Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection

Mss.B.B284d

Date: 1783-1817 | Size: 10 Linear feet

Abstract

A physician, natural historian, and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815) was one of the central figures in Philadelphia's early national scientific establishment. Having received his medical training in European universities, Barton was appointed Professor at the University of Pennsylvania in 1789, lecturing on botany, materia medica, natural history. A prolific author, he established his reputation as one of the nation's preeminent botanists through his botanical text book The Elements of Botany (1803), but his contribtions to zoology, ethnology, and medicine were equally noteworthy. Barton's monograph on the "fascinating faculty" of the rattlesnake and his efforts in historical linguistics (New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America, 1798) were widely read, and his Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal (1804-1809) was one of the nation's first medical journals and an important outlet for natural historical research.

The Barton Papers offer a comprehensive view of the professional work of Benjamin Smith Barton from the time of his return to the United States in 1789 until his death. The collection is divided into five series: Correspondence, Subject Files, Bound Volumes, Graphic Materials, and Printing Plates. The collection includes a particularly valuable series of botanical, medical, and natural historical drawings collected by Barton for research, reference, and publication. Among the many artists represented are William Bartram, Frederick Pursh, Pierre Turpin, and Benjamin Henry Latrobe.

Background note

By the time of his death at age 49, Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815) had become one of the best known citizens in the city of Philadelphia, one of the leaders in American medical education, and one of the more controversial figures in American natural history.

Although it is clear, as he maintained, that Barton received training in medicine at elite European universities, the details of his medical education are at best murky. In 1786, Barton entered Edinburgh University under the recommendation of his mentors in Philadelphia, including Benjamin Rush. Ingratiating himself personally and distinguishing himself professionally, Barton joined both the Edinburgh Natural History Society and the Royal Medical Society, receiving the latter's Harveian Prize for his work on Hyosciannus niger, the black henbane. Such early signs of success, however, soon turned sour. By the winter of 1788, Barton withdrew from Edinburgh, claiming that he had been neglected by his professors, although it is equally plausible that he had worn out his welcome through his penchant for borrowing, and not readily repaying, money from colleagues, and perhaps from the Royal Medical Society.

Whatever the cause of Barton's departure from Edinburgh, depart he did, winding up in either the Netherlands or Germany by the fall of 1788 with no medical degree in hand. Later in life, Barton claimed to have taken a degree at the prestigious University of Göttingen, and when he was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in January 1789, he was listed as Benjamin Smith Barton, M.D. However Göttingen has no record of granting a degree to Barton, and the timing makes it unlikely that he did: Barton returned to America during the fall of 1789 to become Professor of Botany at the College of Philadelphia. He received an M.D. from the University of Kiel in 1796.

In Philadelphia, Barton rapidly established a reputation as one of the preeminent botanists in the nation. His interest in systematic botany, materia medica, and Native American uses of plants blossomed into his best known and most popular work, The Elements of Botany; or, Outlines of the Natural History of Vegetables (Philadelphia, 1803), the first American botanical textbook. Impressed with the broad range of scholarship in the book, Thomas Jefferson asked Barton to assist Meriwether Lewis in his scientific preparation for the Corps of Discovery, and after Lewis' untimely death in 1809, Barton assisted in analyzing the natural historical results of the expedition. He was frequently engaged as a public lecturer on scientific topics during the first decade and a half of the 19th century.

From his days at Edinburgh, Barton's interests were never strictly confined to botany nor contained within the walls of the academy. Throughout his tenure at the College of Philadelphia, he offered public lectures on all aspects of natural history, tailoring some to a specifically female audience. His research was both creative and original, reflecting an advanced understanding of the current state of Anglo-American scholarship. His brilliant Memoir Concerning the Fascinating Faculty Which Has been Ascribed to the Rattle-Snake (Philadelphia, 1796), for example, was an examination of the reputed power of rattlesnakes to fascinate their prey, and as such touched not only upon anatomy and zoology, but upon the nature of perception and the relation of body and mind. He turned his attention, as well to the mastodon, chemistry, mineralogy, meteorology, and electricity.

Most famously, Barton followed his mentor Benjamin Rush in becoming an important early national theorist of race, and became consumed by his research into the culture, history, archaeology, and biology of American Indians. His Hints on the Etymology of Certain English Words and on Their Affinity to Words in the Languages of Different European, Asiatic and American (Indian) Nations, in a Letter... to Thomas Beddoes (Philadelphia, 1803) was an early effort in comparative linguistics that drew comparisons between American Indian languages and Welsh, and his New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America (Philadelphia, 1798) was well received.

Even as his scientific and academic reputations burgeoned, Barton maintained an active medical practice as a member of the staff of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Perhaps his major contribution to medicine was as editor of the Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal (1804-1809), one of the nation's earliest medical journals and an important source for scholarly work in natural history.

