I am very sorry that [John] Lindley did not write in Gardener's Chronicle."; and, after "Andrew Murray", add: "(the entomologist & dabbler in Botany)".

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 5p. and env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Mortality of/ children./ Man originally an/ hermaphrodite./ Blindgenusof/ insect with wide range/ Man & Spencer's/ Psychology.]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Cf. Darwin, Origin (1859), 96; and ibid. (1860), 96. Or see Peckham, Variorum Origin, 185, lines 128 and 128:b.

192. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Jan 14th [pmk. JA 15/ 60]ALS; 8.25 x6.5 6p. and env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Domestic vars of dog &c not/ as Huxley says far eno'/ to be sterile/ Cave insects common to N./ America & Europe./ Hooker on New Zealand/ not united in post-plio-/ cene times with Australia.]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 266. At beginning of letter is: now that CD knows that [Joseph Dalton] Hooker is its author, has reread review in Gardeners' Chronicle;1 letter from [John Gwyn] Jeffreys is not worth sending, it says nothing about migration but refers to two papers, one on Testacea;2 spoke too strongly about Jeffreys's non-migration views; thinks Jeffreys "far too narrow & decided" in his opposition to [Edward] Forbes; is convinced from littoral shells at Galapagos that such shells have great power of migration; one of grandest points in Hooker's Essay3 is demonstration that New Zealand has not been even nearly continuously united with Australia in recent times. p. 266, line 14, add: "I agree with [Thomas Henry] Huxley that it is a difficulty about no ascertained varieties known to have been raised by man, being sterile together: varieties of same kind, I believe, not rarely prefer pairing together; I have fact on this head. But I think Huxley had not considered my discussion (p. 268 New Edit. [i.e. Darwin, Origin (1860), 268])"; sterility of varieties of Verbascum and of tobaccos are wonderful cases; subject of sterility is "profoundly mysterious"; has been reading Isidore [Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire's] Life4 of [his father, Étienne] Geoffroy St. Hilaire, plus the latter's Principes;5 thinks latter man was "a rather doubtful maintainer of change of species"; former man has written to CD that he [i.e. Isidore] is "a firm maintainer of such views" and has sent a publication to show this; on Cave insects, difficulty applies chiefly in case of America and Europe, over which the same seeing genera range; if Lyell knows of any miocene or pliocene fossil insect in North America, such fact would make Lyell's hint very valuable. p. 266, line 17, "E." is "Emma [Wedgwood Darwin]". At end of letter is: can Lyell suggest a German translator; Madame [Anne Louise Swanton] Belloc finds [Darwin, Origin (1859)] too difficult to translate into French, but CD has just received letter from Frenchman eager to translate.

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 6p. and env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Domestic vars of dog &c not/ as Huxley says far eno'/ to be sterile/ Cave insects common to N./ America & Europe./ Hooker on New Zealand/ not united in post-plio-/ cene times with Australia.]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Gdnrs' Chron,, December 31, 1859. For a recent reprint of part of the review, see David L. Hull, Darwin and His Critics: The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973), 81-86. 2. Jeffreys, "On the Marine Testacea of the Piedmontese Coast," Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., 17 (1856): 155-88. 3. "Introductory Essay," in The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H. M. Discovery-Ships Erebus and Terror in the Years 1839-1843..., Pt. III: Flora Tasmaniae, 2v. (London: Lovell Reeve, 1860), I, i-cxxviii. 4. Vie, travaux et doctrine scientifique d'E. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire (Paris: Strasbourg, 1847). 5. Principes de philosophie zoologique... (Paris: Acad. des Sciences, 1830).

193. To [Jean Louis Armand de QUATREFAGES de Bréau]; Down (type 2)
[?1860] Jan. 21st [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.2

Sorry [Quatrofages] has been ill; thanks for "great Kindness"; man wishing to translate Darwin, [Origin (1859)] is M. [Pierre Theodore Alfred] Talandier, Professor of French at Royal Military College at Sandhurst, who writes well and is clever; if Talandier cannot find a publisher or changes his mind, CD will write to [Quatrefages]; heard that morning from N[orth] America that Darwin, [Origin (1859)] is "exciting considerable attention there amongst the naturalists", but [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz is "very savage at it"; has [Henri] Milne-Edwards read his copy [of Darwin, Origin (1859)] and what is his reaction;1 are [Quatrefage's] lectures on anthropology2 published?

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The small portion of this letter dealing with Milne-Edwards has been printed, with minor changes, in two locations: Life and Letters (seventh thousand revised, 1888), II, 235; and More Letters, I, 136 (letter 90). 2. "Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Anthropologie. Cours de M. de Quatrefages," Rev. scient., Paris, 5 (1867-1868): 366-69, 431-38, 450-55, 495-503, 510-18, 528-36, 544-50, 559-64, 579-84, 592-600, 621-31, 655-64, 685-96, 707-12, 720-28, 730-44, and 751-60.

194. To?; Down (type 2)
[1860 January] 29th [end. 1860/ Jan 30; wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 2p., end. [1860/ C. Darwin Esqre/ Jan 30]B D25.114

Thanks for assistance; encloses bank draft; wants "Agassiz Index Generum--it is a one volume Book & distinct from the Nomenclator";1 [Jean Louis Armand de] Quatrefage[s de Bréau] is sending a book to CD via corr.; please send volumes to 57 Queen Anne Street, Cavendish Square.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 2p., end. [1860/ C. Darwin Esqre/ Jan 30]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Apparently a reference to Agassiz, Nomenclatoris Zoologici Index Universalis... (Soloduri: Jent et Gassman, 1848). This was a one-volume supplementary fascicle to Agassiz's Nomenclator Zoologicus....

195. To [Philip Lutley SCLATER]; Down (type 2)
[1860] Feb. 4th [end. Feb. 1860; wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 3p. and end. [5214/ C. Darwin/ Feb. 1860/ Abt Birds] (enclosure wanting)B D25.S

Thanks for list of Galapagos birds; if not too late, will include it in Darwin, Journal of Researches,1 and will correct Darwin, Origin;2 the wren is Sylvicola aureola, figured in [Darwin], Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle;3 have assumed it is confined to the archipelago; is surprised that Zenaida [galapagoensis] probably occurs on mainland; reiterates need for examples of variation of "abnormal parts" of birds, encloses list of examples of same.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p. and end. [5214/ C. Darwin/ Feb. 1860/ Abt Birds] (enclosure wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Darwin, Journal of Researches (1860), vii and 378-81. 2. Cf. Darwin, Origin (1860), 391, and ibid. (1861), 422. Or see Peckham, Variorum Origin, 620, lines 61 through 61:c. 3. Darwin, Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle ([1838]-1843), Pt. III: Birds, by John Gould (1838-1841), 86 and Plate XXVIII.

196. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 February] 12th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 280. At beginning of letter is: sends letters from [Heinrich Georg] Bronn, from Asa Gray, and from [Charles James Fox] Bunbury;1 has told Bunbury that undulatory theory of light is not a "vera causa"; on glacial distribution, Gray, in his letter, put CD's name before that of [Edward] Forbes, but Forbes deserves priority because he published first, even if CD had written out the notion earlier; will send first part of Gray's "excellent Review"2 and notice by Bronn;3 has just heard that, and is pleased that, Bronn will superintend the German translation of Darwin, Origin (1859); leave letters at home of Erasmus [Alvey Darwin]; will be in London "in fortnight". p. 280, line 2, add: "he hardly gave idea of my notions".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Life and Letters II, 268-73 and 276-80. 2. "Review of Darwin's Theory on the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection," Am. J. Sci. (Silliman's J.), 29 (1860): 153-84. 3. Neues Jb. Niner. Geol. Palaont., 1860; 112-16; for a recent English translation, see David L. Hull, Darwin and His Critics: The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973), 118-25.

197. To [Philip Lutley SCLATER]; Down (type 2)
[1860] Feb. 14th [end. Feb. 1860; wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x4 3/4; 2p. and end. [5208/ C. Darwin/ Feb. 1860/ About Birds]B D25.S

Thanks for valuable information [see letter to Sclater dated February 4, 1860, above]; asked G[eorge] R[obert] Gray about Otus [galapagoensis] and Zenaida [galapagoensis];1 do Strix punctatissima or Pyrocephalus nanus [on the Galapagos] differ in any degree whatever in size and duskiness from same species on mainland?2

General physical description: ALS; 8 x4 3/4; 2p. and end. [5208/ C. Darwin/ Feb. 1860/ About Birds]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Darwin, Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle ([1838]-1843), Pt. III: Birds, by John Gould (1838-1841), 32-33, 115-16, and Plates III and XLVI. 2. Ibid., 34-35, 45-46, and Plates IV and VII.

198. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 February] 15th [and] 16thAL (incomplete); 8.25 x6.5 (enclosures smaller); 4p. and 2p. enc. and 1p. enc.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 284-86. At beginning of letter is: thanks for news; [?Auguste] Bravard's discoveries are magnificent, especially fact of "Palaeotherium Paranense" taken with "Nebraska Palaeotherium"; Bravard has sent two Spanish pamphlets with "strange geological doctrine, of whole enormous Pampean deposit being a subaerial deposit"; Bravard disputes unconvincingly the coembedment of Bahia Blanca fossils and recent shells; whole skeletons, including kneecap, cannot wash from one formation to another. p. 285, line 11, add: "The expression `coincidence' in time & space between new & old species is unfortunate, as he believes, as we do, that new species are very slowly formed." p. 285, line 14, add: believes aberrant Anoa, or so-called antelope, is really small buffalo; work out interesting fact of Loess Man belonging to peculiar group of men; remember that fossil monkey was very manlike in middle Tertiary; will send Asa Gray's review when received from [Joseph Dalton] Hooker.1 p. 285, line 23, incomplete letter in possession of APS ends at "I wish". First enc. reads as follows: "Many thanks for [Charles James Fox] Bunbury letter received this morning & for your note. I doubt whether I use term Natural Selection more as a Person, than writers use Attraction of Gravity as governing the movement of Planets &c but I suppose I could have avoided the ambiguity. 16th". Second enc. is: hopes Lyell discovers for what the great celts were used, since this bears on civilisation of old natives; [John Stevens] Henslow will visit celt beds in France during spring.

