Penobscot Indian vocabulary, 1821


Date: 1821 | Size: 1 volume(s), 1 volume, 20 p.


Alphabetical (by Abenaki) list of words with English equivalents; uses Pickering's orthography. Capital letters probably inserted by Peter S. Du Ponceau, who alphabetized the list by the English in his collection.

Background note

Emma Jane Tudor Gardiner was the wife of Robert Hallowell Gardiner of Gardiner, Maine.

Collection Information

Physical description

1 volume, 20 p.


Gift from Emma (Tudor) Gardiner and accessioned, 1821 (51478).

Early American History Note

This bound volume includes approximately twenty pages of Abenaki words and their English translations compiled by Emma Gardiner of Gardiner, Maine in 1821. Although the origins of this document are not clear, it is possible that Gardiner worked with Abenaki Indians to compile this list. The document contains the annotations and other notes of Peter Du Ponceau.

Indexing Terms


  • Language Material
  • Native American Materials
  • Vocabularies.


  • Indians of North America -- Languages
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Native America
  • Penobscot language