Barton drew accolades for his work, beginning with his election to the American Philosophical Society in 1789 (vice president, 1802-1815). He was also inducted as a member of the Linnaean Society of London, the Swedish Royal Academy of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Philadelphia Linnaean Society (president, 1806), and the Philadelphia Medical Society. He died from tuberculosis in New York City in 1815, leaving behind his wife of 18 years, Mary Penington.

Scope and content

A rich resource for the study of American natural history during the early national period, the Benjamin Smith Barton Papers contain approximately ten linear feet of correspondence, notes, diaries, essays and lectures. The collection is organized broadly into five series: I. correspondence; II. Subject files; III. Bound volumes; IV. Graphic Materials; and V. Printing Plates.

The Barton Papers document the professional interests of the botanist and physician Benjamin Smith Barton from the time of his return from Europe in 1789 until his death in 1815. Series I consists of incoming and outgoing correspondence arranged alphabetically. Series II is comprised of notes and manuscripts by Barton or collected by Barton relating to his research in Botany, Indians, Medicine, and Miscellaneous other subjects. The series is arranged by topic. Series III is made up of 32 bound volumes of manuscript notes on various scientific topics, including a commonplace book, generation, fevers, mineralogy, and journals of trips taken by Barton to New York state, Virginia, and Pennsylvania.

Although Series IV contains a number of works attributed to Barton himself, the majority consists of illustration of botanical, medical, and natural historical illustrations collected or commissioned by Barton from other artists. The bulk are botanical illustrations used by Barton in his publications or for reference, including numerous pen and ink and watercolor sketches by William Bartram, Pierre Turpin, Frederick Pursh, and Benjamin Henry Latrobe. Among the Pursh illustrations are several that depict plants collected by Lewis and Clark, while the Bartram illustrations include the portrait of Mico-Chlucco, King of the Muscogulges (used as a frontispiece to Bartram's Travels), his drawing of Arethusa divaricata with a view of Philadelphia from Bartam's Garden in the background, and his figurative map of the Great Alachua Savana in Florida. Series VI includes a number of printing plates used in Barton's publications and elsewhere, some based on the original artwork in Series V.

The series are:

Series I. Correspondence 1783-18176 boxes; 3.00 linear feet
Series II. Subject files, ca. 1789-1815 1783-18177 boxes; 3.25 linear feet
Series III. Bound volumes 1790-182632 items; 2 linear feet
Series IV. Graphic materials 1773-ca.18150.75 linear feet
Series V. Printing Platesn.d.42 items; 0.5 linear feet

Digital objects note

This collection contains digital materials that are available in the APS Digital Library. Links to these materials are provided with context in the inventory of this finding aid. A general listing of digital objects may also be found here.

Collection Information

Provenance

Acquired, 1970.

Preferred citation

Cite as: Benjamin Smith Barton Papers, American Philosophical Society.

Alternate formats available

Images of most sketches are available for purchase by contacting the Manuscripts Department.

Related material

The Boston Public Library contains an important collection of the papers of Benjamin Smith Barton.

Bibliography

The Printed Materials Department of the APS Library contains the majority of Barton's publications, including the following:

Whitfield J. Bell, "Benjamin Smith Barton, M.D. (Kiel)," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 26 (1971), 197-203.

Early American History Note

The extensive Benjamin Smith Barton collection contains six sections: Correspondence, Bound Volumes (including notebooks), Subject Files, and Graphic Materials. The material includes numerous images, sketches, notes, printed material, and other correspondence. The collection also has numerous copper plates that were used to print images drawn by Barton. Although a collection this large touches on a variety of interesting and important subjects, the collection's strength is its wealth of data on nineteenth century medical, botanical, and Native American studies.

Correspondence: Barton's correspondence, which consists of seven boxes, has a wide range of correspondents and subject matter. The letter writers reflect Barton's international network of contacts with letters coming from Europe – often from scientists and doctors – as well as from Americans. Much of this correspondence comes after Barton was a professor at Penn and dates to the early nineteenth century.

The majority of the letters discuss medical topics, but as Barton's own career and activities demonstrate, the boundaries between science and medicine were often indistinct, as they are today. Topics of letters include zoology, botany, natural history, Native American studies, and drafts of and reactions to Barton's published writings.

The preponderance of content is medical in nature, however. And of that, a significant amount deals with discussion of diseases and attempts to treat illness. Many of the letters are from people beyond Philadelphia relaying information about outbreaks of disease or medical oddities. These accounts often also detail the attempts individuals and communities took to treat such outbreaks and afflictions. Because of Barton's interest in the intertwined fields of botany and materia medica, there are letters that relate folk and herbal remedies for various medical conditions.