General physical description: AL (incomplete); 8.25 x6.5 (enclosures smaller); 4p. and 2p. enc. and 1p. enc.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See letter to Lyell dated February 12, 1860, above.

199. To C[harles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 February] 18th [and 19th; end. Feby 20./ 1860; pmk. FE20/60; wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 10p. and fragment of env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Asa Gray's/ review of-/ Harveys Monstrosity/ in Bigonia/ Bronn/ Feby 20./ 1860]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 140-43 (letter 95). p. 142, line 19, change "polypus" to "polyps". p. 142, line 28, change "a future" to "any future". p. 143, line 13, change "at most" to "almost". Small portion also printed in Life and Letters II, 275.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 10p. and fragment of env., add. [Sir C. Lyell/ 53. Harley St./ London/ (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Asa Gray's/ review of-/ Harveys Monstrosity/ in Bigonia/ Bronn/ Feby 20./ 1860]

200. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Feb. 23dALS; 8.5 x6.5 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 289-91. p. 289, line 10, add: [Joseph Dalton] Hooker will answer [William Henry] Harvey's notice [in Gardeners' Chronicle] if [John] Lindley [the editor] will permit;1 Lyell can see this answer when at Down [March 9-13]; on issue of abrupt changes, case of Aspicarpa, like that of the differences between outer and inner florets of compositous and umbelliferous plants, is important case of modification of very important characters by correlation of growth, but it is not a case of abrupt origin of new forms; has tried to find cases of the latter but found only one "apparent case" in the Campanulaceae; concerning animals, besides case of monstrous goldfish,2 has case of monstrous eels examined by [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz, but is unsure of this case; "On the whole I still feel excessively doubtful whether such abrupt changes have more than very rarely taken place." p. 290, line 12, add: does not understand [Heinrich Georg] Bronn's quote about Lyell; has read of infusorial experiments in Paris rejected as inaccurate by [Jean Louis Armand de] Quatrefage[s de Bréau]; similar old experiments were performed more carefully in Germany, with negative results.

General physical description: ALS; 8.5 x6.5 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See: Life and Letters II, 274-76; and Gdnrs' Chron., February 18, 1860. 2. See More Letters, I, 141 (letter 95).

201. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Feb. 25th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 291. At beginning of letter is: glad to hear about [Richard] Owen; expects "many & bitter sneers" from Owen; glad Lyell used the same safe and true argument as [Herbert] Spencer's to the Bishop [?Samuel Wilberforce]. At end of letter is: sends portion of letter from [Heinrich Georg] Bronn which shows that Bronn is thinking more about [Darwin, Origin (1859)]; Bronn will translate it himself; has had letter from Sir W[illiam] Jardine, who opposes CD, but attack on CD's ornithological accuracy by Jardine is worthless; Jardine says Andrew Murray has read paper against CD;1 does not know if degraded Aspicarpa flowers make fruit, but some other degraded flowers are abnormally fertile; agrees with criticisms of H. Spencer; has read Spencer's essay on population in which Spencer "publishes such dreadful hypothetical rubbish on the nature of reproduction."2

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On Mr. Darwin's Theory of the Origin of Species," Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., 4 (1857-1862): 274-91. 2. "A Theory of Population, Deduced from the General Law of Animal Fertility," Westminster Review, 57 (January-April, 1852): 468-501.

202. To [Joseph LEIDY]; Down (type 2)
[1860] March 4th.Typed copy of ALS;111 x8.5 2p.B D25.1

Thanks for note of December 10 and valuable bundle of Leidy's publications; Leidy's palaeontology is highly regarded; Leidy's support is especially valuable because most palaeontologists "despise my work"; all older geologists except [Charles] Lyell are even more vehemently opposed; several younger geologists, however, support CD, especially on imperfection of geological record; is delighted that Leidy has evidence to support CD because, although CD himself will continue to work on the subject of evolution, "the sole way of getting my views partially accepted will be by sound workers showing that they partially accept them. I say partially, for I have never for a moment doubted, that though I cannot see my errors, that much in my Book [Origin (1859)] will be proved erroneous."

General physical description: Typed copy of ALS;111 x8.5 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Original of this letter is at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

203. To [Charles] LYELL; Down.
[1860 March] 12th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 295.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This letter might be dated incorrectly by CD, since Lyell's species notebooks show him visiting CD until March 13, and this latter date seems like a more natural one for this letter. See Leonard G. Wilson, ed., Sir Charles Lyell's Scientific Journals on the Species Question (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1970), 363 and 398. For further discussion of Greeks, see ibid., 364-65.

204. To [Charles] L[YELL]; no location
[1860 late March-early April]AL, S by init.; 4.5 x7; 2p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.L

Lyell is kind; hopes enc. will do; did not mention personal qualifications, of which CD is ignorant; could not allude to "precedent under [Robert John Eden,] L[or]d Aukland" because CD knows nothing about such precedent, not even whether there was a naturalist [?on the expedition]; will write to [Edward] Blyth in afternoon. Next portion printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 297-98.

General physical description: AL, S by init.; 4.5 x7; 2p. (enclosure wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This letter must have been written after the publication of Sedgwick's review of Darwin, Origin (1859), which appeared in the Spectator on March 24, 1860, and it must have been written before the letter to Asa Gray dated April 3, [1860], printed in Life and Letters II, 296-97, because this letter claims that CD and Lyell agree that Sedgwick is the Spectator's reviewer.

205. To [Albert] WAY; Down (type 2)
[?1860]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.125

Wants to know history of strongly marked domestic breeds of animals; thinks archaeologists may know when dray horses were first recorded; does Way know any archaeologists who can help on this point; should CD ask for help in Notes and Queries, "though that is a periodical I have no means of seeing"; "Eheu Eheu, the old Crux Major days are long past."2

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. The combination of type of Down address variant used on this letter with a watermark of 1859 occurred, apparently, only between late 1859 and mid-1860. 2. See Barlow, ed., Autobiography, 62-63. Panagaeus crux-major, a species of beetle, was collected by CD and Way while they were classmates at Cambridge.

206. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Apr. 10th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 8p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 300-01. p. 300, line 5, add: "I have got [the first number of the short-lived journal called] `The Future' [published April, 1860], but cannot clearly make head or tail of it." p. 300, line 28, missing name is [Richard] Owen. p. 301, line 8, add: "makes me say that the dorsal vertebrae of pigeons vary & refers to page where the word dorsal does not appear. Sneers at my saying a certain organ is the branchiae of Balanidae; whilst in his own `Invertebrata'1 published before I published on cirripedes, he calls them organs without doubt branchiae." p. 301, line 10, missing name is Owen. At end of letter is: "How hard it is to please everyone. I told [Joseph Beete] Jukes that I sh[oul]d leave out in any next Edition [of Darwin, Origin] about the Weald,2 & he demurred greatly & said `he almost fancied he had written [it] himself,' as he bravely told [Roderick Impey] Murchison."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 8p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Richard Owen, Lectures on the Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Invertebrate Animals... (London: Longmans, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1843), 158. 2. Cf. Darwin, Origin (1860), 285ff, and ibid. (1861), 308; or see Peckham, Variorum Origin, 483-85, lines 57-71.

207. To [Heinrich Georg BRONN]; Down (type 2)
[1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 1p.B D25.75

Thanks for [Bronn's] "Untersuchungen uber [sic] die Entwickelung" and two copies of "Morphologische Studien," just received; will send extra copy of latter to "some good man"; thanks also for portrait.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Date and correspondent are obvious from the contents, as the following indicates: Bronn's books are Untersuchungen über die Entwickelungs-Gesetze der organischen Welt... (Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung und Druckerei, 1858) and Morphologische Studien über die Gestaltungs-Gesetze der Naturkörper überhaupt... (Leipzig and Heidelberg: C. F. Winter'sche Verlagshandlung, 1858). CD offered the extra copy of the latter book to Thomas Henry Huxley; see More Letters, II, 232 (letter 566).

208. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Ap. 15th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 303-04. p. 303, line 4, after "noticing", add: "[Richard] Owen's".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 6p.

209. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Ap. 27th/ 28th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 8p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 30 (letter 403). At beginning of letter is: thanks for [John Strong] Newberry;1 "the non-comittal [sic] men do not always most help a science"; sent "clever review" by [Antoine Auguste] Laugel2 & address of President of Tyneside Naturalists;3 regarding dogs, although the case is doubtful, CD favors multiple origins, but prefers not to nommit himself until he can weigh all evidence; given the volume of discussion since [Peter Simon] Pallas, "I do not at all believe that [Richard] Owen did not know perfectly well some of the wild Canidae to which I alluded"; dogs of the world mingle the bloods of the European wolf, two distinct North American wolves, probably the Guyana dog or wolf, and probably (according to Pallas and Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire) several wild races of jackal; will compile facts in present volume,4 but not in Origin; [John William] Dawson's remark on variability of Canidae will be hard to prove;5 has received Lyell's budgets; thanks for drawings, sent on to Paris; supposes that [William Benjamin] Carpenter calls Vertebrata a class and birds an order, but this is unusual, and estimating the value of groups is "hopelessly difficult"; case of spitz dog is from [Johann Matthäus] Bechstein, [Gemeinützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands nach allen drei Reichen, 2nd ed., 4v. (Leipzig: Bey S. L. Crusius, 1801-1809), I, 638]; case of sheep and goat in Chile is "nearest case [ever] of reversion to one pure parent by repeated crosses"; such reversion is easy, and the number of generations needed to do it with various plants has been set by [Karl Friedrich von] Gärtner and perhaps [Joseph Gottlieb] Kölreuter; such reversion has been effected with Phasianus colchicus and P. versicolor; but Lyell refers to reversion only when hybrids are bred inter se, so Lyell's case seems "very wonderful & improbable"; is interested in Lyell's closing remarks.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 8p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Probably "Notes on the Ancient Vegetation of North America," Am. J. Sci. (Silliman's J.),29 (1860): 208-18. 2. See Revue des Deux Mondes, April 1, 1860. 3. Probably in Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club, 4 (1858-1860). 4. Darwin, Variation under Domestication, 2v. (1868), esp. chap. 1. 5. Dawson, Archaia (Montreal: B. Dawson & Son, 1860). Lyell was reading this book at the time; see Life of Lyell, II, 332.

210. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] May 4th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 261-62. At beginning of letter is: has been promised, and will send, an arrowhead found in peat by Col. Erskine in Aberdeenshire, which was found with many others in one place "where there were stones pitted for the manufacture"; similarly, John [William] Lubbock [Baron Avebury] says flints in France are found in such vast numbers in peat that M. [Jacques] Boucher [de Crèvecoeur] de Perthes said Lubbock might take as many as he liked; these facts remove great difficulty in case of gravel-bed celts, viz. their large numbers; hopes Lyell will return to France; it took sketch by Lubbock to make positions of celts clear to CD; case deserves months of work; will keep [John Strong] Newberry's interesting paper [see preceding letter, above]; pleased at how strongly Newberry asserted existence of American continent since Palaeozoic times; suspects CD's "crude notion" of cause for our ignorance of pre-Palaeozoic deposits will be shown to be true. p. 261, line 8, add: look at Spirifers arranged by [John William] Salter.2

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Printed version is incorrectly dated January 4, 1860. 2. See Life and Letters II, 366-67.

211. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 May] 8th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 306-07. At beginning of letter is: Lyell's letter contained "much news"; did not know that, despite efforts of [Roderick Impey] Murchison, the Cambrian, or [Joachim] Barrande's primordial, has been separated from the Lower Silurian; sorry that CD shall not be in London [?to attend meeting of Geological Society of London] on 16th because CD wanted to hear papers;1 has written to [John William] Lubbock, [Baron Avebury], about meeting; will stay at home because daughter Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield] has remittent fever [malaria]. p. 306, line 6, add: concerning aster, remembers paper by Asa Gray and another that gives cases of two forms specifically distinct but "perfectly united by intermediate varieties or links." p. 307, line 5, add: "I do not suppose that this is much of honour; but".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. G. P. Wall, "On the Geology of a Part of Venezuela and of Trinidad," Q. Jl geol. Soc. Lond., 16 (1860): 460-70; and E. Lartet, "On the Coexistence of Man with Certain Extinct Quadrupeds...," ibid., 471-79.

212. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] May 18th [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.B D25.L

Printed: Life and Letters II, 308-09. p. 308, line 7, add: Thanks for letter of 15th; new facts about man are interesting; [Thomas Taylor] Lewis takes account of rabbit and hare from Isidore Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire, but CD did not see original account; would like to ascertain origin of original hybrids because there is an old variety called "Hare-rabbit"; gives similar case of "pheasant-fowl" hybrids that were really varieties; wants to see [Hermann] Schaafhausen's pamphlet on natural selection;1 has ordered "Canadian Mag."2 p. 309, line 5, add: ill health and interruptions slow CD's progress; "I can very plainly see, as I lately told [Joseph Dalton] Hooker, that my Book [Origin (1859)] would have been & [would] be a mere flash in the pan, were it not for you, Hooker & a few others." At end of letter is: daughter Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield] is slightly better, has been ill three weeks; has read [?review of Darwin, Origin (1859)] by [Dominique Alexandre] Godron and found it commonplace, in contrast to "capital paper on Means of Distribution";3 has received eight-page poem, in unknown hand, "quizzing & lauding" CD and his [Origin]; in case CD had not mentioned before, some time ago a Manchester newspaper published a "very good & long quiz...showing that I had proved that `might was right' was the universal law of nature."4

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "Über Beständigkeit und Umwandlung der Arten," Verh. naturh. Ver. preuss. Rheinl., 10 (1853): 420-51. 2. This refers, perhaps, to John William Dawson, "Review of `Darwin on the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection,' " Can. Naturalist, 5 (1860): 100-20. 3. "Considérations sur les migrations des végétaux et spécialement de ceux qui, étrangers au sol de la France, y ont été introduits accidentellement," Mém. Acad. Stanislas, 1853; 329-67. 4. See Life and Letters II, 262.

213. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] May 22d [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 151 (letter 102). At beginning of Letter is: encloses letter from A[sa] Gray "received this morning"; Appletons [American publishers of Darwin, Origin] are gentlemen [for paying a royalty to CD], but payment for edition of 2,500 copies was not large;1 sends Isidore G[eoffroy Saint-]H[ilaire] on hare-rabbit, page 222;2 glad to know author of reportedly "savage" [review in] North British Review, not yet read by CD;3 [CD's son] William at Norgate says medical review referred to by Asa Gray is [William Benjamin] Carpenter's;4 sorry to trouble CD with [Adam] Sedgwick in Cambridge paper.5 At end of letter is: Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] is the same, has been ill over three weeks; "What a fact about the Coral Land Shells!!!"

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p. (enclosure wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See: Historical Records Survey, Division of Professional and Service Projects, Works Projects Administration, Calendar of the Letters of Charles Robert Darwin to Asa Gray (Boston: Historical Records Survey, 1939; reprinted Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1973), 25; and "Darwin's Journal," 15. 2. Histoire Naturelle Générale des Règnes Organiques..., 3v. (Paris: Victor Masson et Fils, 1854-1862), III, 222. This is probably the correct reference, even though the date of publication of volume 3 is too late (i.e. 1862); perhaps CD had a proof page. 3. [John Duns], "On the Origin of Species.... By Charles Darwin...." N. Br. Rev., 32 [American ed., 27] (May, 1860): 245-63. For identity of the anonymous author, see Life and Letters II, 311. 4. "The Theory of Development in Nature," Br. for. med.-chir. Rev., 25 (1860): 367-404. 5. "Professor Sedgwick on Darwin's Theory," Cambridge Chronicle and University Journal, Isle of Ely Herald, and Huntingdonshire Gazette, May 19, 1860, pp. 3-4. See also: More Letters, I, 149n; and Darwin and Henslow, 203-07 (letters 111-114).

214. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 June] 1st Friday night [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 314-16. At beginning of letter is: has sent for H[enry] Holland to aid local doctor in treatment of Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter], whose fever is nearly five weeks old; has sent A[ndrew] Murray's reviews, containing "weak" speculations;1 has not misrepresented [Jörgen Christian] Schiödte.2 p. 315, line 5, change "....I have" to "I have ordered the Future,3 & have". At end of letter is: sends Asa Gray's letter, despite its insignificance; never attended to gestation of dogs because domestic gestation periods are so variable, but has now begun inquiries; greyhound stud observed for CD had yielded periods of 60 or 61 to 65 or 66 days; lowness of rodents does not decrease fertility of hybrids, since even algae are subject to same laws as higher animals.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Francis Darwin claims that there were two Murray reviews in the same place (Life and Letters II, 261n). I could find only one, as follows: Proc. R. Soc. Edinb., 4 (1857-1862): 274-91. 2. See Darwin, Origin (1859), 138. 3. See Future: A Journal of Philosophical Research and Criticism, 1 (1860).

215. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] June 6 [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 317-19. At beginning of letter is: Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] is still ill; H[enry] Holland saw her on Sunday [June 3] and predicted long recovery; [Samuel] Haughton's review in "Dublin Mag. of Nat. Hist."1 is "more coarsely contemptuous" than that of [John] Dunns [sic: Duns] in N. Br. Rev. [see CD to Lyell, May 22, 1860, above]; Haughton's "ignoring in his remarks on Bees' cells the almost exactly intermediate comb of Melipona" is unfair. p. 317, line 1, missing name is "[Haughton]". p. 317, line 18, add: "or Quinarianism." p. 318, line 18, add: "& likewise (if you can spare) [Edward William] Binney on Coal2 & [Herman] Schaafhausen or some such name on Natural Selection [see CD to Lyell, May 18, 1860, above]." p. 318, bottom line, add: in Darwin, Origin [(1859), 137], attributed blindness of cave animals exclusively to disuse, not selections of chance varieties, but was hasty about insects, overlooking bearing of fact that blind genus Adelops lives under moss out of caves; possibly also genus Anophthalmus (a "Carabidous" beetle) was blind and "extra-cavernal"; "It seems not unlikely that a blind insect would be less inconvenienced in dark cave than other insects, & would become tenant"; several passages in review by [Andrew] Murray [see previous letter, above] were unclear. p. 319, line 4, add: "[Dominique Alexandre] Godron puts well [see CD to Lyell, May 18, 1860, above] the little effect of climate, which...becomes stronger...on my mind. I do not say confidently food."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "On the Form of the Cells Made by Various Wasps, and by the Honey Bee; With an Appendix on the Origin of Species," Proc. nat. Hist. Soc. Dubl., 3 (1859-1862); 128-40. 2. "Sketch of the Drift Deposits of Manchester and Its Neighbourhood," Mem. Manchr. lit. phil. Soc., 8 (1848): 195-234. See also: Leonard G. Wilson, ed., Sir Charles Lyell's Scientific Journals on the Species Question (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1970), 404 and 480.

216. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 June] 14th [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 5p. and 1p. enc. @ 4.5 x7.25 (other enclosures wanting)B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 319-20. At beginning of letter is: Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield] is in slightly worse health; CD cannot walk; sends extract of letter from [Edward] Blyth, who is grateful to Lyell for help concerning Chinese expedition;1 encloses letter from [William] Hopkins; fancies Hopkins is "horrified about man; I have told him that I thought man must be included under same category with animals"; returns four pamphlets; does not see much in Binney [see previous letter, above]. p. 319, line 5, add: "It is no wonder [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz denies varieties in animals, when he calls even the same forms in two distinct countries, two Species." At end of letter is: after much puzzling, does not know what A[ndrew] Murray meant [see CD to Lyell, June 1, 1860, above] by "Agassiz & ab ovo". End. reads: Blyth says there is account of flint tools found in ice in [Elizabeth Juliana Leeves] Sabine's translation of [Ferdinand Petrovich, Baron von] Wrangell's [i.e. Vrangel's] Voyage2 on page 117 of introduction; this find relates to issues like mastodon found in ice, and is worth checking; Blyth thinks Eskimos, when first discovered, had no iron tools, and he refers to essay3 by J[ohn] Richardson.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 5p. and 1p. enc. @ 4.5 x7.25 (other enclosures wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See the following letters, all abstracted above: CD to W. H. Sykes, December 20, 1859; CD to Lyell, December 29, 1859; and CD to Lyell, late March-early April, 1860. See also Loren C. Eiseley, "Charles Darwin, Edward Blyth, and the Theory of Natural Selection," Proc. Am. phil. Soc., 103 (1959): 154-55. 2. Narrative of an Expedition to the Polar Sea..., tr.... by Mrs. Sabine, ed. by E. Sabine (London: J. Madden and Co., 1840). 3. "Esquimaux: Their Geographical Distribution," Edinb. new phil. J., 52 (1852), 322-23.

217. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] June 17th [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, I, 154 (letter 105). line 24, add: Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield] is slightly better in health, has been ill for exactly seven weeks.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.

218. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 2)
[1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 1p.B EY83

Please send to CD any authentic cases of duration of gestation in dogs; hounds, otter-hounds, or any breed will be acceptable.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Portion of a watermark on this letter appears to be 1860. Also, dimensions of stationery and Down address used fit a dating of 1860. Finally, CD was studying gestation of dogs for the first time in June, 1860; see CD to Charles Lyell, June 1, 1860, above.

219. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 June] 20th [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 155-56 (letter 106). p. 155, line 8, change "surely we" to "surely as we".

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.

220. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860 June] 25th [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p. (enclosures wanting)B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 155n. At beginning of letter is: encloses authentic arrowheads, with note describing location of discovery, which were sent to CD by Mrs. Moir, mother-in-law of Col. Erskine.1 line 4, questionable word is definitely "record". At end of letter is: because of bad stomach, will give up, reluctantly, his plans to attend [B.A.A.S. meeting at] Oxford [June 27-July 4]; will leave Thursday [June 28] for one week of water cure at Dr. [Richard James] Lane's, Sudbrook Park, Richmond, Surrey; will not stay longer because Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter], while better, is still ill; thanks for letter just received; returns unimpressive letter from [John William] Dawson;2 wishes to borrow Dawson's review [of Darwin, Origin (1859)]; on Dawson's letter, it "would be insanity to compare evidence of organic change with geological change, at present, as far as strength of evidence goes. But what inches of elevation on coast of Sweden are to great mountains so are the numerous varieties & endless doubts what to call species & what varieties, to undoubted species. I entirely deny that there is no evidence of change. But time alone will bring naturalists round, when they find that they can explain many facts on such views as mine, & cannot on view of creation."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p. (enclosures wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See CD to Lyell, May 4, 1860, above. 2. For Lyell's comments on Dawson's letter, see Leonard G. Wilson, ed., Sir Charles Lyell's Scientific Journals on the Species Question (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1970), 457-58.

221. To [Charles] LYELL; Sudbrook Park/ Richmond
[1860 July] 5th. Thursday [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p., plus 1p. fragment of AD by Lyell @ 6 x5 Fragment removed + Carroll no. 172B D25.L

Thanks for note; glad Lyell is going to Amiens; while there, please explain high and low dispersion of flint gravel; also glad Lyell to investigate post-glacial period; Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] moved to Hartfield on Tuesday; leaves on Saturday; glad CD did not attempt [B.A.A.S. meeting at] Oxford; "[Thomas Henry] Huxley, [Joseph Dalton] Hooker & J[ohn] Lubbock (as I am pleased to hear) seem to have stuck up for modification of Species like Trojans"; Asa Gray also goes on fighting for CD's theory;1 thinks "we shall in long run conquer"; likes [article by William] Hopkins in Fraser's Magazine,2 but regrets "soul-discussion"; difficulties alone "make a very damaging review"; Lyell's facts convinced CD for first time that hare-rabbits are hybrids; could not confirm this before.3 Enc. is entitled "C. Darwin/ On Species & Creation" and is merely a list of such headings as "Bermuda & Madeira Birds why like Continental--" and "Primrose & cowslip".

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p., plus 1p. fragment of AD by Lyell @ 6 x5 Fragment removed + Carroll no. 172

Other Descriptive Information: 1.?See Historical Records Survey, Division of Professional and Service Projects, Works Projects Administration, Calendar of the Letters of Charles Robert Darwin to Asa Gray (Boston: Historical Records Survey, 1939; reprinted Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1973), 27-28. 2. "Physical Theories of the Phenomena of Life," 61 (1860): 739-52; and 62 (1860): 74-90. 3. See: CD to Lyell, May 18, 1860, above; CD to Lyell, May 22, 1860, above; and Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 105 and 105n.

222. To [Charles] LYELL; Hartfield
[1860] July 30thALS; 10.5 x8.25 2p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 327-28. At beginning of letter is: have been at Hartfield three weeks because Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] is still ill; return home in few days [August 2]; H[enry] Holland saw Etty few days ago, predicted long recovery; has seen no one except [Joseph Dalton] Hooker for hour or two at Kew. p. 327, line 9, add: "considering [Richard] Owen's aid [by the way it seems generally admitted that Huxley smashed Owen at Oxford]1 [CD brackets]; it quizzes me really in capital style". p. 328, line 3, missing name is "Owen". p. 328, line 5, add: "Owen is really wonderfully clever in his malevolence."

General physical description: ALS; 10.5 x8.25 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Reference is to Thomas Henry Huxley at the B.A.A.S. meeting at Oxford from June 27 to July 4, 1860.

223. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] August 11thALS; 10.5 x8.25 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 331-32. At beginning of letter is: thanks for letter; have been home about a week; Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] improving, but anxiety over her has interrupted CD's work. p. 331, line 11, missing name is [Richard] Owen. p. 331, line 14, add: A[sa] Gray "argued capitally" for CD at second discussion [of natural selection] before American Academy [of Arts and Sciences]; Owen sent copy of "one of his Reports, so he does not wish to come to quarrel with me." p. 331, line 20, add: Rudolf Wagner has published in Germany an abstract of [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz, [An] Essay on Classification [London: Longman & Co., 1859] in relation to `Darwin ansichten' and concludes that truth lies between CD and Agassiz, which "will make Agassiz savage"; [Thomas Henry] Huxley says [Karl Ernst Ritter] Von [sic; von] Baer [Edler von Huthorn] "goes a long way with us,...has spoken publicly &...will perhaps publish on subject." p. 331, line 24, add: there is a very good, geological, favorable third article [on natural selection] in London [Quarterly and Holborn] Review, author unknown. p. 332, line 7, add: Mrs. [Frances Harriet Henslow] H[ooker] and baby [Brian Harvey Hodgson Hooker] are at Worthing; latter is ill.

General physical description: ALS; 10.5 x8.25 4p.

224. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Aug 28thALS; 10.5 x8.25 2p.B D25.L

While in London lately, heard that Sir G[eorge] Grey found his wife [Harriet Spencer Grey] in bed with "Capt. Keppell"; saw [Hugh] Falconer, who spoke of "tiny new species of Elephant from Malta"; Asa Gray's review [i.e. part two of "Darwin on the Origin of Species"] in August Atlantic Monthly [6 (1860): 229-39] is excellent, argumentative;1 Gray is "a first rate arguer" who "most completely understands the subject"; CD has been abused in Catholic journal; glad that "Rajah Sir J[ames] Brook" is well again; work going well, today finished dogs;2 still believes dogs descended from "several wild stocks"; sent Athenaeum and Quarterly Review.

General physical description: ALS; 10.5 x8.25 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. For a recent reprint and a full publication history of this review, see Asa Gray, Darwiniana..., ed. A. Hunter Dupree (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1963), 72n and 85-105. 2. Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 15-43.

225. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Sept. 1.ALS; 10.5 x8.25 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 334-37. p. 336, line 22, after "applies", add "perhaps". p. 336, line 29, change "clear" to "close".

General physical description: ALS; 10.5 x8.25 4p.

226. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Sept. 12thALS; 10.5 x8.25 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 339-41. p. 339, line 5, add: "Even if his mind had not been full of [thoughts about his trip to] Syria he could never have conjectured your precise line of thought." p. 340, line 13, add: cannot estimate number of species " `extinguished in a given time' "; passages on pages 168 and 313 [of Darwin, Origin (1859) or (1860)] are not contradictory, because "Mere variability & variability taken advantage of & selected are widely different considerations"; gives example of rudimentary organs; has not been guarded enough in claim that Ammonites became extinct relatively suddenly compared to other families [see Origin, 321-22]; has alluded to much extinction and modification in great intervals between formations; thinks it striking that in southern Chile near Concepcion, there are apparently Tertiary beds with Ammonites and Baculites. p. 341, line 7, add: Darwins go to sea [Eastbourne] in about a week [Sept. 22].1

General physical description: ALS; 10.5 x8.25 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. For Lyell's letters to CD during this period, see Leonard G. Wilson, ed., Sir Charles Lyell's Scientific Journals on the Species Question (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1970), 467-69, 472-77.