These medical letters offer insight into the way information and knowledge circulated in the early America. Barton regularly received letters from both established doctors throughout America relaying their findings and common people who relayed their local customs for treating illness.

That being said, because the collection is so large, the amount of material that relates to topics other than medicine is still significant. Botany and horticulture are prominent topics of discussion. A minor but significant portion of letters discusses Native Americans, their history, and their customs. Barton had cultivated a number of correspondents throughout America who wrote to him about Native Americans. These letters can provide insight into the Native American experience in the nineteenth century as well as Euro-American perceptions and ideas about them. Additionally, because of his medical background, letter writers occasionally relay Native American treatments for disease.

Barton was particularly interested in the pre-Colombian history of Native Americans. He studied their linguistics to try to locate their origins, arguing that they came to North America from Asia. He also collected and reported on a variety of pre-Colombian Indian settlements in North, Central, and South America. His network of contacts in Latin America introduced him to new information that led him to embrace the idea that some Native groups deployed sophisticated astronomical techniques.

Most of the Native American records in the Barton Collection can be found in the Native American section of the collection, not in the Correspondence. For the correspondence that does discuss Native Americans, see the letters of Barton, Nathaniel Massie, Alexander McGillvray, Christopher Miller, George Morgan, Thomas Pennant … [need to check boxes 1-3]

As with any collection this large, the correspondence touches on a variety of other matters. Some letters touch either directly or indirectly upon political events happening in the early national period. A notebook on Barton's thoughts and experiments with electricity is included in this section. A small amount of family correspondence and genealogical information can also be found in the Correspondence section of the collection. There are some engravings and sketches in the Correspondence collection as well, although the bulk of the sketches are in other portions of the collection.

Volumes: The collection contains 32 volumes of notebooks and journals. The notebooks comprise Series III.

The majority of notebooks appear to be lectures Barton gave or notes Barton took on specific subjects that interested him.

There are also a significant number of journals from Barton's travel. Barton kept a detailed journal of a travel though Upstate New York and Canada. There are also journals from trips through Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and a separate trip to New York. Most of his journals describe the geology, geography, and flora and fauna of the area. Some touch on Native American subjects.

Note also that a meteorological diary of William Bartram is included in this collection.

Subject Files: The subject files take up eight boxes sorted by subject matter. The subjects are: Botany, Native American materials, Medical files, and Miscellaneous. A detailed description of all the files can be found in Series II. These differ from the correspondence in that almost all of these documents were written by Barton and were likely for his own private use.

The largest of the subjects is botany, which takes up two boxes. The collection contains Barton's notes and lectures on the subject. There are numerous lists and descriptions of plants. Included in these files is a collection of dried plants from J.H. Lambert dated 1807. The Native American box contains a series of notes relating to Native American culture. The topics range widely and include numerous notes Barton took on a various tribes and places. Included in the section are a few long letters that provide details on Native American history, especially a detailed accounting of known Indian mounds in North America by Henry Brackenridge. The largest section deals with Barton's work on linguistics. There are numerous lists of vocabularies and notes for his published work New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America.

The Miscellaneous collection takes up four boxes. The papers in this section are mostly short notes on a wide variety of subjects. In addition, there are scraps from travel journals, lists of students at the University of Pennsylvania, and a few maps.

Graphic Materials: This section takes up two large boxes. The collection consists of images that were often drawn by Barton. Subject matter includes anatomical drawings, botanical drawings, and drawings of animals. Some are printed; others are sketches by Barton in pencil. A full list of these images can be found here in Series IV. A list of copper plates used to create prints of some of Barton's drawings can be found in Series V.

* Note the APS also has two boxes of Barton papers photocopied from the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. These include other travel journals, some letters, and a commonplace book.

Biographical Note: Benjamin Barton Smith (1766-1815) was a prominent physician and scientist in early America. Barton was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, son to a prominent and well-connected Anglican minister. From an early age, Barton operated within Pennsylvania's scientific elite. David Rittenhouse, a prominent mathematician, astronomer, and engineer, was his uncle and took him on an important surveying mission in western Pennsylvania in 1784. The trip began Barton's long fascination with Native American culture.

In 1785, Barton left for Europe to continue his studies in medicine. He received medical education in schools throughout Europe, first in Scotland, then in Germany, and also possibly in Portugal. Although there is some uncertainty on where and when he received his medical degree, he eventually returned to America in 1789 and worked as a doctor and scientist in Philadelphia. He received an appointment as professor at the medical school at the University of Pennsylvania where he lectured on a wide range of subjects, including botany, natural history, and materia medica, which is today considered pharmacology. He published an important textbook titled Elements of Botany; or, Outlines of the Natural History of Vegetables in 1797.

Barton had a deep interest in Native American culture and linguistics and studied them throughout his life. He became one of the foremost experts on the subject and advised Lewis and Clark before they departed on expedition.

Indexing Terms


Genre(s)

  • Art
  • Diaries.
  • Drawings.
  • Engravings.
  • Family Correspondence
  • General Correspondence
  • Language Material
  • Notebooks
  • Political Correspondence
  • Printing plates
  • Sketchbooks
  • Sketches.
  • Travel Narratives and Journals
  • Watercolors

Geographic Name(s)

  • Buffalo (N.Y.) -- Description and travel
  • Hudson River (N.Y.) -- Description and travel -- 18th century
  • New Jersey -- Description and travel -- 18th century
  • New York (State) -- Description and travel -- 18th century
  • Niagara Falls (N.Y. and Ont.) -- Description and travel
  • Pennsylvania -- Description and travel -- 18th century
  • Tlaxcala (Mexico)
  • Virginia -- Description and travel -- 18th century

Personal Name(s)

  • Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815
  • Bartram, John, 1699-1777
  • Bartram, William, 1739-1823
  • Blanchard, Jean-Pierre, 1753-1809
  • Harden, Jane LeConte
  • Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823
  • Hopkins, John Henry, 1792-1868 -- pictorial works
  • Turpin, P. J. F. (Pierre Jean François), 1775-1840

Subject(s)

  • Bartram's Garden (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • Botanists
  • Botany -- Study and teaching -- 19th century
  • Botany -- Virginia
  • Business and Skilled Trades
  • Chemistry -- 18th century
  • Cherokee Indians
  • Cherokee language
  • Choctaw Indians
  • Dysentery.
  • Education
  • Electricity -- 18th century
  • Ethnobotany
  • Geology -- 18th century
  • Gout
  • Indians of North America
  • Indians of North America -- Agriculture
  • Indians of North America -- Languages
  • Kaigana Indians
  • Kaskaskia Indians
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Literature, Arts, and Culture
  • Mammals -- Classification
  • Mandan Indians
  • Mastodons
  • Materia medica
  • Medicine
  • Medicine -- Practice -- 18th century
  • Medicine -- Study and teaching -- 18th century
  • Meteorology -- United States -- 18th century
  • Meteors
  • Mineralogy
  • Native America
  • Natural history
  • Natural history -- 18th century
  • Natural history -- 19th century
  • Osage language
  • Physicians -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
  • Physics
  • Printing and Publishing
  • Rittenhouse, David, 1732-1796
  • Science and technology
  • Seminole Indians
  • Seneca Indians
  • Travel
  • Tuscarora Indians
  • University of Pennsylvania -- Faculty
  • Venereal disease
  • Yellow fever
  • Yellow fever -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia -- 1793
  • Zoology -- 18th century

Collection overview

1783-1817 box 1-6

Incoming and outgoing correspondence arranged alphabetically.

ca.1789-18157 boxes; 3.5 linear feetbox 7-13

Notes and manuscripts by Barton or collected by Barton relating to his research in Botany, Indians, Medicine, and Miscellaneous other subjects.

  
 1 box, 0.5 linear feet
  
  
1790-182632 vols.; 2 lin. feet

Bound volumes of manuscript notes on various scientific topics, including a commonplace book, generation, fevers, mineralogy, and journals of trips taken by Barton to New York state, Virginia, and Pennsylvania.

1773-ca.18152 boxes; 0.75 linear feet

Taxonomic identifications were reidentified by Neal Woodman, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, during a Library visit 15 May 2012.

Pen and watercolor drawings and engravings of botanical and natural historical subjects by Barton, but also including 64 sketches by William Bartram, three illustrations of rattlesnake anatomy attributed to Benjamin Henry Latrobe, and other works by Frederick Pursh,Pierre Turpin, and other artists.

Native American Images note : Fifteen engravings, watercolor sketches, pen and ink sketches, and copper printing plates of Native American portraits, artifacts and hieroglyphics attributed to Barton, ca. 1790-1810. Scientific in nature, the images reflect animal figures of the Algonquian and portraits of Seminole and Cherokee Indians. Illustrations collected by Barton include William Bartram's portrait of Mico-Chlucco, King of the Muscogulges, John H. Hopkin's watercolor sketch of two arrow heads, and a copper plate of Lewis and Clark's Shahaka, the Mandan chief. Referenced in Freeman's Guide to Manuscripts relating to the American Indian at the APS and Murphy Smith's Historical American Sketches.

Taxonomic Identifications note: Some generalized taxonomic identifications of illustrations were made by person(s) unknown at undetermined times, but which have since been reidentified. The reidentifications are noted as part of the item title, but the items remain in the order as originally identified so as to preserve that original order and their misidentifications. Revised identifications were provided 15 May 2012.