227. To [Charles] LYELL; 15 Marine Parade/ Eastbourne
[1860 September] 23d SundayALS; 8.25 x6.5 10p. and 2 sketchesB D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 341-44. p. 341, line 6, add: has sent review by A[sa] Gray;1 as Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. has printed [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz's article,2 will ask its editor [William Jardine] in fairness to reprint Gray at CD's expense and with Gray's name attached; Gray's review good because it gives so much of [Francois Jules] Pictet [de la Rive]; "The Annals, I fear, have very small circulation"; misunderstood Lyell on types; mentions health of Etty [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] and death of the [Thomas Henry] Huxleys's son [Noel Huxley]. p. 342, lines 12 to 14, add in left margin: "[Richard] Owen if he chose to attend to such view could work this out." p. 342, line 20, add: was silent because unsure that there was fossil rodent in Australia, but thought not; as to Australia's especial suitability for marsupials, "I have always thought it a gigantic hallucination of Owen.--not to mention Rodents"; dingo was wild long before South Australian volcanic outburst, and there are many marsupial species in Brazil; also, New Guinea, although humid, is tenanted by marsupials as exclusively as Australia; despite antiquity of dingo (referred to in dog MS3), thinks dingo introduced by man, and if so, this bears on antiquity of man; if dingo existed outside Australia then it is not aboriginal in Australia; [René Primevère] Lesson says same about dog of New Ireland, but Lesson not to be trusted; likes case of tree stump living by natural grafting of roots, wants reference on it; thinks case confined to Coniferae.4 p. 342, line 27, add: [Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz's remark in [Josiah Clark] Nott and [George Robins] Gliddon5 on coincidence of color alone being a fleeting character "does not go for much in his comparison of man & anthropoid apes."

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 10p. and 2 sketches

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See CD to Lyell, August 28, 1860, above. 2. "Prof. Agassiz on the Origin of Species," Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., 6 (1860): 219-32. 3. Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 15-43, in manuscript. 4. See also Leonard G. Wilson, ed., Sir Charles Lyell's Scientific Journals on the Species Question (New Haven; Yale Univ. Press, 1970), 476. 5. Louis Agassiz, "Sketch of the Natural Provinces of the Animal World and Their Relation to the Different Types of Man," in J. C. Nott and G. R. Gliddon, Types of Mankind; Or Ethnological Researches... (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., 1854), lxxv.

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:249210/

228. To [Charles] LYELL; 15 Marine Parade/ Eastbourne
[1860 September] 26th [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 167-69 (letter 112).

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p.

229. To [Charles] LYELL; 15. Marine Parade/ Eastbourne
[1860 September] 28 Friday Evening [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p. (slightly mutilated)B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 345-46. At beginning of letter is: mentions Lyell's letter; extinction of Ammonites is "a most singular fact" despite what Lyell says about great breaks in upper chalk; Lyell may obtain Atlantic Monthly at Trubners. p. 345, line 6, add: "but in very difficult points, &". p. 346, line 2, add: has asked A[sa] Gray where [Karl Ernst Ritter] Von [sic; von] Baer [Edler von Huthorn] makes statement about guinea pig, which is worthless unless there is new evidence about wild parent; denies that aperea of La Plata and southern Brazil is the wild parent stock; guinea pig was domesticated when America was discovered; von Baer has read [Darwin, Origin (1859)] approvingly; would keep [?i.e. breed] hybrid hare-rabbit himself, but still would not have evidence of hybridity of any specimens obtained from France; [Abraham Dee] Bartlett is correct to try to cross wild hare and rabbit, but he should try several races of rabbit.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 8p. (slightly mutilated)

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:190928

230. To [Charles] LYELL; 15 Marine Parade/ Eastbourne
[1860] Oct. 3d [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 11p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 169-72 (letter 113). p. 169, line 1, add: "The Dog MS is safe at Down." p. 171, line 37, add: Lyell's remarks on Ammonites, cuttlefish, and Hippurites are interesting;1 will think about keeping the rabbits; Isidore G[eoffroy] S[ain]t Hilaire, of whom CD has very good opinion, only knows the case second hand; [Richard] Owen "sneers at [Geoffroy Saint Hillaire]; & I daresay he [?] is not [to] be trusted on Homologies";2 do not trust Sclagenweit [i.e. Hermann Rudolf Alfred von Schlagintweit-Sakünlünski and Robert von Schlagintweit] about yaks;3 "there are many reputed species (laying on one side question of fertility) not so distinct as negro & white man."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 11p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Leonard G. Wilson, ed., Sir Charles Lyell's Scientific Journals on the Species Question (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1970), 497. 2. For Geoffroy Saint Hilaire on homologies, see Stauffer, ed., CD's Nat. Selection, 298 and 298n. 3. Hermann and Robert Schlagintweit, "Notes on Some of the Animals of Tibet and India," Rep. Br. Ass. Advmnt Sci., 27 (1857), pt. 2: 106-08. See also Stauffer, ed., CD's Nat. Selection, 438 and 438n.

231. To [Charles] LYELL; 15 Marine Parade/ Eastbourne
[1860 October] 5th Friday [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 172 (letter 114). line 8, change "creative" to "creation". At end of letter is: bats are "washed out of my head"; species in Madeira, collected by Mr. Mason [?], are European; does not remember about Palma specimens, given to [Robert Fisher] Tomes of Welford; did not get Azores species; "I had heard nothing of the sales of `Origin' [i.e. Darwin, Origin] for months, & am much pleased to hear that the sale continues; this surprises me"; has not received second Atnaltic article,1 meant for [Francois Jules] Pictet [de la Rive]; has not received theological dialogue;2 [Hugh] Falconer, who is only man who has facts correct, is critical of Isidore Geoffroy [Saint Hilaire]; will check on St. Helena concerning [? Geoffroy St. Hilaire's] conjecture about number of plants exterminated; St. Helena was woody in late periods; see Darwin, Journal of Researches; is "wasting time shamefully" on Drosera experiments which are "perverse & crooked"; Etty [i.e. Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] is gaining strength; [Heinrich Georg] Bronn has appended chapter of objections at end of translation;3 Miss Ludwig has translated it for CD.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Asa Gray, "Darwin on the Origin of Species [Part II]," Atlantic Monthly, 6 (1860): 229-39. See CD to Lyell, Aug. 28, 1860, above. 2. "Discussion between Two Readers of Darwin's Treatise on the Origin of Species, upon Its Natural Theology," Am. J. Sci. (Silliman's J.), 30 (1860): 226-39. 3. Darwin, Über die Entstehung der Arten... [German Origin], tr. into German by H. G. Bronn (Stuttgart; Schweizerbart'sche Verlag, 1860).

232. To [Charles] LYELL; 15 Marine Parade/ Eastbourne
[1860] Oct 8. [wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p. and 1p. enc. [broadside advertisement for C. R. Bree,Species Not Transmutable,...(London: Groombridge and Sons, 1860)], @ 7.5 x5B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 346-47. p. 347, line 19, add: has written to Down about missing reviews [see preceding letter, above]; believes southeast and southwest corners of Australia were islands, with latter older and more typical; [Joseph Dalton] Hooker has speculated on this in Introduction;1 so have [Joseph Beete] Jukes and CD himself in review2 of [George Robert] Waterhouse's [A Natural History of the] Mammalia [2v. (London: H. Ballière, 1846-1848)]; in Saturday's Athenaeum, Jukes answered capitally Sir [Henry] James's "wild speculations" on change of earth's axis.3 p. 347, line 24, add: Miss L[udwig] says [Heinrich Georg] Bronn is very difficult German [see preceding letter, above]; has not heard of Bovey Coal Plants;4 hopes [Charles James Fox] Bunbury will undertake them and that Bunbury's new position will not interfere with his science; does not know [Charles Robert] Bree, perhaps the son of Rev[eren]d [William Thomas] Bree, "a good miscellaneous observer of habits of all creatures...& Botanist."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 6p. and 1p. enc. [broadside advertisement for C. R. Bree,Species Not Transmutable,...(London: Groombridge and Sons, 1860)], @ 7.5 x5

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See CD to Lyell, Sept. 2, 1859, above, esp. my note 2. 2. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., 19 (1847): 53-56, esp. top of 56. 3. See More Letters, II, 140n. 4. See Life of Lyell, II, 346-47 and 349-50.

233. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Nov. 20ALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p. and 4p. enc.B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes and minor omissions; More Letters, I, 461 (letter 351). At end of this portion is: Lyell's chapters must be difficult but are worth much labor; fears that Lyell's volume on geological history of man [i.e. The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man (London: John Murray, 1863)] "will slip through your fingers"; does not think [Joseph Dalton] Hooker has criticized [Edward] Forbes; H[ewett] C[ottrell] Watson has abused Forbes in Cybele [Britannica; Or, British Plants and Their Geographical Relations, 4v. (London: Longman & Co., 1847-1852), I, 465-72], but it is not well done. Next portion and enclosure printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 349-51. p. 350, after signature, add: Etty [i.e. Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] goes on well, but is weak. p. 350, right column of enclosure, line 3, change "alludes to" to "attacks".

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 4p. and 4p. enc.

234. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Nov. 24th [wmk. 1859]ALS; 4p. @ 8 x5, 2p. @ 8 3/4 x5.5 6p.B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 352, lines 1 to 10. Next portion printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters III, 319-20. At end of this portion is: Etty [i.e. Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield, CD's daughter] goes on well, but doctors say rapid progress is impossible; Drosera and dreadful illness for last six months has made progress on CD's larger book "almost nothing". Next portion printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 352-53, beginning where first portion ended. p. 352, line 4 of this portion, missing name is "[Richard] Owen".

General physical description: ALS; 4p. @ 8 x5, 2p. @ 8 3/4 x5.5 6p.

235. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Nov. 25thALS; 8.25 x6.5 6p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 137-40 (letter 491). p. 139, line 29, change "the great" to "that great [an]".

General physical description: ALS; 8.25 x6.5 6p.

236. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1860] Dec. 4thALS; 8 x6.5 5p.B D25.L

First portion printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 140-41 (letter 492). p. 141, line 10, add: "How far to lump & split species is indeed a hopeless problem. It must in the end, I think, be determined by mere convenience." At end of this portion is: glad to hear that Lyell continues to "stir them up" at Zoolog[ical] Soc[iety of London]. Next portion printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: Life and Letters II, 352n. At end of this portion is: there is an article1 on Darwin, Origin, in Macmillan's Magazine; has not yet read [John] Phillips, [Life on the Earth, Its Origin and Succession (Cambridge: Macmillan and Co., 1860)].

General physical description: ALS; 8 x6.5 5p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Henry Fawcett, "A Popular Exposition of Mr. Darwin on the Origin of Species," 3 (December, 1860): 81-92. For a recent reprinting, see David L. Hull, Darwin and His Critics: The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973), 277-90. See also Life and Letters II, 299.

237. To?; Down (type 2) To: Edward Walford
[Jan-Apr. 1865]ALS; 7.5 x5; 2p.B D25.69

Would be proud to be one of their series [?of photographs of famous persons], but cannot spare time for special trip to London and is not likely to be there on business soon; will call on Mr. Edwards during the summer, when next in London.

General physical description: ALS; 7.5 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Watermark sets lower endpoint for date. Type of Down address employed was last used in 1861, which sets upper endpoint.

238. To Ch[arles] LYELL; no location
[1861] Feb. 2d [end. Febry 3d. 1861; pmk. FE 3/ 61]ALS; 8 x6.5 2p. and env., add. [Sir Ch. Lyell/ 53. Harley St/ London (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Febry 3d. 1861; C. Darwin/ Feb. 1861/ Agassiz &/ Bowen/ (unintelligible word--PTC)]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 359-60. p. 359, line 6, change "the lengths" to "the very absurd lengths". p. 359, line 13, change "[Jean Louis Rodolphe] Agassiz admits" to "Agassiz (foolish man) admits". At end of letter is: "I sent Calcutta Review a couple of days ago."1

General physical description: ALS; 8 x6.5 2p. and env., add. [Sir Ch. Lyell/ 53. Harley St/ London (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Febry 3d. 1861; C. Darwin/ Feb. 1861/ Agassiz &/ Bowen/ (unintelligible word--PTC)]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. [Edward Blyth], "[Review of] On the Origin of Species," Calcutta Review, 35 (1860): 64-88. See also Vorzimmer, Reprint Catalogue, item R.61.

239. To [Philip Lutley] SCLATER; Down (type 2)
[1861] March 4th [end. March 1861; wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 2p., end. [C. Darwin/ March 1861]B D25.S

Is working on skeletons of rabbits; wants from [Zoological] Gardens [of Zoological Society of London] one of the two Russian rabbit bucks donated by CD; will skeletonize it, and does not want skull damaged; has signed Sclater's certificate [for membership] at Royal Soc[iety of London]; would like to see a recent paper on skeleton of hybrid hare-rabbit, if Sclater has spare proof of same.1

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x4 3/4; 2p., end. [C. Darwin/ March 1861]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Probably Edwards Crisp, "On Some Points Relating to the Habits and Anatomy of the Oceanic and of the Freshwater Ducks, and also of the Hare (Lepus timidus) and of the Rabbit (L. cuniculus), in Relation to the Question of Hybridism," Proc. zool. Soc. Lond., 1861: 82-87. Read on February 26, 1861. See also Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 126n.

240. To [Philip Lutley] SCLATER; Down (type 2)
[1861 March] 12th [end. March 1861; wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 2p., end. [C. Darwin/ March 1861]B D25.S

Thanks for rabbit [see previous letter, above]; glad Sclater likes Asa Gray,1 which CD incorrectly thought he himself had sent to Sclater; will soon receive corrected Darwin, Origin [(1861)], which [John] Murray will soon distribute; glad Sclater has "become `heretical' on species"; was not surprised that Sclater was initially opposed to CD; "I cannot...respect anyone who has knowledge & can change his opinion suddenly on such a point"; please publish "a word on our side", as "those opposed write vehemently & those on our side are silent"; day before yesterday, had letter from "a Professor,2 who dares not speak out."

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 2p., end. [C. Darwin/ March 1861]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Probably Gray, Natural Selection not Inconsistent with Natural Theology: A Free Examination of Darwin's Treatise on the Origin of Species, and of Its American Reviewers... (London: Trübner, 1861). See Life and Letters. II, 370-71. For a recent reprint of this three-part review, see Gray, Darwiniana..., ed. A. Hunter Dupree (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 1963), 72-145. 2. Perhaps George Bentham; see Life and Letters. II, 292 and 292n.

241. To [Philip Lutley] SCLATER; Down (type 2)
[1861] March 23d [end. March. 1861; wmk. 1860]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p., end. [C. Darwin/ March. 1861/ about Birds]B D25.S

Thanks for note; had not heard of Sclater's paper at Oxford;1 could one conclude from known distribution of Gallinaceae that probability that a species of genus Gallus is endemic to South America is as low as that of endemic hummingbird from Old World; is it true that no species of Gallus is known in Africa and that probably no Gallus species wandered far from the metropolis of the genus in India and northern Malay Islands; where in Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. is described the Gallus Temminckii of G[eorge] R[obert] Gray?2

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p., end. [C. Darwin/ March. 1861/ about Birds]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. "Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of Recent Terrestrial Vertebrata," Rep. Br. Ass. Advmnt Sci., 30 (1860), pt. 2: 121-22. The B.A.A.S. met at Oxford in 1860. 2. "Notice of Two Examples of the Genus Gallus,"17 (1849): 62-63.

242. To?; Down (type 2)
[?1861]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 1p.B D25.63

Thanks for corr.'s volume on old bones and for compliments.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Apparently the combination of Down address variant used in this letter and a watermark of 1860 is unique to the period mid-1860 to mid-1861.

243. To?; Down (type 2)
[?1861]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 2p., end. [Chas. Darwin F.R.S./ Author of/ `Origin of Species']B D25.206

Always thought corr. had many primroses; sorry for trouble; sends flowers; thanks for information about Oxalis; will repay corr. for Cypripedium and Dionaeas at one time.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 2p., end. [Chas. Darwin F.R.S./ Author of/ `Origin of Species']

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Combination of Down address variant used with watermark provided year.

244. To Charles LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1861] Ap. 12th [end. Apr. 13/ 1861; pmk. AP 13/ 61; wmk. 1859]ALS; 8 x5; 6p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53. Harley St/ London (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Apr. 13/ 1861/ Somme valley beds/ whether preglacial/ Ants in Texas planting]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 364-65.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 6p. and env., add. [Sir Charles Lyell/ 53. Harley St/ London (W.)], end. [C. Darwin/ Apr. 13/ 1861/ Somme valley beds/ whether preglacial/ Ants in Texas planting]

245. To [Philip Lutley] SCLATER; Down (type 2)
[1861 April] 21. [end. April 1861; wmk. 1859]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p. and end. [5642/ C. Darwin/ April 1861/ on Birds of/ S. America]B D25.S

Enjoyed talk with Sclater; as Sclater is working at birds of S[outh] America, check CD's reference to three species of Opetiorhynchus in Darwin, Zoolog [y of the Voyage] of the Beagle [(1838-1843), pt. 3], Birds [by John Gould], p. 67, to confirm comments on observed differences in habits of species; do similarly for Scytalopus, p. 74; has made "horrid mistake" on O[rpheus] parvulus [pp. 63-64 and 67], a temporary name for a form of O[petiorhynchus] Patagonicus [p. 67]; Capt[ain C. C.] Abbot confounded O[petiorhynchus] vulgaris and antarcticus, which CD simultaneously observed and recorded to be closely similar except in habits;1Opetiorhynchus [Patagonicus, pp. 67-68] from Chiloe seems to be a case of intermediate variety.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 3p. and end. [5642/ C. Darwin/ April 1861/ on Birds of/ S. America]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Abbot, "Notes on the Birds of the Falkland Islands," Ibis, 3 (1861): 149-67; and Darwin, Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle (1838-1843), Pt. 3: Birds, by John Gould, 66-68 and 149-50. The Abbot article is incorrectly attributed to the American, Charles Conrad Abbot, in Cat. scient. Pap., 1, 3.

246. To [Philip Lutley] SCLATER; Down (type 4)
[1861] May 4th [end. May 1861]ALS; 8 x5; 5p., end. [C. Darwin/ May 1861]B D25.S

Thanks for note with offer to insert in Ibis a notice by CD on habitats of Falkland birds; cannot write such notice, since CD's catalogs and notes prepared on the spot refer only to specimen number, not genus and species; wrote to [George Robert] Gray and [John] Gould, but could not find original specimen, as specimens [from Beagle voyage] were given to Zoological Society [of London] and distributed; "A false habitat is a positive mischief, worse than a species not appearing in a list", so after "careful work" by Capt[ain C. C.] Abbott [sic; Abbot], better to consider the two names errors than to give them without evidence; received letter from [Robert] Swinhoe announcing delivery to Sclater of a new rock pigeon and a wild Anser cygnoides, but CD must check these claims when next in London; perhaps pigeon is Himalayan rock pigeon.1

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 5p., end. [C. Darwin/ May 1861]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. For more on this letter, see the preceding letter above, and Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 237.

247. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON: Down (type 4)
[?1861]ALS; 8 x5; 2p.B EY83

Has received skeletons; needs name for untagged domestic cock in longest of four boxes received; is the "`Gungla' cock" a specimen of G[allus] bankiva or G[allus] Sonneratii;2 other boxes contain the Hamburg and the call duck; is ill.3

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 2p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD studied the osteology of fowls and ducks in May, 1861; see "Darwin's Journal," 15. 2. "Gungla" may be a derivative of the Indian (hindu) "gunga", or "market". 3. See Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 260-70.

248. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 4)
[?1861]ALS; 8 x5; 5p.B EY83

Thanks for prompt reply; without doubt, the [untagged] skeleton was duckwing game and the wild Gallus [i.e. the Gungla cock] was G[allus] bankiva, since every bone agrees; has two skeletons of Dorking, so send neither one of these nor G[allus] varius; do not send mounted skeletons; has examined 25 skeletons and about 55 skulls; skulls show only "differences characteristic of the breeds", but other bones show "much fluctuating variability"; thinks skeletons of various species of the same restricted genus or sub-genus differ only slightly; wants to quote Eyton's view that, in allied species, while there are plain differences in some parts of skeleton besides head, bones in wings and legs of all breeds are similar in configuration but not in length and thickness; will keep duck specimen [i.e. call duok; see previous letter] until CD gets to ducks in "a few weeks"; do birds with large topknot, such as curassows, have [skull] protuberances to support the topknot?2

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 5p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. CD worked upon fowls and ducks in May, 1861, finishing ducks on May 31; see "Darwin's Journal," 15. 2. For more on this matter, see: preceding letter; and Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 260-70, and II, 332-33.