  

Copper plates for illustrations used for Barton's Elements of Botany, 1815, and other publications.



Detailed Inventory

Series I. Correspondence
1783-1817 box 1-6

Incoming and outgoing correspondence arranged alphabetically.

Albers, Johann Abraham, 1772-1821
1807 February 18-1814 June 263 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 February 18ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1812 June 09ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 June 26ALS, 8p.

From Bremen, Germany.

Alexander, William M.
1810 January 18-1814 Nov. 22 items

Asking Barton for recommendation.

from Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 January 10ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 November 02ALS, 2p.
American Antiquarian Society
1814 July 12-1814 July 182 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 July 12Partially PrLS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 July 18ALS, 1p.
Anderson, E. H.
1813 October 27-1814 Feb. 262 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1813 October 27ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 February 26ALS, 2p.
Anderson, Edward
1807 September 21-1809 Nov. 83 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 September 21ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 March 26ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 November 08ALS, 3p.
Anderson, James V. A. to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 August 04ALS, 3 p.
Andrews, Robert
1806 November 022 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 November 02ALS, 2 p.
Antes, Frederick
1801 July 091 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton?
1801 July 093p.
Anthony, Milton
1809 June 221 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 June 22ALS, 3p.
Archer, Robert P.
1811 May 101 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 May 10ALS, 2p.
Arnott, James, 1794-1885
1814 February 091 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 February 02ALS, 1p.
Astor, John Jacob, 1763-1848
1811 April 11 item
to John Vaughan
1811 April 1ALS, 1p.
Atherton, W.
1815 March 09-1815 March 32 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 March 02ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 March 03ALS, 1p.
Autenrieth, Johann Hermann Ferdinand, 1772-1835
1796 October 071 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1796 October 07ALS, 1p.
Bache, Thomas
1809 June 051 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 June 05ALS, 4p.
Baldwin, William, 1779-1819
1815 February 161 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 February 16ALS, 2p.
Baltzell, John
1805 February 041 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1805 February 04ALS, 4p.
Banks, Joseph, 1743-1820
1796 January 23-1802 Dec. 313 items
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1796 January 23ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1802 December 31ALS, 3p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 November 29ALS, 2p.
Bansford, Joseph
1801 December 301 item
to Benjamin Barton Smith
1801 December 30ALS, 1p.
Barber, William
1809 January 111 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 January 11ALS, 2p.
Bard, Samuel, 1742-1821
1808 August 211 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1808 August 02ALS, 3p.
Barnhart, John Hendley, 1871-?
1931 February 25-1936 Dec. 224 items
"Significance of John Bartram's Work to Botanical and Horticultural..."
 Reprint, 11p.

Reprinted from Baronia Special Issue, 1931

"John Bartram's First Interest in Botany"
 Reprint, 3p.

Reprinted from Bartonia Special Issue, 1931

to Mrs. John Ross Delafield
1936 February 25TLS, 1p.
to Mrs. Delafield
1936 December 22ALS, 1p.
Barnwell, William
1801 May 061item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801 May 06ALS, 4p.
Barstow, Seth T.
1809 March 251 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 March 25ALS, 3p.
Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815
1783 May 27 - 1815 February 20, n.d.13 folders
Folder 1
1783 May 27 - 1815 Feb. 18 item(s)
Folder 2
1791 April 15 - 1814 June 1716 item(s)

Folder consists of hand-written field notes and botanical observations.

Folder 3
1796 Feb. 261 item(s)
Memoir concerning the Fascinating Faculty which has been ascribed to the rattle-snake, and other serpents
 88 p

Printed document

Folder 4
1806 Oct. 142 item(s)
Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815.
Proposals for printing by subscription, Elements of Zoology
1806 October 1419.5 cm x 26 cm; Broadside, 1p.

Proposals for printing, by subscription, Elements of zoology or outlines of the natural history of animals. ...Conditions, etc. This work, originally intended as companion volume to Barton's popular Elements of botany (1803), was apparently never published under this title. A work of wider scope, A discourse on some of the prinicipal desiderata in natural history, based on a lecture given by Barton to the Phildelphia Linnaean Society on June 1807, was published less than a year after this broadside was issued and probably utilized material meant for Elements of zoology. Manuscript list of some of the subscribers, including Rubens Peale of Peale's Museum in Philadelphia, is appended to the document.

Other Descriptive Information: Goodman 216

Access digital object:
http://diglib.amphilsoc.org/islandora/object/text%3A704

List of signatures, presumably related to the proposal
n.d.ANS, 1p.
Folder 5. Memorandum
1809 June 231 item(s)
Folder 6
1810 June 9 - 1814 June 4, n.d.20 item(s)
"On Elephantine Bones"
n.d.Book page,

About salt-licks. Notes written by Barton on the reverse of a printed page from "On Elephantine Bones."