249. To [Thomas Campbell] EYTON; Down (type 4)
[?1861]ALS; 8 x5; 3p.B EY83

Thanks for invitation to London and to [town of] Eyton; wanted to visit London for two reasons, but is too ill; if ever visiting Shrewsbury again, will visit Eyton; answer briefly whether skeletons, except skulls, of birds of same restricted genus "do not generally very closely resemble each other", whether wing and leg bones are "generally very constant in form", and "whether in largely crested Gallinaceae the skull is protuberant to support the crest."

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This letter clearly follows shortly after the preceding letter, above.

250. To James HUNT; Down (type 4)
[1861] May 28th [pmk. MY28/ 61]ALS; 8 x5, 2p. and env., add. [James Hunt Esqr/ Hon. Sec. Ethnological Socy/ 4 St. Martins Place [London (W.C.)], end. [Darwin's/ Envelope]B D25.33

Thanks to president and council of Ethnological Society for electing CD an honorary fellow; thanks for gift of first volume of Society's Transactions; thanks personally to Hunt for kind words in letter.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5, 2p. and env., add. [James Hunt Esqr/ Hon. Sec. Ethnological Socy/ 4 St. Martins Place [London (W.C.)], end. [Darwin's/ Envelope]

251. To?; Down (type 4)
1861 June 1stALS; 8 x5; 6p.B D25.19

Will value information, but do not hurry with it; unclear whether corr. is thinking of "a general course of scientific experiments in crossing or only in relation to Hollyhocks"; there is open field for "research in regard to crossing varieties which have been greatly neglected under a scientific point of view, though largely & loosely practised by gardeners. Species on the other [hand] have been largely experimented on. As you have lived so much abroad, German is probably quite familiar to you (I wish it were to me) & I would most strongly advise you to get [Karl Friedrich von] Gärtner [']s admirable `Versuche ueber die Bastardzeugung, 1849'1 & study it"; suggests in minute detail some crossing experiments with differently-colored hollyhocks which breed true; experiment outlined by CD would be "very interesting on account of a wonderful statement on this head by Gärtner with respect to crossing white & yellow Verbascum"; would suggest further experiments with Pelargonium, but must not run on.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Versuche und Beobachtungen über die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreich (Stuttgart: K.F. Hering, 1849).

252. To [Philip Lutley] SCLATER; Down (type 4)
[1861] June 2d [end. June 1861]ALS; 8 x5; 3p. and end. [5376/ C. Darwin/June 1861/abt Rabbits]B D25.S

Has sent two rabbits from P[orto] Santo to the [Zoological] Gardens [of the Zoological Society of London] for temporary safekeeping; if they are like one brought by [Thomas Vernon] Wollaston in spirits, then they are curiosities, having been feral for 450 years and springing from one doe brought [to island] by [Joâo Gonçalvez] Zarco; specimen CD examined differed from common rabbit in skull, shape of dorsal vertebrae, in size greatly, in coloring, in color of upper part of tail, and in ears not being edged in black; thinks this may be "a new species!!"; must get rid of rabbits because whole household leaves for a two month stay at Torquay, probably beginning the 10th, because of illness of daughter [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield]; care for rabbits, interbreed them or cross them with other rabbits, and find out what [Abraham Dee] Bartlett [superintendent of Gardens] thinks of them; if one or both die while CD is away, send fresh carcasses to CD in Torquay.1

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p. and end. [5376/ C. Darwin/June 1861/abt Rabbits]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. For more on the rabbits, see Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868), I, 112-15. The visit to Torquay lasted from July 1 to August 27; see "Darwin's Journal," 15.

253. From Rich[ar]d OWEN; British Museum
1861 June 12ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p. (enclosure wanting)B OW2.14

Enclosed proof of note which CD will insert in his forthcoming " `Reply' " is "a correct statement of the relations of the passage I have printed on the use & meaning of the term `Creation', as used by Naturalists in some of their discussions, to the partial quotation from it in Prof. Baden Powell's Essay."

General physical description: ALS; 7.25 x4.5 2p. (enclosure wanting)

254. To [Rev. B. S. MALDEN of Canterbury]2; Down (type 4)
[1861]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.81

Thanks for orchids; felt "boyish delight" at H[abenaria] viridis, but it is not a Habenaria; has now seen "every British Orchid...except the Lizard [Orchis hircina]", which CD hopes to get from corr. or from [G. Chichester] Oxenden; will begin soon to write paper [i.e. Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862)]; glad to see Aceras specimens, but they did not have the monstrous flowers; five of six specimens from Oxenden had such flowers; old specimen of O[rchis] fusca, like Oxenden's specimens, showed infertility caused by infrequency of insect visits; [in left margin--PTC] look for monstrous flowers on Aceras; [in right margin--PTC] monstrous flowers illustrate structure of Habenaria; knows "little of Botany", but thinks unspotted purple orchids with hollow stems are O[rchis] latifolia (which CD once saw) and white ones are O[rchis] maculata; glad to see state of pollen masses on corr.'s Canterbury Fly Ophrys [i.e. Ophry muscifera]; look at pollen masses on Bee O[phrys, i.e. Ophrys apifera] and especially on its variety, [Ophrys] arachnites, to see if the masses are either removed or simply fallen on own stigmas in oldish flowers; return slip from G[ardeners'] Chronicle; "June 16th P.S.", thanks for note; part about Lizard shall be kept private; thought O[rchis] militaris was same as O[rchis] fusca.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This year is written in an ink similar to that used by CD, but is apparently not in CD's hand. 2. See Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862), 43 and 78. Malden is the only person acknowledged by Darwin to have provided specimens of the Frog Orchis (i.e. Peristylus viridis or Habenaria viridis).

255. To [?F. SMITH, of the British Museum]2; Down (type 4)
[1861]ALS; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.231

Pollen masses attached to [specimen of] Bombus hortorum [i.e. common bumblebee] are not from British orchid, but are from an exotic orchid of the group Epidendreae; suspects bee was caught near a hothouse; fears that corr. does not have "one of the sand-wasps with pollen-masses attached [?which you] alluded to [sic]", otherwise CD would have liked to have seen it; could easily ascertain whether the [leaf?] on the S[outh] American wasp was pollen; supposes insects in corr.'s own collection do not have pollen masses attached; ask Mr. Walker [?about pollen on his insects].

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year determined from variant of Down address used, day of "Wednesday" for June 19, and information in Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862), 164. 2. Correspondent is probably either Smith or Sir W. C. Trevelyan; see Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862), 164 and in index under "Smith, Mr. F". Smith was selected because CD's mention of corr.'s own collection implies that bumblebee specimen (which was Trevelyan's) did not belong to corr.

256. To Dr. BULLEN; Down (type 4)
[?1861]AL in third person; 8 x5; 1p.B D25.38

Thanks for sending "the orchid flowers with Diptera"; CD and a son of CD have just "made out" that "Orchis maculata is fertilised by the aid of Diptera."

General physical description: AL in third person; 8 x5; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. June, 1861, was the beginning of CD's work on orchids; see "Darwin's Journal," 15.

257. To?; 2. Hesketh Crescent/ Torquay
[1861]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.B D25.121

Cannot answer corr.'s questions; began to examine living corals nearly 30 years ago, but other pursuits have interfered and CD had forgotten what he knew; had studied "the effects of tranquil & disturbed water on their growth", but forgets his conclusions on this issue; thinks nearly all species were distinct; remembers having thought that classification of stony corals would be difficult; places "much trust" in [James Dwight] Dana, whose health has failed, regrettably.

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year determined by Torquay address; see "Darwin's Journal," 15 and 15n.

258. To [Charles] LYELL; 2. Hesketh Crescent/ Torquay
[1861]ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: Life and Letters II, 376. line 4, add: was "pleased, considering how many have attacked me on `Induction' &c. to hear...from...H[enry] Fawcett, that...J[ohn] Mill `...considers that your [i.e. CD's] reasoning throughout [Darwin, Origin (1859)] is in the most exact accordance with the strict principles of logic. He also says the method of investigation followed is the only one proper to such a subject.' Considering how high an authority he is, this pleases me much, & I think you will be pleased";2 Etty [i.e. Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield] has improved a little. At end of letter is: is writing long paper [i.e. Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862)] on fertilisation of orchids; "I almost wish I could have been completely idle here"; heaven knows when Darwin, Variation under Domestication (1868) will be done; regards to wife [Mary Elizabeth Horner Lyell].

General physical description: ALS; 7 3/4 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year determined by Torquay address; see "Darwin's Journal," 15. 2. See More Letters, I, 189-90 (letter 129). Cf. David L. Hull, Darwin and His Critics: The Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1973), 27-28.

259. To [Charles] LYELL; 2. Hesketh Crescent. Torquay
[1861 (?August 1)]ALS; 8 x6.25 6p.B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 190-92 (letter 130). At beginning of letter is: Emma [Wedgwood Darwin] and Etty [i.e. Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield] are touring, has forwarded [Mary Elizabeth Horner] Lyell's letter "with the sad account of [the death of Frances Elizabeth Appleton] Longfellow;2 is surprised at Dutch translation [of Darwin, Origin],3 which should be left at Q[ueen] Anne St. p. 190, line 11, change "at in my orchids is" to "at, viz. Orchids, is". p. 192, line 18, add: William [Erasmus Darwin] will join Mr. [?Edmund Gibson] Atherley's Bank, needs a good introduction to Southampton from Lyell. At end of letter is: regards to Lyell's [traveling] party.4

General physical description: ALS; 8 x6.25 6p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year determined by Torquay address; see "Darwin's Journal," 15. Month and day presumed from date of "2 Augt 1861" written in pencil in contemporary hand (not CD's) on manuscript. 2. See DAB, XI, 383. 3. This translation is not listed in Freeman, but see Life and Letters II, 357. 4. See Life of Lyell, II, 347.

260. To [Charles] LYELL; 2. Hesketh Crescent/ Torquay
[1861 August]ALS; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 192-93 (letter 131).

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Reasoning for date same as for preceding letter; date written in pencil is "August/ 1861."