"On Elephantine Bones"
n.d.Book page, 1p.

Account of the discovery of a "Mammoth" stomach in Virginia. Notes written by Barton on the reverse of a printed page from "On Elephantine Bones."

"Barton's Zoology"
n.d.Newspaper clipping, 1p.

About Barton's "Element of Botany."

Folder 7
1814 Oct. 91 item(s)
Memoir concerning the Fascinating Faculty which has been Ascribed to Various Species of Serpents
1814PrD, 69p.
"Preparing for the Press, The Anatomy and Physiology of the Rattle-..."
n.d.Broadside,
Folder 8
1815 Jan. 121 item(s)
Folder 9. (to Mrs. Barton?)
1815 February 201 item(s)
Folder 10
n.d.7 item(s)
Folder 11
n.d.5 item(s)
Folder 12
n.d.2 item(s)
notes from William Bartram's journal
 Ams, 1p.
notes from M.S.S. Journal
 ANS, 2p.
Folder 13. Re: David Rittenhouse
n.d.1 item(s)
Barton, David Rittenhouse, 1783-1837
1806 September 29-1817 Aug. 18174 items
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 September 29ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 February 02ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 August 3ALS, 1p.
to Mary Barton
1817ALS, 1p.
Barton, H.
1811 March 171 item
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 March 17ALS, 2p.
Barton, Mary
n.d.1 item
from Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
Barton, Matthias (brother of Benjamin Smith Barton)
1804 October 24-1807 Jan. 66 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 October 24ALS, 2p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1806ALS, 2p.

This letter was thought to be written to William but BSB refers to fish drawings which are in progress by Matthias

to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 January 06ALS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin SmithBarton
n.d.ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
Barton, Matthias (nephew of Benjamin Smith Barton)
1810 March 121 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 March 12ALS, 1p.
Barton, Richard Peter, ?-1821
1806 September 22-1815 Feb. 98 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 September 22ALS, 4p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 April 06ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 November 27ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1808 March 26ALS, 15p.

A fascinating letter from Barton's brother covering a dizzying array of topics: trees, dyes, birds, soil, plants, maple sugar, etc.

to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 February 06ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1812 January 19ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 February 09ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 February 09ALS, 3p.
Barton, Robert R.
1814 March 221 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Barton, Sarah
1801 November 231 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801 November 23ALS, 2p.
Barton, Thomas B.
1809 April 03-1815 Jan. 192 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 April 3ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 January 19ALS, 3p.
Barton, Thomas P., 1803-1869
n.d.1 item

Family Record. Copied from the Bible formerly belonging to my uncle, Edward Penington.

Family Record, 1701-1771
n.d.AMsS,
Barton, Thomas W.
1813 April 23-1814 April 22 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1813 April 23ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 April 02ALS, 4p.
Barton, Thomas, 1730-1780
n.d.1 item
Brief memoir
 Ams, 2p.
Barton, William P.C., 1786-1856
1809 August 03-1810 June 274 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 August 3ALS, 4p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 February 06ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 May 07ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 June 27ALS, 3p.
Barton, William, 1754-1817
1789 April 24-1808 Dec. 279 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1789 April 24-25ALS, 4p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1789ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1802 July 09ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 October 08ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 November 02ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 December 25ALS, 2p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 April 18ALS, 3p.

B.S.B requesting that his brother keep an eye on botanist Frederick Pursh who he feels drinks too much.

to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 September 27ALS, 2p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 February 15ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1808 December 27ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 January 09ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 May 10ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 April 08ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1812 June 27ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1812 July 24ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 March 05ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 March 11ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 June 10ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 June 19ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 3p.
Bartram, James Howell, 1783-1818
1808 February 151 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Bartram, John, 1743-1812
1812 March 244 items
to William Prince 1766-1842
1812 March 24Photocopy, 1p.
to William Prince
1812 March 24TL, 1p.

Typed version of same letter

to William Prince
1812 March 24Photocopy, 1p.

Photocopy of back of letter to Prince showing address.

Mrs. Roy Arthur Hunt
n.d.Business Card, 1 card
Bartram, William, 1739-1823
1791 March -1800 July 117 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1791 MarchALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1791 SeptemberALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1792 September 23-25ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1793 January 11ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1793 March 3ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1800 April 3ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1800 July 11ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801 July 13ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801 AugustALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801 August 23ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801 September 27ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1801 October 25ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1802 January 02ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1802 May 25ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1802 November 19ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1802 December 13ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1803 January 23ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 February 18ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 March 07ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1805 November 24ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1805 November 30ALS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1805 November 30ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1805 December 31ALS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 December 13ALS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1812 September 14ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
Bassett, Erastus
1805 July 171 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Batty, Robert C., 1763-1849
1809 January 25-n.d.2 items
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 January 25ALS, 11 p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.Ams, 2p.

rough draft of 11 p. letter to Batty

Baum, John
1809 April 181 item, 2 p.
Bayly, Lewis
1809 November 15-n.d.2 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 November 15ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 2p.
Beasley, Peter J.
1813 October 231 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Beatty, John, 1749-1826
1808 April 19-n.d.2 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1808 April 19ALS, 2p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 2p.

response to Beatty's letter regarding whether or not the specimen that Beatty had sent was a "Colombo."

Bedford, John R.
1808 February 081 item, 2p.
Belknap, Jeremy, 1744-1798
1794 November 231 item
from Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Bell, John, 1763-1820
1809 January 151 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Bell, Mrs. John
1809 July 191 item
from Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Bensell, George
1804 November 051 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Bigelow, Jacob, 1786-1879
1811 October 121 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Birch & Small
1808 January 171 item
from Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Black, John
1803 February 11 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Blanchet, F., 1776-1830
1800 November 251 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.

In French.

Bohannan, R. L.
1814 October 291 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Bohlen, John, 1770-1850
1807 July 291 item

Barely legible but possibly a request from a student since Barton has scrawled a note on the reverse about a botany class requirement.

to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1 p.
Bosc, Louis-Augustin-Guillaume, 1759-1828
n.d.1 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.

Fragment of a letter written in French.

Bott, John B.
1814 January 141 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Bowles, Richard C.
1812 May 081 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Bozman, George
1812 March 27-1812 June 12 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1812 March 27ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1812 June 1ALS, 1p.
Brackenridge, W.
1801 July 281 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Bradbury, John
1810 March 15-1810 Sept. 133 items
to Samuel Bridge
1810 March 15ALS, 3p.
to Samuel Bridge
1810 August 20ALS, 3p.
to Samuel Bridge
1810 September 13ALS, 2p.
Bradford, Thomas
1804 July 091 item
to the Medical Professors in the University of Pennsylvania
 ALS, 6p.
Brickell, John, 1749-1809
1807 August 08-1807 Nov. 253 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 August 08ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 September 07ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 November 25ALS, 3p.
Briggs, Robert
1815 January 061 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Brooke, Francis, 1763-1857
1815 February 141 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Brown, C.
1792 November 301 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Brown, Mr.
1814 March 07-1814 Oct. 273 items

Three barely legible items to Barton's printer.

from Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 March 07ALS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 October 27ALS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
Brown, Richard
1807 October 031 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Brown, Samuel, 1769-1830
1808 March 271 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Browne, William
1814 December 161 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Browul, Thomas
1812 March 281 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1 p.
Bruce, Archibald, 1777-1818
1814 November 09-1815 March 252 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 November 02ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 March 25ALS, 2p.
Bruce, Professor
1810 September 081 item
from Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Bruse, Edward
n.d.1 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Bryant, A.
n.d.1 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Bullard, A.
1809 August 081 item

Bullard described the character of two physicians apparently at Barton's request.

to Thomas G. Keegan
 ALS, 3p.
Bundo, Augustus Frederic de
1812 April 201 item

Seeking assistance from Barton in procuring employment.

to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Burke, Joseph
1814 November 251 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Burns, James
1810 May 251 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Cabell, Robert B.
1806 April 121 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Calhoun, Samuel, d. 1841
n.d.1 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Callanery, George
1808 April 221 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Cameron, J. A.
1814 October 201 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Campman, Frederick, Jr.
1814 November 031 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1 p.
Carey, W.
1811 April 271 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Carter, Charles W.
1815 June 081 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 4p.
Carter, Robert
1802 March 1-1803 Oct. 12 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1802 March 1+ALS, 2 p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1803 October 1ALS, 3p.
Casey, John A.
1809 February 1-1813 Sept. 12 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 February 1ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1813 September 1ALS, 2p.
Cathrall, Isaac, 1764-1819
1794 August 191 item
from Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Chambers, Campbell
1807 March 24-1808 May 304 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 March 24ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 May 30ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.Ams, 2P.
Channing, Walter, 1786-1876
1810 May -1811 Sept. 293 letters
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 MayALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 March 20ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 September 29ALS, 2p.
Chapman, Nathaniel, 1780-1853
1814 November 10-1815 March 54 items

University-related material.

to unknown
1814 November 10ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 March 05ALS, 2p.
to Mr.Whitlocke
n.d.ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ADS, 1 p.
Cheston, Emily R.
1936 March 062 items
Catalogue of exhibits
1931 June 5-6PrD, 14 p.
to Mrs. Delafield
1936 March 06ALS, 3p.

about looking up info on Mrs. William Smith Barton

Claiborne, William, 1775-1817
1812 August 171 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Clinton, DeWitt, 1769-1828
1815 February 28-1815 Feb. ?2 items
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 FebruaryLS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1815 February 15ALS, 1p.

rough draft of letter.