261. To [Charles] LYELL; 2. Hesketh Crescent/ Torquay
[1861] Aug 21 [end. 1861; pmk. AU21/ 61]ALS; 8 x6.5 8p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ returning M.S. on/ Sicily newer than species/ inhabiting it./ & on deification of Natural/ Selection./ 1861]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, I, 193-94 (letter 132). At beginning of letter is: returns home [to Down] Monday 26th;1 knows page well, has quoted it; approved of note appended by Lyell; sentence only needs "trifling modification"; "adaptation of species [which allows them] to travel widely over existing continents, will necessarily adapt them for occasional still wider transportation to new lands. I have used in Origin this argument to account for very wide range of F[resh] Water productions."2 At end of letter is: sentence at p. 3 reads roughly.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x6.5 8p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ returning M.S. on/ Sicily newer than species/ inhabiting it./ & on deification of Natural/ Selection./ 1861]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Actual return occurred on August 27; see "Darwin's Journal," 15. 2. See Darwin, Origin (1859), 383-88.

262. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1861]ALS; 8 x5; 1p. (enclosure wanting)B D25.166

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 188 (letter 524).

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 1p. (enclosure wanting)

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year written on manuscript in pencil in unknown hand, but appears correct from context of letter.

263. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 4)
[1861]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.L

Thanks for interesting long letter; has no suggestions on subjects "gone out of my head"; dislikes [argument concerning] absence of organic remains"; there were [no organic remains] in Patagonia or T[ierra] del Fuego where shells were present, but from what CD has read of Greenland, suspects what Lyell now admits and [Robert] Chambers urges; is abundance of swimming animals any guide to shells, etc., living at bottom; [such] animals cannot live "where icebergs are habitually grounded"; see Darwin, ["On the Distribution of the Erratic Boulders and on the Contemporaneous Unstratified Deposits of South America,"] Trans. geol. Soc. Lond., 6 [(1842): 180-88, at] 186; sorry Lyell must "alter & modify [his published treatment of]...this great subject"; admires Lyell's industry.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year written on manuscript in pencil in unknown hand, appears contemporary.

264. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 4)
[1861 Sept. 15]ALS; 8 x5; 5p., end.? [Sept. 15]B D25.L

Thanks for interesting correspondence; [Thomas Francis] Jamieson is "a capital man"; has been performing experiments on Dionaea; Lyell is discussing a "grand subject", but CD cannot help with it; lake theory can account for absence of deltas on Lochaber shelves; submergence of 1,200 feet in Perthshire since glaciation is striking evidence concerning Glen Roy; has been looking at his [CD's] Glen Roy paper,2 gives final arguments in favor of elevation and subsidence theory to explain Glen Roy; "But I suppose ice-lakes must be true cause"; disagrees with Lyell's claim in former letter that great glaciers in Scotland caused by great loftiness; glacial phenomena great in extent and prevalence [during ice age]; seems safest to assume great glacial period to be simultaneous until shown otherwise.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 5p., end.? [Sept. 15]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Month and day appear to be an endorsement by Lyell. Year is written in pencil on manuscript in an unknown hand and appears correct from context of letter. 2. "Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy,..." Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 129 (1839): 39-81.

265. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 2)
[1861] Sept. 22d [end. Septr 1861]ALS; 8 x6.5 5p. and end. [Darwin 81a/ Glen Roy/ Septr 1861]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes and minor omissions: More Letters, II, 188-89 (letter 525). p. 189, line 6, change "found" to "formed". p. 189, line 14, change "alluded" to "attended".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x6.5 5p. and end. [Darwin 81a/ Glen Roy/ Septr 1861]

266. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 4)
[1861] Oct 1st [end. 1st. Oct 1861]ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ answer to/ Jamieson on/ Glen Roy/ 1st. Oct 1861]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 190-91 (letter 527).

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ answer to/ Jamieson on/ Glen Roy/ 1st. Oct 1861]

Access digital object:
https://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text:171329

267. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 4)
[1861] Oct 14th [end. 1861]ALS; 8 x5; 5p. and end. [(88)/ Darwin 1861/ on Jamieson revisit/ to Glen Roy]B D25.L

Printed in full, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 191-92 (letter 528). p. 191, line 15, change "Friesland" to "Finland".

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 5p. and end. [(88)/ Darwin 1861/ on Jamieson revisit/ to Glen Roy]

268. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 4)
[1861] Oct. 20th [end. Oct. 24. 1861.]ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ Oct. 24. 1861./ Glen Roy glaciers/ & ice-dams/ "land straits"]B D25.L

Printed, with minor changes: More Letters, II, 192 (letter 529). At end of letter is: has been working hard at orchids; "The subject is, I fear, too complex for the Public & I fear I have made a great mistake in not keeping to my first intention of sending it to Linnean Soc[iet]y; but it is now too late, & I must make the best of a bad job."1

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p. and fragment of env., end. [C. Darwin/ Oct. 24. 1861./ Glen Roy glaciers/ & ice-dams/ "land straits"]

Other Descriptive Information: 1. See Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862). CD originally planned to write only a long essay on orchids, not a book.

269. To [Charles] LYELL; Down (type 4)2
[1861 October]ALS; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.L

Has been dissecting; returns note; supposes that all believe Lyell's view that "water flowed out at head of valley where the lakes existed"; Glen Roy's " `intermediate shelf' " seemed like a plain shelf to CD, although [Thomas Francis] J[amieson] disagrees; intermediate shelf has been seen by everyone who visited Glen Roy; there is no outlet at this shelf, but [David] Milne[-Home] says there may be; valley should be searched for such outlets; "A man might spend his life there"; hopes J[amieson] will return to Glen Roy; "it is an opprobrium to British Geologists, that it shd. not be settled beyond dispute"; is disturbed by sloping, stratified, deposited detritus at all levels "by opening on a lake or arm of sea"; terminal moraine at mouth of Spean seems better than ice; "But if it were the sea, I cannot help a sneaking hope that the sea might have formed the horizontal shelves.--"3

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Year and month written on manuscript in pencil in unknown hand, appears contemporary and correct, according to context. 2. Although written on stationery bearing the Down (type 4) letterhead, the page of the paper with this letterhead printed upon it is at the end of the letter; first page of manuscript text is headed simply "Down", in CD's hand. 3. See also: Darwin, "Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy,..." Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 129 (1839): 39-81; More Letters, II, 171-93; Life and Letters I, 361-64; and Jamieson, "On the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy, and Their Place in the History of the Glacial Period," Q. Jl geol. Soc. Lond., 19 (1863): 235-59.

270. To Madam [?Lady Dorothy Fanny Walpole NEVILL]2; Down (type 4)
[?1861]ALS; 8 x5; 4p.B D25.132

Dr. [John] Lindley has suggested corr. to CD as source of orchids; is preparing "small work" on orchids [i.e. Fertilisation of Orchids (1862)]; send two or three flowers of "any member of the great Tribe of Arethuseae," including "Limodoridae, Vanillidae &c.", especially "Mormodes & Cycnoches"; expects difficulty in shipping of delicate pollen masses; also wants Bonatea, Masdevillia, and "any Bolbophyllum with its lower lip or Labellum irritable"; wants "any genus with any remarkable peculiarity"; send large parcels to " `C. Darwin care of the Down Postman Bromley Kent' "; gives packing instructions.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This was the only November during which CD was preparing a "small work" on orchids; see "Darwin's Journal," 15. 2. Nevill was the only woman (note the "madam") acknowledged by CD in the orchid book; see Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862), 158n. The letter refers to the corr. as "your Ladyship"; Nevill was the daughter of an Earl and the wife of another relative of a peer.

271. To?; Down (type 4)
[ca. 1861-1869]ALS; 8 x5; 1p.B D25.98

Thanks for proofs; cannot form any judgment, but corr.'s view is ingenious; if accepted, it will be great step in knowledge of glacier movement.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 1p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used.

272. To [Peter Martin DUNCAN]; Down (type 4)
[ca. 1861-1869]LS; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.77

C[harles] Lyell says corr. pleased to receive coral specimens from Keeling Islands; will send some via Geolog[ical] Soc[iety of London]; once had more; habitat and station for each specimen is given; collected all but one specimen himself; has a few notes about soft parts of corals.

General physical description: LS; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used.

273. To?; Down (type 4)
[ca. 1861-1869]ALS; 8 x5; 3p.B D25.150

Thanks for note and specimens; subject is worthy of a paper; hopes corr. has kept CD's queries; glad to hear about number of moults, but color is chief interest; tell briefly of differences of plumage of male, female, and young in two or three breeds, so CD can judge how far to pursue subject; Pile Game [a fighting fowl] would be good case; wants from breeders information of proportions of sexes of ducks and fowls; when at Manchester, find age of peacock when topknot appears; sorry corr. is ill.

General physical description: ALS; 8 x5; 3p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. Years determined by Down address variant used.

274. From Cha[rles] LYELL; no location
[1862 March]ALS; 7 x4.5 4p.B D25.L

Has the shingles; thanks for letter; envies CD's being almost done [with Darwin, Fertilisation of Orchids (1862)]; is working with printer himself; has been thinking about Glen Roy, needs CD's explanation; height of cols determines levels of [Glen Roy] shelves, not the variable heights of ice blockages; sees how ice dam caused lowest shelves in Glen Roy and Glen Spean, then another ice dam in Glen Roy raised waters even higher, but does not know how two ice blockages in one glen can cause two shelves, since lower would be destroyed when new ice blockage arrived, and since disappearance of old blockage before new blockage arrived would leave lower, formerly blocked col open for drainage; marine theory avoids this because top shelf is made first; return this note with answer, so Lyell can send it to [Thomas Francis] Jamieson; CD's brother [Erasmus Alvey Darwin] told of illness of CD's child [Henrietta Emma Darwin Litchfield].

General physical description: ALS; 7 x4.5 4p.

Other Descriptive Information: 1. This is clearly the letter which prompted the reply which follows below.

275. To [Charles] LYELL; Down
[1862] April 1stALS; 8 x6.5 3p.B D25.L