Cocke, James, 1780-1813
1809 July 081 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Cocke, Richard
1814 December 141 item

Regarding an appointment in Philadelphia

to Dr. William Boswell
 ALS, 3p.
College Royal de Sanite a` Stockholm
1814 October 081 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 AMsS, 2p.

Offering an honorary membership into the Royal Society.

Collin, Nicholas, 1745-1831
1804 January 09-1814 Feb. 83 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 January 09ALS, 1 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 May 02ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 February 08ALS, 3p.
Collins & Perkins
1808 May 21-1808 Oct. 222 items

Regarding the cost of publishing and selling Barton's books.

to Benjamin Smith Barton
1808 May 21ALS, 2p.
Collins, Zacheus, 1764-1831
1803 April 231 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Conklin, Edwin G.
1941 December 30-1942 Feb. 165 items

Regarding Mrs. Delafield's Barton papers.

to General and Mrs. John R. Delafield
1941 December 30TLS, 1p.
A.P.S. notice of Midwinter Meeting
1941 December 30TMsCy, 1p.
to Mrs. John R. Delafield
1942 January 13TLS, 1p.
Program for A.P.S. Midwinter Meeting
1942 February 13-14Program, 4p.
1942 February 16
1942 February 16TLS, 1p.
Conrad, John
1803 January 10-1806 Aug. 3011 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1803 January 10ANS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1803 June 1ANS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 February 24ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 May 08ANS, 1p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 May 17ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 June 15ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 July 25ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 August 30ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1808 January 19ANS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ANS, 1p.
Coxe, John Redman, 1773-1864
1812 February 11 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Coxe, Richard
1814 May 251 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Craig, Haniety
1807 December 243p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Cramer, Samuel J.
1813 October 23-1814 Oct.292 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 October 29ALS, 1p.
Crawford, John, 1746-1813
1807 August 06-1811 Nov. 32 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 August 06ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 November 3ALS, 2p.
Crommelin, B. J.
n.d.1item

The letter is virtually unreadable due to fading. The names provided were on the previous folder.

to T.T.Zeylemaker
 ALS, 2p.
Crosbey, Thomas B.
1815 April 081 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Crukshank, Joseph, 1746-1836
1808 June 031 item

regarding prize medals.

to Isaac Snowden
 ALS, 1p.
Cunningham, M.
1808 February 131 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 2p.
Currie, William
1811 February 1-1811 Feb. 192 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 February 1ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1811 February 19ALS, 3p.
Curtis, H.
n.d.1 item

About seeking absolution

to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Custis, Peter
1806 June 1-1808 Oct. 293 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 June 1ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 May 21ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1808ALS, 3p.
Cutbush, James, 1788-1823
1809 November 1-1810 March 285 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1809 November 1ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 March 28ALS, 2p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
Cutler, Manasseh, 1742-1823
1792 November 191 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
Dade, Francis
1814 January 28-n.d.2 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1814 January 28ALS, 1p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
Dareh, S.
n.d.1 item

Regarding a patient's care.

to Benjamin Smith Barton
n.d.ALS, 1p.
Darlington, William, 1782-1863
1804 November 12-1807 Dec. 174 items
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1804 November 12ALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1806 SeptemberALS, 3p.
to Benjamin Smith Barton
1807 December 17ALS, 2p.
Excerpt from Medical Diary, Chester County Historical Society
1804-13CMs, 2p.
Davenport, Thomas
1807 March 261 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Davis, Isaac
1810 March 12-1810 March 151 item

Davis requested that he be granted his medical degree without attending the commencement; Barton's reply seemed to be a denial of that request.

to Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 March 12ALS, 3p.
from Benjamin Smith Barton
1810 March 15ANS, 1p.
Davis, John
1802 February 121 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 3p.
DeBritton, S.
1804 October 161 item
to Benjamin Smith Barton
 ALS, 1p.
Delafield, Violetta and John Ross
1937 January 13-1937 March 313 items
from The Garden Club of America
1937 January 13TLS, 1p.
from The Garden Club of America
1937 January 16TLS, 1p.
from Gordon Dunthorne
1937 March 31ALS, 2p.
Delafield, Violetta
1936 June 25-1936 July 174 items

Correspondence requesting background information on Mrs. Benjamin Smith Barton and the Pennington family.

to Edward Rush Duer
1936 June 25TL, 1p.
to Dr. Albert Cook Myers
1936 July 17TL, 1p.
from Laura E. Hanson
1937 January 04TLS, 1p.
from C. Stuart Gager
1937 January 14TLS, 1 p.
from Harvey Cushing
1937 January 27TLS, 1p.
from Wm. W. Wilson
1937 April 12ALS, 3 p.